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told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming
accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered
that his wife was an adulteress.

XVII. But a general quite unlike Lepidus, namely
Sertorius, was in possession of Spain, and was threat-
ening the Romans like a formidable cloud. As if
for a final disease of the state, the civil wars had
poured all their venom into this man. He had



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



7i)>y(t)V avyprfKora, MereXXa* 8f Hta.) Tore

2 TTeTT\eyiJLei'ov, dv&pl Xayu-Ttyow /Aey #a
&OKOVVTI &e dpyoTepov VTTO yrjpa)$ fhreaQcu rot?

TOV 7TO\enov, KOI ttTroXetVecr^GU rwv
a^OfMevwv o^vr^ri KOI Ta^ei, TOV
7rapa/36\(0s Kal Xya-rpiKWTepov avru>
, Kal rapdrrovros eve&pais /cat
av&pa VO^LI^WV dOXrjrrjv dywvwv KOI

3 SvvdfAews aracrifAOV Kal ftapeia? rjye/.toi'a. Trpo?
ravra IloyLtTr^io? e^wv rrjv arpaTiav vfi eaurw
Bi7rpdrTTO MereXXft) ire^drivai fiovjOos' Kal

Ke\Gvovro$ ov c>Le\vv, aXX' eV rot?






rrjv 7roiv, e,

, ew? e&wKav avrq* TTJV a PX*l v
4 <t>i\L7T7rov <yv(o/jLT]v etTroyTO?. ore ^at (pacriv eV
Ty TrvOofjuivov rivbs Kal OaufJid^ovTOS el
dvOinraTov olerat Seiv



670)76, vCLt, TOV

" aXX' a^' L7raT&)^," (09 a/i^orepof? TOV? rore
vTraTevovTCis ovSevbs d^iovs 6Wa?.

XVIII. 'ETret 8e rij? 'Iftypias "^a/zei/o? o



ola



ere/oou? rat? eX-Tricm' ewQirjfre TOV? dvOpwirovs
Ta /LIT) Trdvv ^Se/9atco? TW ^epTwpiw crvvecrTWTa
TWV e&v&v GKivelTO Kal yaere/SaXXero,
V7repr](f)dvovs o ^epTwpios KaTa TOV

&lCT7r6lp, Kal GKWTTTWV G\y6 vdpOrfKOS a

Serjaat Kal CTKVTOVS eVt roi' TraiSa TOVTOV, el
T?;^ ypavv etcewrjv e^oySetro, \eycov TOV MercX-
2 Xoi^. ep7&) fJbevTOi (pv\aTTO/uevo<; ac^oBpa

156



POMPEY, xvn. I-XVITI. 2

already slain many of the inferior commanders, and
was now engaged with Metellus Pius, an illustrious
man and a good soldier, but, as men thought, too slow
by reason of his years in following up the oppor-
tunities of war, and outdistanced when events swept
along at high speed. For Sertorius attacked him
recklesslv and in robber fashion, and by his ambus-
cades and flanking movements confounded a man
who was practised in regular contests only, and com-
manded immobile and heavy-armed troops. 1 Pompey,
therefore, who kept his army under his command,
tried to get himself sent out to reinforce Metellus, and
although Catulus ordered him to disband his soldiers,
he would not do so, but remained under arms near the
city, ever making some excuse or other, until the
senate gave him the command, on motion of Lucius
Philippus. On this occasion, too, they say that a
certain senator asked with amazement if Philippus
thought it necessary to send Pompey out as pro-
consul. " No indeed ! " said Philippus, " but as
pro-consuls," implying that both the consuls of that
year were good for nothing.

XVIII. When Pompey arrived in Spain, 2 the
reputation of a new commander produced the usual
results ; he transformed the men of Metellus with
fresh hopes, and those nations which were not very
firmly leagued with Sertorius began to be restless
and change sides. Thereupon Sertorius disseminated
haughty speeches against Pompey, and scoffingly
said he should have needed but a cane and whip
for this boy, were he not in fear of that old woman,
meaning Metellus. 3 In fact, however, he kept very
close watch on Pompey, and was afraid of him, and



1 Cf. the Sertoriris, xii. 5. 2 In 76 B.C.

3 Cf. the Sertorius, xix. 6.



157



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



rbv llouTT^LOv dcr(f)a\crTpov e
yei. Kal 'yap o MeVeXXo?, orrep OVK civ ri? a)>]0rj,
rw ftiw KO^iBij 73730? ra? 7)$ova<;
)?;, teal /jieyd\rj TJ? et? OJKOV Kal TTO\V-
)vr]S eyeyova jjLra/3o\rj Trepl avrov,
TM Tlo/j,7rr)i(i) Kal TOVTO 0av/jLaa-Tr]V evvoiav
(frepeiv, eTmeivovu r^v evreXeiav TT}?
ov



yap YJV oruHppayv Kal reTay/Jievos eV rat? 7Ti0v-



3 Tov 5e TToXe'/zou vroXXa? tSea? e^o^ro?, rjvi

TOV Ho/jLTTijiov rj Aavpwvos aX&><7? UTTO 628

KVK\ov(70ai yap avrov olrjOel? Kal
n jjLeyaXijyoprja'as, atTO? e^aityv)]? dve^dvv irepi-
^6fj,6vo<f KVK\(I)' Kal bio, TOVTO KivelaOai oeSico?
7TiO6 KaraTTi^LTrpafMev^v rrfV TTO\IV avrov irapov-
TO?. 'Ejpevviov Se Kal TlepTrevvav, avSpas r}ye-
fjioviKovs TWV TT/DO? ^epTwpiov KaTaTTefyevyoTwv
l crTpaTtjyovvTtov e/ceLvcp, viKijcras irepl Ova\ev-

V7Tp /jLVptoV? d7TeKTtl'6V.

XIX. 'E7ra/3#et? ^e rf] Trpd^ei KOI /j,eya



va)V eV avrov ea-ireve ra)tov, &)?



o~X oi T7/ ) ? VIKTIS MereXXo?. Trepl Se
rrora^M TT}? ?;^te/3a? TjSrj r\evrd)(T7]$ avve/3a\ov
ra? Swd/jieis, ^eStore? rre\6elv rov MereXXoi^,
2 o /ze^ &)? fjLovos, 6 e a>? i^ovw Biaywvicrairo. TO
/zey ot/^ TeXo? d/jL(f>iSot;ov eo"%ev 6 dya>v eKarepov
yap Ourepov Kepas evi/cvjw ra)v 5e arparyywv
7T\eoi> rjveyKaro 'Zeprcopios' erpetyaro yap rb



158



POMPEY. xvin. 2-xix. 2

therefore conducted his campaign with more caution.
For Metellus, contrary to all expectation, had become
luxurious in his way of living and had given himself
up completely to his pleasures ; in fact, there had
been all at once a great change in him towards pomp
and extravagance,, 1 so that this circumstance also
brought Pompey an astonishing goodwill, and en-
hanced his reputation, since he always maintained
that simplicity in his habits which cost him no great
effort; for he was naturally temperate and orderly in
his desires.

The war had many phases, but what most vexed
Pompey was the capture of Lauron by Sertorius.
For when he supposed that his enemy was surrounded,
and had made some boasts about it, all of a sudden
it turned out that he was himself completely en-
veloped. He was therefore afraid to stir, and had
to look on while the city was burned before his
eyes. 2 However, near Valentia he conquered
Herennius and Perpenna, men of military experience
among the refugees with Sertorius, and generals
under him, and slew more than ten thousand of their
men.

XIX. Elated by this achievement and full of
pride, he made all haste to attack Sertorius himself,
that Metellus might not share in the victory. By
the river Sucro, though it was now late in the dav,
they joined battle, both fearing the arrival of
Metellus; the one wished to fight alone, the other
wished to have onlv one antagonist. Well, then,
the struggle had a doubtful issue, for one wing on
each side was victorious ; but of the generals,
Sertorius bore away the more honour, for he put to



1 Cf. the Sertorius, xiii. 1 f.

2 Cf. the Sertorius, chapter xviii.



159



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



aiirov e
dvrjp jjieyas ITTTTOT^ 7reo9

et9 TO avro Kal yevo/jLevwv eV Xa/3a69 dire-
ai irXrjyal TWV ^Hpwv 6*9 Ta9
v% 6yuot6>9* erpcoB^ /j.ev yap o

3 /jiovov, etceivov be aTreKo^re rrjv ^Ipa.

Be crvvBpafjiovTayv eV avrov, IjBij rr/9 TpoTrrjs ye-
yevrjfjievi]*;, ave\Trlcrrws Bie^vye, Trpoe^evo^ rbi>
'ITTTTOV Tot9 7TO\efjLiois <f)d\apa xpvcra KOL
a^iov 7ro\\ov TTepLKeifj.vov. ravra yap
fjievoL Kal frepl TOVTWV ^a^ofjievoi Trpo? ttXAr;'Xof9

4 a7T6\6i(j)drfcrav. apa $e r/yu,e/oa iraperd^avTO ^ev
a^oTepOi 7rd\iv eKfiefiaiovfjLevoi, TO vifcrj/ma, Me-
T6\\ov &e TrocriovTos dveajio'ev 6



TW crrparu). Toiavrai yap i]Gav at

l ird\Lv avv$po/j.al

w<TT 7roXXa/c69 IJLOVOV irXavacrOai, TOV ^
7ro\\dKis Se av0is eirievai



%ei/jLappouv
/j,evov.
5 'O 8' ovv HofJLTrtf'ios, eVel pera r^v



, eKe\ev(rev vfyelvai ra9 pdftBovs, Oepairevwv
<t)9 7rpov%ovTa TL/JLTJ TOV MereXXo^. o Se Kal
TOVTO &iKa)\vae Kal raXXa crro9 r)v avrjp



jrepl avTov, ovbev a>9 vTraTiKy Kal
ve/jLwv eavT(p TrXeot', aXX' TJ TO crvvdrffjia Koivf)
(TTpaTO7T&vovT(0v 6/9 ctTTavTas e^eTTefjiTTeTO Trapd
MereXXof TO. vroXXa Be ^wpls HaTp
6 BiKO7TTe yap CIVTOVS Kal BUCTTI] TTOIKL\O<;

160



POMPEY, xix. 2-6

Might the enemy in front of his position. But
Pompey, who was on horseback, was attacked by a
tall man who fought on foot ; when they came to
close quarters and were at grips, the strokes of their
swords fell upon each other's hands, but not with
like result, for Pompey was merely wounded, where-
as he lopped off the hand of his opponent. Then,
when more foes rushed upon him together, his troops
being now routed, he made his escape, contrary to
all expectation, by abandoning to the enemy his
horse, which had golden head-gear and ornamented
trappings of great value. They fought with one
another over the division of these spoils, and so
were left behind in the pursuit. 1 At break of day,
however, both generals drew up their forces again
to make the victory assured, but on the approach of
Metellus, Sertorius retired and his army dispersed.
His men were accustomed to scatter in this way, and
then to come together again, so that often Sertorius
wandered about alone, and often took the field again
with an army of a hundred and fifty thousand men,
like a winter torrent suddenly swollen.

Pompey, then, when he went to meet Metellns
after the battle and they were near each other,
ordered his lictors to lower their fasces, out of
deference to Metellus as his superior in rank. But
Metellus would not allow this, and in all other ways
was considerate of him, not assuming any superiority
as a man of consular rank and the elder, except that
when they shared the same camp the watchword was
given out to all from the tent of Metellus; but for
the most part they encamped apart. For their
versatile enemy used to cut off their communications

1 Cf. the Sertorius, xix. 4.

161



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Kal Beivos ev ^pa^el 7ro\\a%ov
teal per ay ay civ air* d\\wv et9 d\\ov<;
. re\09 Be TrepiKoirrTWv fj,ev dyopds, \rjl~
Be Ttjv ^a)pav, emKpaTwv Be Tf)? 0a\dcr-
e/3a\ei> a/jL(j)orepov^ T% (/>' eavrbv '1/3^-
pta?, avayKaaOewras els aXXor/oia? /cara^uyelv
eVap^ta? aTropia TMV eTTLr^eiwv.

XX. IloyLtTr^to? 5e ra TrXetcrra TWI^ i&icov
et;avr{\.<i)Ktt>s Kal tcaTa/cexprjfAevos ei? roz^ 7r6\efjiov,
yrei, xprj^aTa rrjv (TvyK^rov, a>?
'IraXta^ /^era TT}? Svvdfiecos el
VTrarevcov Be Aev/coXhos Tore Kal
a)v $id<fiopo<>, lAVWfjLevos 8' eavrw TOV
TroXe/Aoy, ecTTreva-ev aTrocrTaXrjvai, TO,
(f)o/3ovfjievos alruav Tlo/jLTrrjtco TTapacr^elv Beo/neva*
d(f)Lvai Kal Trpo? M^pi^aT^y rpajre-
, \a/ji7rpov /JLCV et? S6j;av, ev/jLera^eipiaTOp Se

2 (paivofjieuov avTaywvicm'iv. ev TOVTM Be Ovr^dKeL

VTTO TMV <pi\a)v BoXcxpovTjdeis' wv Tiep-
o Kopvcfraioraros eTre^eiprjcrev efceiva ra
avra Troielv, CITTO TWV avrcov IACV o/o/xco/xe^o? Bvvd-
Kal TrapacTKevwi', TOV Be ^pwfjievov aurat?
OVK e^wv \oyi<T{J.6v. evOvs ovv o IIoyLt-
eTree\0u>v Kal pe/A/36/jievoi' ev TOIS Trpdy-
TOV Hepirevvav KaTa/jiatfcov, BeXeap avT& C29
BeKa a-Trelpa? v<j)iJKV, et? TO TreBiov BtaaTraprjvai

3 Ke\ev(ra<t. Tpajro^evov Be Trpo? TavTas CKCLVOV
Kal BKOKOVTOS, ci.9 povs eir ifyavels Kal crvvd-ty-as

TrdvTWv. Kal 8ie^0dprjcrav ol



162



POMPEY, xix. 6-xx. 3

and separate them, and showed great skill in appearing
in many places within a short time, and in drawing
them from one contest into another. And finally.

V *

by cutting off their supplies, plundering the country,
and getting control of the sea, he drove both of
them out of that part of Spain which was under him,
and forced them to take refuge in other provinces
for lack of provisions. 1

XX. When Pompey had exhausted most of his
private resources and spent them on the war, he asked
money of the senate, threatening to come back to
Italy with his army if they did not send it. Lucullus
was consul at this time, and was not on good terms
with Pompey, but since he was soliciting the conduct
of the Mithridatic war for himself, made great efforts
to have the money sent, 2 for fear of furthering
Pompey's desire to let Sertorius go, and march
against Mithridates, an antagonist whose subjection,
as it was thought, would bring great glory and
involve little difficulty. But in the meantime
Sertorius was treacherously killed by his friends, 3
and Perpenna,the ringleader among them, attempted
to carry on his work. He had indeed the same
forces and equipment, but lacked equal judgement
in the use of them. Accordingly, Pompey took the
field against him at once, and perceiving that he had
no fixed plan of campaign, sent out ten cohorts as a
decoy for him, giving them orders to scatter at
random over the plain. Perpenna attacked these
cohorts, and was engaged in their pursuit, when
Pompey appeared in force, joined battle, and won a
complete victory. Most of Perpenna's officers

1 Cf. the Sertorius, chapter xxi.

2 Cf. the Lucullus t v. 2 f.

* In 72 B.C., two years after Lucullus had set out against
Mithridatea.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Tr\el<J'TOi TMV rjyefMovcov ev rfj fid^r)' TOV Se TLep-
Trevvav d%0evTa 777)09 CLVTOV aireKreivev, OVK
a^ayOicrro? ouS' d/AVij/Acov yev6/.ievo<? TMV irepl
^LKe\iav, &>9 eyKa\ovcriv evioi, /Jiyd\rj Be Siavoia
4 KOI (Tcor^pia) TWV o\wv <yvo)fjirj xprjcrdfjLevos. 6
yap TIepTrevvas TWV ^.eprwpiov ypa/j./jLdrwv 76-
7o;-'ft)? tcvpios efteiicvvev eVcrToX,a? TMV ev 'P&jjirj
dv&pwv, O'L rd Trapovra Kivr\Gai
dy/jbara KOL /^eraar^a'ai, rrjv TTO\L-
reiav e/cdXovv TOV ^eprwpiov ei9 rrjv '
ovv o HofMrtfiG? ravra, jar)
TWV TTeTrav/jLevtov TroXe/^a)^, TOV re Tlep-

I >~-\ \ \ } -v\ >^>> \

jrevvav avei\e Kai r9 eTr^crToXa? ovo avayvovs



XXI. 'E Se TOVTOV Trapafjieivas -%povov oaov
ra? fjLeyi<T~a$ KdTacrftecrai Tapa^d^ KOI ra
(frXey/jiaivovTa yLtaXtcrra KaTaaTTjcrai KOI &ia\vcrai
TWV Trpay/jidTCDv, aTrfjyev et? 'IraXLav TOV <TTpa-

TOV, aK/J.d^OVTl TO) $OV\iK(p 7TO\fJ,(p KCITO,

Bib fcal Kpacr<70? o crr/)aT?;709 iJ






TTJV /^^rjv, tea /caTevTv^rjae,
2 Xt'oi^? TpiaKoaiovs errl fjivpiois /cretVa?. ov
aXXa /cal TOVTfp TOV TIo/jiTr/fiov



ye TTW? rw KaToptefJuiTi TT?
Kto")i\,t,oi (frevyovTes eK Tr)$ fid^r]^ eveTretfov
avTOV, 01)9 djravTas 8ia0(9et/oa?, eypa^re Trpbs

V VTrof^Odaa^ co? Kyoacrcro? f^ev e/c Trapa-
VCVLKIJKC rou9 j^ovof^d^ov^, CIVTOS be TOV
7ro\jjLov e/c pi^wv TTavTaTTacTiv dvrjprj/ce. Kai



164



POMPEY, xx. 3-xxi. 2

perished in the battle, but Perpenna himself was
brought before Pompey, who ordered him to be put
to death. In this he did not show ingratitude, nor
that he was unmindful of what had happened in
Sicily, 1 as some allege against him, but exercised
great forethought and salutary judgement for the
commonwealth. For Perpenna, who had come into
possession of the papers of Sertorius, offered to
produce letters from the chief men at Rome, who
had desired to subvert the existing order and change
the form of government, and had therefore invited
Sertorius into Italy. Pompey, therefore, fearing
that this might stir up greater wars than those now
ended, put Perpenna to death and burned the letters
without even reading them.

XXI. After this, he remained in Spain long
enough to quell the greatest disorders and compose
and settle such affairs as were in the most inflam-
matory state ; then he led his army back to Itaty,
where, as chance would have it, he found the
servile war at its height. For this reason, too,
Crassus, who had the command in that war, pre-
cipitated the battle at great hazard, and was success-
ful, killing twelve thousand three hundred of the
enemy. Even in this success, however, fortune
somehow or other included Pompey, since five
thousand fugitives from the battle fell in his way,
all of whom he slew, and then stole a march on
Crassus by writing to the senate that Crassus had
conquered the gladiators in a pitched battle, but
that he himself had extirpated the war entirely. 2

1 Cf. chapter x. 2, where there is nothing to imply that
Perpenna put Pompey under obligations to him, except that
IIP made no resistance.

8 Cf. the Crassus, xi. 7.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



f3ov\ofjievoi<; rjv 6Y evvoiav aKpoacrOai real
\eyeiv TO?? f Pa)/j.aioi<;. 'Iftypiav Be KOI ?l<pT(*)piov
ovoe Trai^wv av TI<$ eljrev erepov KOI



TO Trdv epyov elvai.



Ei/ Tocravry &e TI^TI KOA, TrpocrboKia rov d

evrjv KOL vrro-^ria TL<$ KOI Beo?, o>? ov rrpo-
TO o-rpdrev/jLa, /3a$i,ov/Avov Be BS
OTT\WV KOL /jLOvap-%ia<; avTi/epvs eVt rrjv SvXAa
TToXireiav. o6ev OVK e'XaTTOi^e? rjcrav rwv Bi*
evvoiav Tpe^ovTwv /cat (f)i\o<f)povov[j,V(i)v
4 680^ ol (frofiw ravra TTOIOVVTCS. eirel Be
ravrrjv avel\e rrjv inrovoiav 6 Tlo/jLTnj'ios
d(j)7j(T6iv TO <TTpdrev/j.a /JLCTCL TOV Opia^flov, ev
alnacrOai Tot? ftciGKaivovcri Trepir^v V7ro\oi7rov,
OTL TO) BrjfJLW TTpocrve^eL fjia\\ov eavrbv rj



TO



eyvwKev vicrrvai /ca
5 Tot? TroXXoi?, 07T6/5 j]V d\rj9e^. ov <ydp ecrriv
OVTLVOS e/jL/javecrrepov 6 'PcofjLaiwv r)pdcr0r)
Kal fjid\\ov eiroOrjcrev rj TI-JV ap-jfyv av0is
eKeivrjv, ware Kal Tlo/jiTnj'iov evrv^fia
/iieya rbv rov 7roX,tT6i///aTO? Kaipov, a>? OVK av
evpovTa %dpiv d\\i]v f) Trjv evvoiav
TWV 7ro~\.(,Ttov, el TavTrjv eVepo? 7rpoe\a(3e.
XXII. tyrjcfrcffQevTOti ovv avTU) BevTepov
ftov Kal viraTeias ov BLO, TavTa 6av[JiaaTos

166



POMPEY, xxi. 2-xxn. i

And it was agreeable to the Romans to hear this said
and to repeat it, so kindly did they feel towards him ;
while as for Spain and Sertorius, there was no one
who would have said, even in jest, that the entire
work of their subjugation was performed by any
one else than Pompey.

Nevertheless, mingled with the great honour
shown the man and the great expectations cherished
of him, there was also considerable suspicion and
fear ; men said he would not disband his army, but
would make his way by force of arms and absolute
power straight to the polity of Sulla. Wherefore
those who ran out and greeted him on his way, out
of their goodwill, were no more numerous than those
who did it out of fear. But Pompey soon removed
this suspicion also by declaring that he would dis-
band his army after his triumph. Then there re-
mained but one accusation for envious tongues to
make, namely, that he devoted himself more to the
people than to the senate, and had determined to
restore the authority of the tribunate, which Sulla
had overthrown, and to court the favour of the
many ; which was true. For there was nothing on
which the Roman people had more frantically set
their affections, or for which they had a greater



yearning, than to behold that office again. Pompey
therefore regarded it as a great good fortune that he
had the opportunity for this political measure, since
he could have found no other favour with which to
repay the goodwill of his fellow-citizens, if another
had anticipated him in this.

XXII. Accordingly, a second triumph was de-
creed him, 1 and the consulship. It was not on this
account, however, that men thought him admirable

1 In 71 B.C.

167



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

teal /jieyas, aXX' eteeivo Tetcfjbrjpiov CTTOLOVVTO
Xa/ATT POTATO?, OTL Kpdaaos, dvrjp TWV Tore TroXt-
Tevofievwv TrXoucrtwraTO? teal SeivoTaTOS
teal [jieyicrTOS, avTov re TIo/jLTrrj'iov vTrep
teal TGI/? aXXou? aTrai^ra?, ovte eOapp^aev v
Teiav fjL6Tivai TrpoTepov rj Tlo/jiTr^iov oertuijvai.

2 teal /J,VTOi TIofjiTTijlos rjyaTT rjare, TraXat $eo/jivo$
vpeta? Tt^o? vTrdp^ai teal <$>i\av6pwjria<$ TT/DO?
avTov wcrT6 teal SefyovcrOai Trpo^u/xa)? /cat 7ra/oa-
/caXetz> TOZ^ ^TUJLOV, eirayyeX^o^Levo^

OVK ekaTTOva TOV avvdpxovTOS 77 TT";?

3 ov fJirjv aXX' a7ro8e/%^e^Te? viraToi

TrdvTa teal Trpoffexpovov aXX^Xoi?' teaL ev fiev 63C
aXXoi'' Lcryvev o Kpacrcro?, ei^ oe TW
TO llo/jLTnjtov /cparo? r}z^. /cat 7ap
TT/I/ ^trujLapj/jicLV avTM, /cat ra? 8t/ca?
Trepieibev avOis et9 rou9 wrwea?



eavrov rrjv arpaTeiav



4 "E^o? 7cr/? eVri 'Pw/jbaioov rot? iTnreiHTiv, orav
(TTpaTevacovTai TOV vo^ip.ov \povov, ayeiv et?
dyopav TOV 'LTTTTOV eirl TOU? Suo aVS/oa? ot 1 ?
KoXovcri, teal teaTaptdj^rjcra^vov^ TWV
teal avTOtepaTOpwv e/eacrrov u</)' ot? e&T
teal 8oz/Ta9 evdvvas TT}? crT/jareta? dty

Se at Tiyu-r) /cal aTijj,ia Trpocnjteovo-a rot?



Tore ^r; TrpoeteaOtji'TO IJLZV ol TifjirjTal FeXXto?
:al AeWXo? eV /COCT/AO), /cal



ib8



POMPKY, xxn. 1-5

great, nay, they considered this circumstance a
proof of his splendid distinction, that Crassus, the
richest statesman of his time, the ablest speaker,
and the greatest man, who looked down on Pompey
himself and everybody else, had not the courage
to sue for the consulship until he had asked the
support of Pompey. Pompey, moreover, was de-
lighted, since he had long wanted an opportunity
of doing him some service and kindness, and there-
fore granted his request readily and solicited the
people in his behalf, announcing that he should be
no less grateful to them for such a colleague than
for the consulship. Notwithstanding, after they had
been elected consuls, they differed on all points, and
were constantly in collision. 1 In the senate, Crassus
had more weight ; but among the people the power
of Pompey was great. For he gave them back their
tribunate, and suffered the courts of justice to be
transferred again to the knights by law.- But the
most agreeable of all spectacles was that which he
afforded the people when he appeared in person and
solicited his discharge from military service.

It is customary for a Roman knight, when he has
served for the time fixed by law, to lead his horse
into the forum before the two men who are called
censors, and after enumerating all the generals and
imperators under whom he has served, and render-
ing an account of his service in the field, to receive
his discharge. Honours and penalties are also
awarded, according to the career of each.

At this time, then, the censors Gellius and
Lentulus were sitting in state, and the knights were

1 Cf. the Orasfnu, xii. 1 f.

2 By a law passed in the time of Sulla, only senators were
eligible as judges.

169



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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teal a ^ 7r3 ^ < TI/ ow ecrv. eira 6






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Trpoaayopeveiv avrov, " OvBev," eirrev, " olaai
rroielv dyevves ovBe rarrewov, & rro\lrai, Hoa-
Trrjifi) rrporepos evBiBovs, bv vpels /jLijrra) uev
yeveiwvra Meyav rj^icacrare Ka\elv, arjTrw Be
fjierexovri {3ov\f]$ etyrjcfria-acrde Bvo
K rovrou StaXXa^/e^re? drreOevro rrji' d

170



POMPEY, xxn. 5-xxin. 2

passing in review before them, when Pompey was
seen coming down the descent into the forum, other-
wise marked by the insignia of his office, but lead-
ing his horse with his own hand. When he was near
and could be plainly seen, he ordered his lictors to
make way for him, and led his horse up to the
tribunal. The people were astonished and kept
perfect silence, and the magistrates were awed and
delighted at the sight. Then the senior censor put
the question: "Pompeius Magnus, I ask thee whether
thou hast performed all the military services re-
quired by law ? " Then Pompey said with a loud
voice : " I have performed them all, and all under
myself as imperator." On hearing this, the people
gave a loud shout, and it was no longer possible to
check their cries of joy, but the censors rose up and
accompanied Pompey to his home, thus gratifying
the citizens, who followed with applause.

XXIII. When Pompey's term of office was now
about to expire, and his differences with Crassus
were increasing, a certain Caius Aurelius, who,
though belonging to the equestrian order, had never
meddled in public affairs, ascended the rostra at an
assembly of the people, and came forward to say that
Jupiter had appeared to him in his sleep, bidding him
tell the consuls not to lay down their office before
they had become friends. After these words had
been said, Pompey stood motionless, but Crassus took



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