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been devastated by Tigranes, the king of Armenia.
Pompey settled many there. To most of them,
however, he gave as a residence Dyme in Achaea,
which was then bereft of men and had much good
land.

XXIX. Well, then, his maligners found fault with
these measures, and even his best friends were not
pleased with his treatment of Metellus in Crete.

187



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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188



POMPEY, xxix. 2-5

Metellus, a kinsman of the Metellus who was a
colleague of Pompey in Spain, had been sent as
general to Crete before Pompey was chosen to his
command; for Crete was a kind of second source
for pirates, next to Cilicia. Metellus hemmed in
many of them and was killing and destroying them.
But those who still survived and were besieged
sent suppliant messages to Pompey and invited him
into the island, alleging that it was a part of his
government, and that all parts of it were within the
limit to be measured from the sea. 1 Pompey
accepted the invitation and wrote to Metellus
putting a stop to his war. He also wrote the
cities not to pay any attention to Metellus, and sent
them one of his own officers as general, namely,
Lucius Octavius, who entered the strongholds of the
besieged pirates and fought on their side, thus
making Pompey not only odious and oppressive, but
actually ridiculous, since he lent his name to godless
miscreants, and threw around them the mantle of
his reputation to serve like a charm against evil,
through envy and jealousy of Metellus. For not
even Achilles played the part of a man, men said,
but that of a youth wholly crazed and frantic in his
quest of glory, when he made a sign to the rest
which prevented them from smiting Hector,

"Lest some one else win honour by the blow,
and he come only second" ; 2

whereas Pompey actually fought in behalf of the
common enemy and saved their lives, that he might
rob of his triumph a general who had toiled hard
to win it. Metellus, however, would not give in,

1 Cf. chapter xxv. 2. 2 Iliad, xxii. 207.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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190



POMPEY, xxix. i-xxx. 3

but captured the pirates and punished them, and
then sent Octavius away after insulting and abusing
him before the annv.

tf

XXX. When word was brought to Rome that the
war against the pirates was at an end, and that
Pompey, now at leisure, was visiting the cities,
Manlius, 1 one of the popular tribunes, proposed a law
giving Pompey all the country and forces which
Lucullus commanded, with the addition, too, of
Bithynia, which Glabrio 2 had, and the commission
to wage war upon Mithridates and Tigranes, the
kings, retaining also his naval force and his dominion
over the sea as he had originally received them.
But this meant the placing of the Roman supremacy
entirely in the hands of one man ; for the only
provinces which were held to be excluded from his
sway by the former law, namely, Phrygia, Lycaonia,
Galatia, Cappadocia, Cilicia, Upper Colchis, and Ar-
menia, these were now added to it, together with the
military forces which Lucullus had used in his con-
quest of Mithridates and Tigranes. But though
Lucullus was thus robbed of the glory of his achieve-
ments, and was receiving a successor who would
enjoy his triumph rather than prosecute the war, 3
this was of less concern to the aristocratic party,
although they did think that the man was unjustly
and thanklessly treated ; they were, however, dis-
pleased at the power given to Pompey, which they
regarded as establishing a tyranny, and privately
exhorted and encouraged one another to attack the
law, and not to surrender their freedom. But when

1 More correctly, Manilius. The Manilian law was passed
in 66 B.C. Cf. the oration of Cicero Pro Leye. Manilla.

8 Glabrio, consul in 67 B.C., had been sent out to supersede
Lucullus.

a Cf. the Lucullus, xxxv. 7.

191



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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192



POMPEY, xxx. 4-xxxi. i

the time came, their hearts tailed them through fear
of the people, and all held their peace except Catulus;
he denounced the law at great length and the tribune
who proposed it, and when none of the people would
listen to him, he called out in loud tones from the
rostra urging the senate again and again to seek out
a mountain, as their forefathers had done, 1 or a lofty
rock, whither they might fly for refuge and preserve
their freedom. But still the law was passed by
all the tribes, as we are told, and Pompey, in his
absence, was proclaimed master of almost all the
powers which Sulla had exercised after subduing the
city in armed warfare. Pompey himself, however, on
receiving his letters and learning what had been
decreed, while his friends surrounded him with their
congratulations, frowned, we are told, smote his thigh,
and said, in the tone of one who was already op-
pressed and burdened with command : " Alas for
my endless tasks ! How much better it were to be
an unknown man, if I am never to cease from military
service, and cannot lay aside this load of envy and
spend my time in the country with my wife ! ' As
he said this, even his intimate friends could not
abide his dissimulation ; they knew that his enmity

/

towards Lucullus gave fuel to his innate ambition
and love of power, and made him all the more
delighted.

XXXI. And certainly his actions soon unmasked

tt

him. For he sent out edicts in all directions calling
the soldiers to his standard, and summoned the
subject potentates and kings into his presence.
Moreover, as he traversed the country, he left
nothing undisturbed that Lucullus had done, but

1 In reference to the secession of the plebs to Mons Sacer.
See the Coriolanus, chapter vi,

193



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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K(o\ve 7rpocre%eiv avTw, Kal TOI)?



194



POMPEY. xxxi.



i



remitted punishments in many cases, and took away
rewards, and did everything, in a word, with an
eager desire to shew the admirers of that general
that he was wholly without power. Lucullus ex-
postulated through his friends, and it was decided
that they should have a meeting ; they met, there-
fore, in Galatia. And since both were very great
and very successful generals, their lictors had their
rods alike wreathed with laurel when they met ; but
Lucullus was advancing from green and shady regions,
while Pompey chanced to have made a long march
through a parched and treeless country. Accordingly,
when the lictors of Lucullus saw that Pompey's
laurels were withered and altogether faded, they
took some of their own, which were fresh, and with
them wreathed and decorated his rods. This w r as
held to be a sign that Pompey was coming to rob
Lucullus of the fruits of his victories and of his
glory. Now, Lucullus had been consul before Pompey,
and was older than he ; but Pompey's two triumphs
gave him a greater dignity. At first, however, their
interview was conducted with all possible civility
and friendliness, each magnifying the other's exploits
and congratulating him on his successes ; but in the
conferences which followed they could come to no
fair or reasonable agreement, nay, they actually
abused each other, Pompey charging Lucullus with
love of money, and Lucullus charging Pompey with
love of power, and they were with difficulty separated
bv their friends.

V

Furthermore, Lucullus, remaining in Galatia, as-
signed parts of the conquered territory and made
other gifts to whom he pleased ; while Pompey, en-
camped at a little distance from him, tried to prevent
any attention to his commands, and took away all

195



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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opviv dpyov, eiriKaraipeiv Kal

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/coro?. oOev ov Oavjjid^eiv el TMV

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KTJS Kal Bocnropov 6d\aaarav eVt (ppovpa 8ia-
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TWV (3\a(JTavbvrtov Kal rat? arwyieXtvlais
TOTTOJV reKuaipo/jievos e^eiv TT^ya^ TO
196



POMPEY, xxxi. 6 -xxxii. 2

his soldiers from him, except sixteen hundred, whose
mutinous spirit made them, as he thought, useless to
himself and hostile to Lucullus. 1 Besides this, lie
would belittle the achievements of Lucullus, de-
claring that he had waged war against mimic and
shadoAvy kings only, while to himself there was now
left the struggle against a real military force, and
one disciplined by defeat, since Mithridates had HOAV
betaken himself to shields, swords, and horses. To
this Lucullus retorted that Pompey was going forth
to fight an image and shadow of war, following his
custom of alighting, like a lazy carrion-bird, on bodies
that others had killed, and tearing to pieces the
scattered remnants of wars. For it was in this way
that he had appropriated to himself the victories
over Sertorius, Lepidus, and the followers of Spartacus,
although they had actually been won by Metellus,
Catulus, and Crassus. Therefore it was no wonder
that he was trying to usurp the glory of the Politic
and Armenian wars, a man who had contrived to
thrust himself in some way or other into the honour
of a triumph for defeating runaAvay slaves. 2

XXXII. After this, Lucullus withdrew from those
parts, and Pompey, having distributed his whole fleet
so as to guard the sea between Phoenicia and the
Bosporus, himself marched against Mithridates, who
had a fighting force of thirty thousand foot and IAVO
thousand horse, but did not dare to offer battle. To
begin with, the king was strongly encamped on a
mountain Avhieli was difficult of assault, but abandoned
it, supposing that it had no water. Pompey took pos-
session of this very mountain, and judging by the
nature of the vegetation and by the channels in the
slopes that the place had springs, ordered his men to

1 Cf. the Luatllits, xvi. 1-4. - Cf. chapter xxi. 2.

197



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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pevoi Kal 7rapaKa\ovvT6s egcop/jUia-av avTov ovoe

yap CT/COTO? rp TravTaTcacnv, d\\a rj

198



POMPEY, xxxn. 2-5

sink wells everywhere. At once, then, his camp was
abundantly supplied w r ith water, and men wondered
that in all the time of his encampment there Mithri-
dates had been ignorant of this possibility. Next,
he invested the king's camp and walled him in.
But after enduring a siege of forty-five days, Mithri-
dates succeeded in stealing off with his most effective
troops ; the sick and unserviceable he killed. Then,
however, Pompey overtook him near the Euphrates
river, and encamped close by ; and fearing lest the
king should get the advantage of him by crossing
the Euphrates, he put his army in battle array and
led it against him at midnight. At this time Mithri-
dates is said to have seen a vision in his sleep, re-
vealing what should come to pass. He dreamed that
he was sailing the Pontic Sea with a fair wind, and
was already in sight of the Bosporus, and was greet-
ing pleasantly his fellow-voyagers, as a man would
do in his joy over a manifest and sure deliverance ;
but suddenly he saw r himself bereft of all his com-
panions and tossed about on a small piece of wreckage.
As he dreamed of such distress, his friends came to
his couch and roused him with the news that Pompey
was advancing to the attack. He was therefore
compelled to give battle in defence of his camp, and
his generals led out their troops and put them in
array. But when Pompey perceived their prepara-
tions to meet him, he hesitated to hazard matters in
the dark, and thought it necessary merely to surround
them, in order to prevent their escape, and then to
attack them when it was day, since they were
superior in numbers. But his oldest officers, by
their entreaties and exhortations, prevailed upon him
to attack at once ; for it was not wholly dark, but
the moon, which was setting, made it still possible

199



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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del jJLev dvopM&Tis rt? ovaa Kal 7ra/)aroX/xo?'
"T^lriKpdTrjv yovi> avrrjv 6 /3acri~\.v$ efed\et* Tore
8e dv&pos e^ovaa Hepcrov (TToXrjv Kal LTTTTOV ovTe
TO) crco/maTi Trpbs TO, /jiTJKtj TCOU Bpo/^wv dirriyo-
pev&ev OVT OepaTrevovcra TOV /3ac7tXe&>9 TO crco/j,a
Kal TOV LTTTTOV e^eKa/jLv, a%pi TJKOV et?
^ivaypa ^prj/naTcov Kal K6i/jLrj\ia)v

9 /jLeaTov. el; ov \a(Su>v o
TroXureXet? Siez>e4//.e TO??



avTov 6K TT^ (vfs. e8a)K6 Be Kal



(f)opiv Qavdanjuov <f>dp/jiaKov, OTTO)? CLKWV
VTro^eipio^ yevoiTO Tot? TroXt^iOi?. ev-
200



POMPEY, xxxii. 5-9

to distinguish persons clearly enough; indeed, it was
this circumstance that brought most harm to the
king's troops. For the Romans came to the attack
with the moon at their backs, and since her liirht

O

was close to the horizon, the shadows made by their
bodies were thrown far in advance and fell upon the
enemy, who were thus unable to estimate correctly
the distance between themselves and their foes, but
supposing that they were already at close quarters,
they hurled their javelins to no purpose and hit no-
body. The Romans, seeing this, charged upon them
with loud cries, and when the enemy no longer
ventured to stand their ground, but fled in panic
fear, they cut them down, so that many more than
ten thousand of them were slain, and their camp was
captured.

Mithridates himself, how r ever, at the outset, cut
and charged his way through the Romans with eight
hundred horsemen ; but the rest were soon dispersed
and he was left with three companions. One of
these was Hypsicrateia, a concubine, who always dis-
played a right manly spirit and extravagant daring
(for which reason the king was wont to call her
Hypsicrates), and at this time, mounted and ac-
coutred like a Persian, she was neither exhausted by
the long journeys, nor did she weary of caring for
the king's person and for his horse, until they came
to a place called Sinora, which was full of the king's
money and treasures. Thence Mithridates took
costly raiment and distributed it to those who had
flocked to him in his flight. He also gave each of
his friends a deadly poison to carry with them, that
no one of them might fall into the hands of the
enemy against his will. From thence he set out



2OI



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



ev wpfirfro fxev eV 'Ap/zeiaa? TT^OO? Tiypdvrjv,
Kivov Be aTrayopevovTos teal raXavra effarov



avTf), Traa/^etayuei'o? ra?



TOV Eiixfrpdrov Bid TT}? KoX^aSo? ecfrevye.

XXXIII. Ho/jLirrfios Be et? 'A.p/jyuiy evefiaXe
TOV veov Tiypdvoy KO\OVVTO$ avrov ->j$r) yap



TOV Trarpos, KCLI avvVTi]cre ra>
a) Trepl rbv 'Apdt;t]v iroTa/jiov, 05 dv'ia")(ei



K rwv avrtov T<a iMprrj TO'rrwv,



Be 7T/9O? ra? dvaro\d<; et? TO KacrTTioi^ {ji{3d\\6i

2 7T\ayos. OVTOI /^ev ovv Trporjyoi' a^a ra? TroXet?

voine^' o 8e ftaatXevs Tiypdvrjs evay-
fj,V vrro \evKo\\ov (TVVTerpi/A^ei'os, ij/jiepov
Be riva TO> T/OOTT&) teal irpaov 7rv06/j,i>os elvai TOV
eBe^aTO /mev et? ra {3a<ri\La (f>povpdv,
Be TOV$ (f)i\ov$ Kal crvyyevels auro?

3 eTropeveTO TrapaBcoawv eavTov. &>? Be rf\,dev ITT-
TTOTT;? eVt TOI^ %dpaKa, pa/3Bov%oi Bvo TOV ITo/z-
Tn^tov 7rpocr\(}6i>T6s eKe\V<Tav a,Tro$r}vai TOV
LTTTTOV Kal TTe^bv \6elv ovBwa yap d

eft LTTTTOV KaOe^ofievov ev 'Pw^nlKw
TrwTroTe 6<f)0fjvcu. Kal TavTa ovv o Tiypdvijs
7rei'@eTO Kal TO ^/(^o? aurot? aTroXuo-a/zez'o?
TrapeBiBov Kal reXo?, <w? Trpos avTov rj\06 TOV
IlofJLTDJ'iov, d(f)e\6fjLvos Ti]V KLTapiv wp/jirjo-e Tcpo
TWV TToBuv delvai, Kal KaTa/3a\c0v eavTov, aio"%i-
dTa Brj TrdvTwv, TrpocrTrecrelv avTov rot? yovacnv.

4 aXV o IIoyLfc7r?;tO9 ecpdr) TT}? Beid$ avTov \a(Bo-
f*,evo<; TrpocrayayecrOai,' Kal Tr\rjo-[ov l^pvcrd/jLevo^
eavTov, TOV Be v'tov eVl OaTepa, TWV /nev d\\(ov
(f>rj(re Belv aiTLdaOai A.evKoXXov, VTF eKeivov yap
d(f)r}pricr0ai ^vpiav, QoiviKijv, K.i\iF(iav, FaXa-
Tiav, *c0<p)jvijv, a Be a%pi eavTov BiaTTr/pi]Kev,

202



POMPEY, xxxn. 9-xxxni. 4

towards Armenia on his way to Tigranes ; but that
monarch forbade his coining and proclaimed a reward
of a hundred talents for his person ; he therefore
passed by the sources of the Euphrates and continued
his Might through Colchis.

XXXIII. Ponipey then invaded Armenia on the
invitation of young Tigranes, who was now in revolt
from his father, and who met Pompey near the river
Araxes, which takes its rise in the same regions as
the Euphrates, but turns towards the east and
empties into the Caspian Sea. These two, then,
marched forward together, receiving the submission
of the cities as they passed ; King Tigranes, how-
ever, who had recently been crushed by Lucullus,
but now learned that Pompey was rather mild and
gentle in his disposition, received a Roman garrison
into his palace, and taking with him his friends
and kindred, set out of his own accord to surrender
himself. When he rode up to the Roman camp,
two of Pompey's lictors came to him and bade him



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