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the wretched city ! ' and passed 011 without any
further answer.

However, Pompey himself made this Demetrius
less odious to the rest by enduring his caprices with-
out vexation. For instance, it is said that many
times at his entertainments, when Pompey was
awaiting and receiving his other guests, that fellow
would be already reclining at table in great state,
with the hood of his toga drawn down behind his
ears. 2 Before his return to Italy, he had purchased
the pleasantest suburbs of Rome and the most beau-
tiful places of entertainment, and very costly gardens
were called " Demetrian ' after him ; and yet
Pompey himself, up to the time of his third triumph,
had a simple and modest house. After that, it is
true, when he was erecting the famous and beautiful



1 Cf. Cato the Younger, chapter xiii.
a A mark of slovenliness.



219



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

ical TrepifioijTOV dviaTas BeciTpov, wffTrep <
TI, Trapere/cT^varo \ap,7rpoTCpav olreiav
dv7ri(f)0ovov Be KCU ravrrjv, ware TOV yev6fj,evov
itTrjs /Jierd TIo/jL7rrjiov elcre\9bvTa 6av-
Kai TTwOdveaOai TTOV IlofjiTnjios M.d<yvo<?

ravra /JL6V ovv ovrco \eyerai.
XLI. ToO e /3a<TfX6&)9 rwv Trepl rrjv Tlerpav
Trporepov fiev v OL'Se^t \6jct) TO, 'Pco-

Tl06fJ,l'OV, TOT6 6 8et(Ta^TO9 Ld^VpM^

KOI <ypd'fyavTos on Trdvra ireiOecrOai KOI iroielv
eK^e^aLu>aa<j9ai (3ov\6fjievo<; avrou T^V
6 Ylo/jiTTijios eo-rpdrevcrev eVt rrjv Herpav

ov rrdvv n TO49 vroXXot? d^efJLTTTOV a-rpareiav.

2 d-rroSpcKTiv yap MOVTO rt}? [email protected]&drov Bico^ecos
elvai, KOI TT/JO? eicelvov rj^iovv rpeTrecrQai TOV
dp^alov dvTaywi>iaTr)V, avOis dva^wTrvpovvra
teal TTapa<JKva^6fjLevov, w? dirr)yye\\eTO, Bid

^KvO(H)V KOI TldLOVtoV (TTpaTOV \CLVVIV 7Tt TrfV

'IraXia/'. o 8e paov olop^evo^ avrov tcaTaKvaeiv

T1)V SvVCLfUV 7TO\fjiOVVTOS Tj TO (TW/jLO, \lfae(70 CU

, OVK e/3ov\ero rpiftecrOai, ^dr^v Trepl
Siwfyv, ere/aa? Se TOV TroXeyuov TrapevOrjicas

7TOlLTO KOI TOV ^DQVOV L\KeV.

3 'H Be TV"XTI ri)v diropiav e\vaev. ovKeTi yap
avTOv TT}? Ilerpa? 7ro\\r)i> 6Bbv d7T%ovTO<>, ijorj
Be TT)? fj/jiepas e/ceLwrjs ftej3\.7)fjivov %dpafca KOI
yvjj.vd^ovros eavTov ITTTTM Trapd TO crTpaTOTrcBov,
ypa/jifJLaTr)<p6poi r rrpocn']\avvov etc HOVTOV KOfjii-
fyvTes evayye\ia. Bf)\oi S' evOvs eldi rat?
al^fjial^ TWV BopaTWV Bd(f)vais ydp dvacrT6(f)OVTa(.
TOVTOUS IBovTes ol crTpaTtMTai dweT po\a^ov Trpos

4 TOV TlofjiTTtjiov. 6 Be TrpwTOv p,ev eftovXero TO



22O



POMPEY, XL. 5-XLi. 4

theatre which bears his name, he built close by it,
like a small boat towed behind a ship, a more splen-
did house than the one he had before. But even
this was not large enough to exeite envy, so that
when he who succeeded Pompey as its owner entered
it, he was amazed, and inquired where Pompey the
Great used to sup. At any rate, so the story runs.

XLI. The king of the Arabians about Petra had
hitherto made no account of the Roman power, but
now he was thoroughly alarmed and wrote that he
had determined to obey and perform all commands.
Pompey, therefore, wishing to confirm him in his
purpose, marched towards Petra, an expedition
which was not a little censured by most of his
followers. For they thought it an evasion of the
pursuit of Mithridates, and demanded that he should
rather turn against that inveterate enemy, who was
again kindling the flames of war and preparing, as it
was reported, to march an army through Scythia and
Paeonia against Italy. Pompey, however, thinking
it easier to crush the king's forces when he made
war than to seize his person when he was in flight,
was not willing to wear out his own strength in a
vain pursuit, and therefore sought other employ-
ment in the interval of the war and thus protracted
the time.

But fortune resolved the difficulty. For when he

/

was come within a short distance of Petra, and had
already pitched his camp for that day and was
exercising himself on horseback near by, dispatch-
bearers rode up from Pontus bringing good tidings.
Such messengers are known at once by the tips of
their spears, which are wreathed with laurel. As soon
as the soldiers saw these couriers they ran in throngs
to Pompey. At first he was disposed to finish his

22 I



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

arvvreXelv, fiowvrwv 8e KCL\
K ar arrr] Srj <ra? drro rov LTTTTOV KCLI \a/3(i)v TO,
ypd/ji/jiara rrporjei. /^//uaTO? 8e OVK 6'zm>9 ov$
rov a-rpariwrLKOvyeveaOaL fyddaavros (6 rroiovGiv
avrol T^? 7^9 eVro/^a? /Sadeias \a/m{3dvovTes teal
tear d\\ri\wv irvvTidevte^, inro rr}? rore (nrovSf)*;
/cal 'JTpoOvjjiLa^ ra ady/nara T&V viro^vyiwv av/j,-



5 oO?cra^Te9 v-ro<t eav. 7r TOVTO



o Ilou.7r/to9 d7rr i ei\i> ai)roi? on



a T acrida awr o<$ Qapva/cov TOV viov

avTov, ra Se CKCI Trdvra
KaTK\T)pct)craTO, KCU eawrw K.CLI '
yeypa<p irotovfjievo^.

XLII. E/c TOVTOV TO /jiev crrpdrevfjia TTJ
%p(i)p,vov, co? etVo?, ev Qvaiais KOI
$ir)yev, co? ev TO> ^'liOptBdrov arcofiari.

-TroXeyw-tw^. tl'o'fiiTrtfio? Se rat? Trpd-
avrov tcdi rat? crT/xrre/af? Ke^a\rjv eVtre-
ov Trdvv pa^tco? OL/TO> TTpocrSoK^Oelcrav,

2 ei;#L>? dve&v^ev etc TT}? 'Ayoa^ta?- Aral TO/^L; ra?
eV /Accra) &iet;\0(i)v eVa/j^ta? ei? 'AJLLHTOV dcfti/cero,
KOI fcareXa/Se 7ro\\d fjiev Scopa Trapa Qapva/cov
KeKo/u.LO'fjLeva, 7ro\\a Be crcoyLtara TW^ /BacriXifcwv,
airov &e TOV Mi0pi$drov vetcpov ov irdvv yvd)-
PI/AOV avro rov TrpocrwTrov (rov yap ey/cecfraXov
e\a0ev iKTrjjfai TO)? Oeparrevovras}' aXXa rat?
ovXals erreyiyvwaKov ol oebfjievoi rov Oedparos.

3 ov yap auro? noyu-7r>;i'o? ISelv vrreiJieivev, a\X'
a(j)O(Ti(i)(rd/jLvos TO ve/jLecrrjrov et? ^ivwTrrjv aire-
Tre^^re. rfjs 8' cadr/ros, r)v <f)6pei, real rwv 6rr\wv
TO /xeyeOo^ teal rrjv \afjL7rporrjra eOav^ao-e' /cairoi



1 ty os Coraes and Bekker have ets i/'^os, after Solanus.

222



POMPEY, XLI. 4-XLii. 3

exercise, but at their shouts and entreaties he dis-
mounted from his horse, took the dispatches, and led
the way into camp. There was no regular tribunal;
nor had there been time to erect the military sub-
stitute, which the soldiers make with their own
hands by digging up large clods of earth and heaping
them one upon another ; but in the eager haste of
the moment they piled up the pack-saddles of the
beasts of burden and made an eminence of them.
Pompey ascended this and announced to his soldiers
that Mithridates was dead, having made away with
himself because his son Phariiaces had revolted from
him, and that Pharnaces had come into possession of
all the power there, acting, as he wrote, in behalf ot
himself and the Romans. 1

XLII. Upon this the army, filled with joy, as was
natural, gave itself up to sacrifices and entertain-
ments, feeling that in the person of Mithridates ten
thousand enemies had died. Then Pompey, having
brought his achievements and expeditions to such an
unexpectedly easy completion, straightway withdrew
from Arabia, and passing rapidly through the inter-
vening provinces, came to Amisus. Here he found
many gifts that had been brought from Pharnaces,
and many dead bodies of the royal family, and the
corpse of Mithridates himself, which was not easy to
recognize by the face (for the embalmers had
neglected to remove the brain), but those who cared
to see the body recognized it by the scars. Pompey
himself could not bring himself to look upon the
body, but to propitiate the divine jealousy sent it
away to Sinope. He was amazed at the size and
splendour of the arms and raiment which Mith-
ridates used to wear ; although the sword-belt, which

1 This was in 63 B.C.

223



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



TOV /jiev KpLarrjpa Trerroi^fjievoi 1 rro rerpaKocrwv
ToKdvTwv HoTrXto? K\e^a^ errcoXija-ev '
Tt-jV Be KiTapiv Fai'o? o TOV MiflpiBaTov crv



dav/j,afrr'f)<; ovaav epyacrias. o Tore TOV

Sie\a0e, <&apvdKr}s Se yvovs vGTepov e'rt-



& r



ra /ce Ka



TravrjyvpiKMTepov e^p^ro Tr Tropeia.
/cal yap et? yiiTvKrjwrjv ct^t/coyLte^o? TIJ.V re Tr6\u>
T)\v0pa)cr6 8ia tyeo<f)dvr), teal TOV dywva TOV
Trdrpiov eOedaaTO TWV 7roir)TO)i>, vrrodeGiv fjiiav
e^ovTa ra? exeivov Trpd^eis. r)(T0els Be TW Oed-
Tpw TrepieypdtyaTo TO etSo? avTov /cal TOV TVTTOV,
a>? O/JLOIOV d7rep<yacr6/j,vos TO ev 'Peo/z?/, fjiel^ov Be
5 Kal are/jivoTepov. ev Be 'PoBw yevo/Aevos
fj,ev rjKpodaaTO TWV (TO^LO-TCOV, Kal Bcopedi'
TakavTOV eBo)K6' TIoaeiBaivios Be Kal TJJV
aaiv dveypa^rev rjv ea%ev eV avTov TT/JO?
fj,ayopav TOV prJTOpa rrepl TT}? KaQo\ov ^T^
dvTiTa^d/uievos. ev Be *h.0r)vais TO, pev rrpos rot'?
> <f)t\ocro(f)ov<f bfjioia TOV Tlo/jLTTijtov TTJ TroXet Be
t? err ia Kevrjv TrevTrJKOvTa TaXavTa Xa//.-
dvOpoorrtov r/Xm^ev eTrt.^crecrOat TT}?
'IraXta? Kal rroQwv oBr)Ge.cr6ai rot? O'I'KOL TroOov-
aiv. u> 5' apa 77/309 ra Xa/z,7rpa Kal f^eydXa TWV
r>}9 TV'XTIS dyadwv dei Tiva Kepavvvvai KaKov
7rtyaeXe9 CCTTL Bai/ioviM, TOVTO vTconcovpei
TraXat Trapaa-Kevd^ov avTu> \vjrr) pOTepav TYJV
1 errdvoBov. e^vftpicre yap rj Movtcia rrapd Trjv
224



POMPEY, XLII. 3-7

cost four hundred talents, was stolen by Publius and
sold to Ariarathes, and the tiara was secretly given
by Caius, the foster brother of Mithridates, to
Faustus the son of Sulla, at his request; it was a
piece of wonderful workmanship. All this escaped
the knowledge of Pompey at the time, but Phar-
naces afterwards learned of it and punished the
thieves.

After arranging and settling affairs in those parts,
Pompey proceeded on his journey, and now with
greater pomp and ceremony. For instance, when
he came to Mitylene, he gave the city its freedom,
for the sake of Theophanes, and witnessed the
traditional contest of the poets there, who now took
as their sole theme his own exploits. And being
pleased with the theatre, he had sketches and plans
of it made for him, that he might build one like it
in Rome, only larger and more splendid. 1 And
when he was in Rhodes, he heard all the sophists
there, and made each of them a present of a talent.
Poseidonius has actually described the discourse
which he held before him, against Hermagoras the
rhetorician, on Investigation in General. At Athens,
too, he not only treated the philosophers with like
munificence, but also gave fifty talents to the city
towards its restoration. He therefore hoped to set foot
in Italy with a reputation more brilliant than that of
any other man, and that his family would be as eager
to see him as he was to see them. But that divine
agency which always takes pains to mingle with the
great and splendid gifts of fortune a certain portion
of evil, had long been secretly at work preparing to
make his return a very bitter one. For Mucia his wife

1 Cf. chapter xl. 5. The theatre was opened in 55 B.C.,
and accommodated 40,000 persons.

225



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

avrov. teal Troppw fjiev wv 6 IIo/z7n;<09
rov \6yov 7r\r)criov Be 'IraXta? yevo-
real a-\p\dt,ovri rro \oyi(T[Aw aa\\ov, o>9



eoitce, 7-779 alrias d^rdfjievos, enrG^ev avr) rrjv



ci(j)(Tiv, oure Tore r ypd'fya < s ov9^ vcnepov efy ol?

8' e7TicrTo\ai$ K/./cepco^o? rj



al-Tia



XLIII. Aoyoi, Se Travrob enrol Trepl rov IIo/.i-
TrpoKareTTiTTTOV et? rrjv 'Pco^t?^, KOL QopvjBos
7ro\vs, &)? v0v$ afoi/TO? eVl Tr)V no\iv TO 64

KOI fjLovapj(ia < $ y^eySata? eaofievr)?.
^e TOU? Trat^a? :al ra ^p^paTa \a(3(i)V
, etre Setcra? aX^^co?, etre fAoXXov, a>9
eS6/ct,, TriaTiv dTTo\L7r(t>v Trj &ia/3o\y fcal rov
2 (f)06vov TTOIWV rpa^vrepov. evOvs ovv e



6 IIo/tTr^/o? /cat crvvayajMV et? e/c-
K\rj(Tiav TOU? (jrparitoras KOI ra 7rp7rovra



KOI



$ia\[email protected] Kara TTO\IV e/cdarovs /cal rpejre-
<jQai 7T/9O9 ra ol/cela, fM fivrj fjievov^ avOis eVl
TOV Opiajjiftov avrw avvekOflv. ovrw $e rijs
arparids crfceSao-Oeicnis Kal irvv8avop,evu>v djrdv-
3 rwv Trpdyfia avveftr} Oav^aorrov. opwaai yap
at 7roXet9 rio/z7r?;io^ Ma'yi'oi' dvojrXov teal
rwv



e:^eoyu,e^at i evvoiav Ka Trpo-
/^era fjiei^ovos Svvdaews crvyfcarfjyov
et9 T^Z/ 'Pw/Arjv, L ri mvzlv Sievoeiro Kal vewrepi-



226






POMPEY, XLII. 7-XLin. 3

had played the wanton during his absence. While
Pompey was far away, he had treated the report of
it with contempt ; but when he was nearer Italy and,
as it would seem, had examined the charge more at
his leisure, he sent her a bill of divorce, although he
neither wrote at that time, nor afterwards declared,
the grounds on which he put her away ; but the
reason is stated in Cicero's letters. 1

XLIII. All sorts of stories about Pompey kept
travelling to Rome before him, and there was much
commotion there, where it was thought that he
would straightway lead his army against the city,
and that a monarchy would be securely established.
Crassus took his children and his money and secretly
withdrew, whether it was that he was really afraid,
or rather, as seemed likely, because he wished to
give credibility to the calumny and make the envious
hatred of Pompey more severe. Pompey, accord-
ingly, as soon as he set foot in Italy, 2 held an
assembly of his soldiers, and after he had said what
fitted the occasion, and had expressed his gratitude
and affection for them, he bade them disperse to
their several cities and seek their homes, remember-
ing to come together again for the celebration of his
triumph. When the army had been thus disbanded
and all the world had learned about it, a wonderful
thing happened. When the cities saw Pompey the
Great journeying along unarmed and with only a
few intimate friends, as though returning from an or-
dinary sojourn abroad, the people streamed forth to
show their good will, and escorting him on his way
with a larger force, brought him with them back to
Rome, where, had he purposed any revolutionary

1 Not in any which are extant. In a letter to Atticus
(i. 12, 3) Cicero says that Pompey's divorce of Mucia was
heartily approved. 2 In 02 H.O.

227



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

TOTE, /jLrj&ev e/ceivov Beo/uei'ov rov crrparev-



XLIV. 'Evret Be 6 vo/nos ov/c eia rrpo rov
6pidfJL/3ov rrape\0elv ei? rrjv rro\iv, erre^ev
e/9 rrjv /3ov\rjv dva/3a\ecr0ai ra? rcou
ap^at peer las, Kal Sovvai Tavryv avroi)
X i/l P Ll> OTTO)? irapcDV Tleiawvi avi>ap%aipe-

2 (Tida"?]. Karft)yo9 ^e TT/OO? TIJV a^iwaiv ewravros
OVK eru^e rov /3ou\eiyiaTO?. Qav/Aaaas &e rrjv
irapprjcriav avrov xal rov rovov co /JLOVOS e%piJTO
$>avepw<$ vrrep rwv biKaiwv, eTreOv/urja-ev ayu-w? <ye
7TW9 Krrja-aa'dai rov avBpa" /cal Sveiv ovcrwv a
<f)io'(t)v TW Karww rijv [JLtv avros e/3ov\ero \a

3 yvvaiKa, rrjv 5e rw TraiBl crvvoLKiaai. rov



rrjv rrepav,

ovaav avrov rporrov nva &Ka
ol/ceior'rjro^, i] re a>eX0?) KOI rj yvvrj
efapov el Ho/jiTTtjiov Mdyvov arrorpi^rerai
rrjv. ev rovrw Se f3ov\6/Aevo<; vrrarov drr
TLo/jiTn'fios 'Atypdviov dpyvpiov et? ra? (f)V\ds dvrf-
\L<TKV vrrep avrov, /cal rovro rcariovres ei? TOU?
4 lio/jiTn^Lov KIJTTOVS ekdfjijBavov , ware TO rrpdyfia
TrepL/36'rjrov elvat /cal rov Ho/^mjlov d/coveiv
rjs auro? ap%^J e</>' ot? KarwpOwaev 0)9
erv%e, ravrrjv WVLOV rroiovvra rols &i
dperrjs Kr^GacrOai p-ij Swa/AevoLS. " Tovrwv
/jievroi" 7Tyoo9 ra9 yvvaL/cas o Kdrwv e
" rwv ovi&wv KOivwv^reov oliceiois
yevofJievoLS." al be a/cover acrai crvveyvwo-av
avrwv e/celvov Xoyi^ecrflai rrepl rov Trperrovros.
228



POMPKY, XLIII. 3-xLiv. 4

changes at that time, he had no need of the army
that lie had disbanded.

XLIV. Now, since the law did not permit a com
mander to enter the city before his triumph, Pompey
sent a request to the senate that they should put oH
the consular elections, asking them to grant him
this favour in order that he might personally assist
Piso in his candidacy. But Cato opposed the request,
and Pompey did not get what he wished. However,
Pompey admired Cato's boldness of speech and the
firmness which he alone publicly displayed in defence
of law and justice, and therefore set his heart on
winning him over in some way or other ; and since
Cato had two nieces, Pompey wished to take one of
them to wife himself, and to marry the other to his



son. But Cato saw through the design, which he
thought aimed at corrupting him and in a manner
bribing him by means of marriage alliance, although
his sister and his wife were displeased that he
should reject Pompey the Great as a family con-
nection. In the meantime, however, wishing to
have Afranius made consul, Pompey spent money
lavishly on his behalf among the tribes, and the
people went down to Pompey's gardens to get it.
As a consequence, the matter became notorious and
Pompey was in ill repute ; the office of consul was
highest of all, and he himself had therefore re-
ceived it as a reward for his successes, and yet he
was making this office a thing to be bought by those
who were unable to win it by merit. " In these
reproaches, however," said Cato to the women, " we
must have taken our share, if we had become
allied to Pompey." And w r hen they heard this, they
agreed that his estimate of the fit and proper was
better than theirs. 1

1 Cf. Cato the Younger, xxx. 1-5.

229



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

XLV. Tov Be 0pid/j,/3ov TW fteyeOei, Ka'nrep et
rj/jLepas Bvo nepLffOevTos, o xpovos OVK
aXXa TWV TrapeaKevacr/jievajv TroXXa TT}? #e



Kal



elvai.



2 \ovro ra yevr] /ca0' &v 0pid/ji{3evV. TJV Be raSe*

ta, Tla<p\ayovia,



Kia, MecroTTOTa^uta, T Trept QoLvircrjv KOI Ila-
XaiaTivrjv, 'JouSata, 'Apa/Bia, TO TretpaTiKOV aTrav
ev yy Kal Ga\,d<ra'Y) Kara7T67ro\e/jL^/jLevov. ev Se
Touroi? (frpovpia /Jii> r}~\.(t)Kora %i\Lwv OVK e'/Var-
TOVCI, TroXei? 8e ou TTO\V TMV vaKoo~iwv
ovcrai, ireipaTiKal Be vijes ofcrafcoaiai,

3 ^e TroXect)^ /Uia9 Seovcrai rerTapaKovra. TT/OO? Se
rourot? e'(j)pa^e Bta TWV ypa/jifjidrcov OTI TrevraKto -
%i\iai fjiev fjivpidoes K TMV re\.wv virrfp^ov, etc
Be wv auro? TTpocreKTrjcraTO rf) TroXet /bivpidBas

^ikia^ 7rev r raKO(ria<; \a/ji/3dvovo~iv, dva-
Be et? TO Brjfioo-iov Td/jLielov ev ro^i
fcarao-Kevals dpyvpiov Kal ^pvaLov
rdXavra, TrdpeJ; TWV et? TOU? o-TpaTicoTas BeBo-
^evwv, wv o TOvKd^ioTOV aipwv KCLTO, \oyov

4 Bpa^/^d^ L\rj(j)e ^tXta? TrevTaKoala
\COTOL B* eTro/jLTTevdrjo-av, avev TWV dp^

uto? Tiypdvov TOV 'Ap/Aeviov //.era yvvaiKO?

os, avTov re Tiypdvov TOV /9ac7^Xe&)9 yvvrj 64
j, teal /^ao-iXeu? 'loi'Sata)^ 'Ap0-To/3oi/Xo?,
v Be dBe\4)rj Kal TrevTe TeKva, Kal
yvvalxes, 'AX/9a^wy Be Kal ''Iftrjpwv
Kal TOV Ko/j/jiayijvwv /3acrtX60)9, Kal rpo-
rraia Trayu-TroXXa Kal rat? /ia^ar? Icrdpi0{.ia



230



POMPKY, XLV. 1-4

XLV. His triumph had such a magnitude that,
although it was distributed over two days, still the
time would not suffice, but much of what had been
prepared could not find a place in the spectacle,
enough to dignify and adorn another triumphal
procession. Inscriptions borne in advance of the
procession indicated the nations over which he
triumphed. These were : Pontus, Armenia, Cappa-
docia, Paphlagonia, Media, Colchis, Iberia, Albania,
Syria, Cilicia, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia and Palestine,
Judaea, Arabia, and all the power of the pirates by
sea and land which had been overthrown. Among
these peoples no less than a thousand strongholds
had been captured, according to the inscriptions,
and cities not much under nine hundred in number,
besides eight hundred piratical ships, while thirty-
nine cities had been founded. In addition to all
this the inscriptions set forth that whereas the
public revenues from taxes had been fifty million
drachmas, they were receiving from the additions
which Pompey had made to the city's power eighty-
five million, and that he was bringing into the public
treasury in coined money and vessels of gold and
silver twenty thousand talents, apart from the money
which had been given to his soldiers, of whom the
one whose share was the smallest had received
fifteen hundred drachmas. The captives led in
triumph, besides the chief pirates, were the son of
Tigranes the Armenian with his wife and daughter,
Zosime, a wife of King Tigranes himself, Aristo-
bulus, king of the Jews, a sister and five children of
Mithridates, Scythian women, and hostages given
by the Iberians, by the Albanians, and by the king
of Commagene ; there were also very many trophies,
equal in number to all the battles in which Pompey

231



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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TT}? 'Acrta? elcrayaycov Tporrov riva Trjv
vrjv e&OKei, TOA? Tpivlv vTrrj^&ai, &pia

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TrdvTCi TW ^A\^dvSpM 7rapa/3d\\ovT<? avrov
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232






POMPEV. XLV. 4-XLM. 3

had been victorious either in person or in the persons
of his lieutenants. But that which most enhanced
his glory and had never been the lot of any Roman
before, was that he celebrated his third triumph
over the third continent. For others before him
had celebrated three triumphs ; but he celebrated
his first over Libya, his second over Europe, and
this his last over Asia, so that he seemed in a way
to have included the whole world in his three
triumphs.

XLVI. His age at this time, as those insist who
compare him in all points to Alexander and force
the parallel, was less than thirty-four years, though
in fact he was nearly forty. 1 How happy would it
have been for him if he had ended his life at this
point, up to which he enjoyed the good fortune ot
Alexander ! For succeeding time brought him only
success that made him odious, and failure that was
irreparable. That political power which he had won
by his own legitimate efforts, this he used in the
interests of others illegally, thus weakening his own
reputation in proportion as he strengthened them,
so that before he was aware of it he was ruined by
the very vigour and magnitude of his own power.
And just as the strongest parts of a city's defences,
when they are captured by an enemy, impart to him
their own inherent strength, so it was by Pompey's
power and influence that Caesar was raised up
against the city, and Caesar overthrew and cast
down the very man by whose aid he had waxed
strong against the rest. And this was the way it
came about.

When Lucullus came back from Asia, where he

1 In 61 B.C., when this triumph was celebrated, Pompey
was in his forty-sixth year.

233



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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fj\0



1 Of. chapter xxxi. 1.
234



POMPliY. XLVI. 3-5

had been outrageously treated by Pompey, the
senate at once gave him a splendid reception, and
after Pompey's arrival, wishing to obstruct that
leader's reputation, it urged Lucullus all the more to
take part in public life. In other matters Lucullus



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