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was already dulled and chilled past all efficiency,
having given himself over to the pleasures of ease
and the enjoyment of his wealth ; but he sprang at
once upon Pompey and by a vigorous attack won a
victory over him in the matter of those ordinances
of his own which Pompey had annulled, 1 and carried
the day in the senate with the support of Cato.
Thus worsted and hard pressed, Pompey was forced
to fly for refuge to popular tribunes and attach
himself to young adventurers. Among these the
boldest and vilest was Clodius, who took him up and
threw him down under the feet of the people, and
keeping him ignobly rolled about in the dust of the
forum, and dragging him to and fro there, he used
him for the confirmation of what was said and pro-
posed to gratify and flatter the people. He even
went so far as to ask a reward for his services from
Pompey, as if he were helping him instead of
disgracing him, and this reward he subsequently
got in the betrayal of Cicero, who was Pompey's
friend and had done him more political favours than
any one else. For when Cicero was in danger of
condemnation and begged his aid, Pompey would
not even see him, but shut his front door upon
those who came in Cicero's behalf, and slipped away
by another. Cicero, therefore, fearing the result of
his trial, withdrew secretly from Rome. 2

Having been impeached for illegally putting Lentulns
and Cethegus to death, he went into voluntary exile in
58 B.C. See the Cicero, chapters xxx. and xxxi.



XLVII. Tore Be Kaicrap e\6(0v CLTTO

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ejji(f>avfj teal Trpoaajopeucras rjpMTrjcrev el TOU?



XLV1I. At this time Caesar had returned from
his province l and had inaugurated a policy which
brought him the greatest favour for the present
and power for the future, but proved most injurious
to Pompey and the city. He was a candidate for
his first consulship, and seeing that, while Crassus
and Pompey were at variance, if he attached him-
self to the one he would make an enemy of the
other, he sought to reconcile them with one another,
a thing which was honourable in itself and con-
ducive to the public good, but he undertook it for
an unworthy reason and with all the cleverness of
an intriguer. For those opposing forces which, as
in a vessel, prevented the city from rocking to and
fro, were united into one, thereby giving to faction
an irresistible momentum that overpowered and
overthrew everything. At all events, Cato, when
men said that the state had been overturned by the
quarrel which afterwards arose between Caesar and
Pompey, declared that they wrongly laid the blame
on what had merely happened last ; for it was not
their discord nor yet their enmity, but their concord
and harmony which was the first and greatest evil
to befall the city. Caesar was, indeed, chosen
consul ; but he at once paid his court to the indigent
and pauper classes by proposing measures for the
founding of cities and the distribution of lands,
thereby lowering the dignity of his office and
making the consulate a kind of tribunate. And
when he was opposed by his colleague Bibulus, and
Cato stood ready to support Bibulus with all his
might, Caesar brought Pompey on the rostra before
the people, and asked him in so many words

1 He returned from Spain in 60 B.C. See the Caesar,
chapters xiii. and xiv.



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POMPEY. -\Lvii. 4-XLvin. 3

whether he approved the proposed laws : and when
Pompey said he did,, "Then/' said Caesar, "in case
any resistance should be made to the laws, will you
come to the aid of the people?" " Yes, indeed,"
said Pompey, " I will come, bringing, against those
who threaten swords, both sword and buckler."
Never up to that day had Pompey said or done any-
thing more vulgar and arrogant, as it was thought,
so that even his friends apologized for him and said
the words must have escaped him on the spur of the
moment. However, by his subsequent acts he made
it clear that he had now wholly given himself up to
do Caesar's bidding. For to everybody's surprise he
married Julia, the daughter of Caesar, although she
was betrothed to Caepio and was going to be married
to him within a few days ; and to appease the wrath
of Caepio, Pompey promised him his own daughter
in marriage, although she w r as already engaged to
Faustus the son of Sulla. Caesar himself married
Calpurnia, the daughter of Piso.

XLVIII. After this, Pompey filled the city with
soldiers and carried everything with a high hand.
As - Bibulus the consul was going down into the
forum with Lucullus and Cato, the crowd fell upon
him and broke the fasces of his lictors, and somebody


threw a basket of ordure all over the head ot
Bibulus himself, and two of the tribunes who were
escorting him were wounded. When they had thus
cleared the forum of their opponents, they passed
the law concerning the distribution of lands ; and
the people, caught by this bait, became tame at once
in their hands, and ready to support any project,
not meddling at all, but silently voting for what was
proposed to them. Accordingly, Pompey got those
enactments of his ratified which Lucullus contested ;



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Caesar received the two Gauls and Illyricum for five
years, together with four complete legions ; and it
was decided that the consuls for the ensuing year l
should be Piso, the father-in-law of Caesar, and
(iabinius, who was the most extravagant of Pompey's

While this was going on, Bibulus shut himself up
in his house and for the eight months remaining of
his consulship did not appear in public, but issued
edicts which were full of accusations and slanders
against Pompey and Caesar ; Cato, as though inspired
and possessed by a spirit of prophecy, foretold in
the senate what the future would bring to the city
and to Pompey ; while Lucullus renounced the
struggle and led a life of ease, on the plea that he
was past the age for political affairs ; whereat Pompey
remarked that for an old man luxurious living was
more unseasonable than political activity. However,
Pompev himself also soon gave way weakly to his
passion for his young wife, devoted himself for the
most part to her, spent his time with her in villas
and gardens, and neglected what was going on in
the forum, so that even Clodius, who was then a
tribune of the people, despised him and engaged in
most daring measures. For after he had driven
Cicero into banishment, and sent Cato off to Cyprus
under pretence of giving him military command,
and Caesar was gone off to Gaul, and when he saw
that the people were devoted to him because all his
political measures were undertaken to please them,
he straightway attempted to repeal some of the
arrangements which Pompey had made ; he took
away his prisoner, Tigranes, and kept him about his
own person; and he prosecuted some of his friends,

1 58 u,c.



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be, wcrTrep %o/?09 et? dfjioiftaia (TwyKeKpoTrfiJievoSy


XLIX. 'H^ta yuei' GUI/ ral ravra TLo/j,7njiov
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7rpo(T<f)t\o-TaTov, 67ret(7#7?' /cat TTpoayajwi' TOV



making a test of the power of Pompey by his pro-
ceedings against them. And finally, when Pompey
appeared at a public trial, 1 Clodius, having at his
beck and call a rabble of the lewdest and most
arrogant ruffians, stationed himself in a conspicuous
place and put to them such questions as these :
" Who is a licentious imperator ? ' "What man seeks
for a man ? " " Who scratches his head with one
finger?" And they, like a chorus trained in respon-
sive song, as he shook his toga, would answer each
question by shouting out " Pompey."

XLIX. Of course this also was annoying to Pom-
pey, who was not accustomed to vilification and was
inexperienced in this sort of warfare ; but he was
more distressed when he perceived that the senate
was delighted to see him insulted and paying a
penalty for his betrayal of Cicero. When, however,
it had come to blows and even wounds in the forum,
and a servant of Clodius, stealing along through the
crowd of bystanders towards Pompey, was found to
have a sword in his hand, Pompey made this his
excuse, although he was also afraid of the insolent
abuse of Clodius, and came no more into the forum
as long as Clodius was tribune, but kept himself con-
tinually at home, where he was ever debating with
his friends how he might appease the anger of the
senate and the nobility against him. To Culleo,
however, who urged him to divorce Julia and ex-
change the friendship of Caesar for that of the
senate, he would not listen, but he yielded to the
arguments of those who thought he ought to bring
Cicero back, who was the greatest enemy of Clodius
and most beloved in the senate, and he escorted

1 The trial of Milo, in 56 B.C. Cf. Dio Oassius, xxxix.



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- dvT\ TOV ^TnvOripos [email protected]

Be Kal aXXw? TOV TlTO\e/jiaiov OVK

1 In 57 B.C.
The law made Poiupey Praefectus Annonae for five years


POMPRY. xu.v. 3-7

Cicero's brother, who was a petitioner for his re-
turn, with a large force into the forum, where,
though some were wounded and some killed, he
nevertheless got the better of Clodius. And when
Cicero returned to the city 1 by virtue of the law
then passed, he immediately reconciled Pompey
to the senate, and by his advocacy of the corn law
he in a manner once more made Pompey master of
all the land and sea in Roman possession. For under
his direction were placed harbours, trading-places,
distributions of crops, in a word, navigation and
agriculture. 2 Clodius alleged that the law had not
been proposed on account of the scarcity of grain,
but the scarcity of grain had arisen in order that the
law might be proposed, a law whereby the power of
Pompey, which was withering away, as it were, in
consequence of his failing spirits, might be rekindled
again and recovered in a new office. But others de-
rlare that this was a device of the consul Spinther,
whose aim was to confine Pompey in a higher office,
in order that he himself might be sent out to aid
King Ptolemy. 3 However, Canidius, as tribune of
the people, brought in a law providing that Pompey,
without an army, and with two lictors only, should
go out as a meditator between the king and the
people of Alexandria. Pompey was thought to re-
gard the law with no disfavour, but the senate re-


jected it, on the plausible pretence that it feared
for his safety. Besides, writings were to be found
scattered about the forum and near the senate-house,
stating that it was Ptolemy's wish to have Pompey
given to him as a commander instead of Spinther.
And Timagenes actually says that Ptolemy left home

3 Ptolemy had taken refuge from his dissatisfied subjects
in Rome, and wished to be restored. Cf. Dio Cassius, xxxix.
1'2-17. He is referred to again in chapter Ixxvi. 5.

2 45


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porjv et? Trai/Ta?.

LI. Ey rovro) Be TO) %pov(i) fjieyav rjpav ol
Ke\riKol TroXe/uiOi Kaiaapa' Kal BOKWV iroppu)-
rdra) Trjs PeoyUT;? cnrelvai Kal avvripT^aQaL BeX-
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without sufficient reason and under no necessity,
and that his abandonment of Egypt was owing to
the persuasions of Theophanes, who was aiming to
give Pompey profitable occupation in the holding
of a new command. But this is not made credible
by the baseness of Theophanes as much as it is made
incredible by the nature of Pompey, in which am-
bition was not of such a mean and base order.

L. Having thus been set over the administration
and management of the grain trade, Pompey sent out
his agents and friends in various directions, while he
himself sailed to Sicily, Sardinia and Africa, and
collected grain. When he was about to set sail with
it, there was a violent storm at sea, and the ship-
captains hesitated to put out; but he led the way on
board and ordered them to weigh anchor, crying
with a loud voice : " To sail is necessary ; to live
is not." By this exercise of zeal and courage at-
tended by good fortune, he filled the sea with ships
and the markets with grain, so that the excess of
what he had provided sufficed also for foreign peoples,
and there was an abundant overflow, as from a spring,
for all.

LI. Meanwhile, his Gallic wars raised Caesar to
greatness ; and though he was thought to be very
far removed from Rome, and to be occupied with
Belgae, Suevi, and Britanni, he secretly and cleverly
contrived to thwart Pompey's designs in the heart
of the city and in the most important matters. For
he himself, with his military force clothing him as
the body does the soul, was carefully training it, not
against the Barbarians merely, nay, he used its com-
bats with these only to give it exercise, as if in
hunting and the chase, and was making it in-
vincible and terrible ; but all the while he was



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sending back to Rome gold and silver and the other
spoils and the rest of the wealth which came to him
in abundance from his numerous wars, and by
tempting people with his bribes, and contributing
to the expenses of aediles, praetors, consuls, and
their wives, he was winning many to his side. There-
fore when he crossed the Alps and spent the winter
in Luca, a great crowd of ordinary men and women


gathered there in eager haste to see him, while two
hundred men of senatorial rank, among whom were
Pompey and Crassus, and a hundred and twenty
fasces of proconsuls and praetors were seen at Caesar's
door. 1 Accordingly, he filled all the rest with hopes
and loaded them with money, and sent them away; but
between himself, Pompey, and Crassus the following
compact was made : these two were to stand for the
consulship, and Caesar was to assist their candidacy
by sending large numbers of his soldiers home to
vote for them ; as soon as they were elected, they
were to secure for themselves commands of provinces
and armies, and to confirm Caesar's present provinces
to him for another term of five years. When all this
was publicly known, it gave displeasure to the chief
men of the state, and Marcellinus rose in the as-
sembly and asked Pompey and Crassus to their faces
whether they were going to be candidates for the
consulship. As the majority of the people bade
them answer, Pompey did so first, and said that
perhaps he would be a candidate, and perhaps he
would not ; but Crassus gave a more politic answer,
for he said he would take whichever course he
thought would be for the advantage of the common
wealth. 2 And when Marcellinus persisted in his

1 This was in 56 B.C. Of. the Caesar, chapter xxi.

2 Cf. the Crassus, xv. 1 f.



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