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250



POMPEY, LI. 6-Lii, 4

attack upon Pompey and was thought to be making
a strong speech, Pompey remarked that Marcellinus
was of all men most unjust, since he was not grate-
ful to him for making him eloquent instead of
speechless, and full to vomiting instead of famished.

LI I. However, though all the rest declined to be
candidates for the consulship, Cato encouraged and
persuaded Lucius Domitius not to desist, for the
struggle with the tyrants, he said, was not for office,
but for liberty. But Pompey and his partisans,
seeing the firmness of Cato, and fearing lest, having
all the senate with him, he should draw away and
pervert the sound-minded among the people, would
not suffer Domitius to go down into the forum, but
sent armed men and slew the link-bearer who was
leading his company, and put the rest to flight ;
Cato was the last to retire, after being wounded in
the right arm while he was fighting to defend
Domitius.

By such a path they made their way into the
office they sought, nor even then did they behave
more decently. But first of all, while the people
were casting their votes for the election of Cato to
the praetorship, Pompey dissolved the assembly,
alleging an inauspicious omen, and after corrupting
the tribes with money, they proclaimed Vatinius
praetor instead of Cato. Then, by means of Tre-
bonius, a tribune, they introduced laws which, ac-
cording to the agreement, continued his provinces to
Caesar for a second term of five years, gave Crassus
Syria and the expedition against the Parthians, and
to Pompey himself the whole of Africa, both Spains,
and four legions ; of these he lent two to Caesar, at
his request, for the war in Gaul. But although
Crassus went out to his province at the expiration of

2 5'



PLUTARCH S LIVES



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252



POMPEY, LIT. 4-Lin. 4

his consulship, 1 Pompey opened his theatre and held
gymnastic and musical contests at its dedication,
and furnished combats of wild beasts in which five
hundred lions were killed, and above all, an elephant
fight, a most terrifying spectacle.

LIU. All this won him admiration and affection ;
but on the other hand he incurred a corresponding
displeasure, because he handed over his provinces
and his armies to legates who were his friends, while
he himself spent his time with his wife among the
pleasure-places of Italy, going from one to another,
either because he loved her, or because she loved
him so that he could not bear to leave her ; for this
reason too is given. Indeed, the fondness of the
young woman for her husband was notorious, al-
though the mature age of Pompey did not invite
such devotion. The reason for it, however, seems
to have lain in the chaste restraint of her husband,
who knew only his wedded wife, and in the dignity
of his manners, which were not severe, but full of
grace, and especially attractive to women, as even
Flora the courtesan may be allowed to testify. It
once happened that at an election of aediles people
came to blows, and many were killed in the vicinity
of Pompey and he was covered with their blood, so
that he changed his garments. His servants carried
these garments to his house with much confusion
and haste, and his young wife, who chanced to be
with child, at sight of the blood-stained toga, fainted
away and with difficulty regained her senses, and in
consequence of the shock and her sufferings, mis-
carried. Thus it came to pass that even those who
found most fault with Pompey's friendship for Caesar
could not blame him for the love he bore his wife.
However, she conceived again and gave birth to a

1 In ~>i B.C,

2 53



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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2 54



POMPEY, LIU. 4-7

female child, but died from the pains of travail, and
the child survived her only a few days. Pompey
made preparations to bury her body at his Alban
villa, but the people took it by force and carried it
down to the Campus Martins for burial, more out of
pity for the young woman than as a favour to
Pompey and Caesar. But of these two, it was thought
that the people gave a larger share of the honour
to Caesar, who was absent, than to Pompey, who
was present. For the city became at once a tossing
sea, and everywhere surging tumult and discordant
speeches prevailed, since the marriage alliance which
had hitherto veiled rather than restrained the am-
bition of the two men was now at an end. After a
short time, too, tidings came that Crassus had lost
his life in Parthia, and so what had been a great
hindrance to the breaking out of civil war was re-
moved ; for through fear of him both Pompey and
Caesar had somehow- or other continued to treat
one another fairly. But when fortune had removed
the third champion who waited to compete with the
victor in their struggle, at once the comic poet's
words were apt, and

" each wrestler against the other
Anoints himself with oil and smears his hands
with dust." 1

So slight a thing is fortune when compared with
human nature ; for she cannot satisfy its desires,
since all that extent of empire and magnitude of
wide-stretching domain could not suffice for two
men. They had heard and read that the gods 2
" divided the universe into three parts, and each
got his share of power," and yet they did not think

1 Of. Kock, Com. Graer. Frag. iii. p. 484.
Zeus, Poseidon, and Pluto ; Iliad, xv. 189.

255



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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256



POMPEY, LIII. 7-Liv. 3

the Roman dominion enough for themselves, who
were but two.

LIV. Still, Pompey once said in addressing the
people that he had received every office earlier than
he had expected, and had laid it down more quickly
than others had expected. And in truth his dis-
banding of his armies was a perpetual witness to
the truth of his words. But at this time he thought
that Caesar was not going to dismiss his forces, and
therefore sought to make himself strong against
him by means of magistracies in the city. Beyond
this, however, he attempted no revolutionary
changes, nor did he wish to be thought to distrust
Caesar, but rather to neglect and despise him. But
when he saw that the magistracies were not bestowed
according to his wishes, because the citizens were
bribed, he suffered an anarchy to arise in the city; 1
and forthwith there was prevalent much talk in
favour of a dictator, which Lucilius the popular tribune
first ventured to make public, when he advised the
people to elect Pompey dictator. But Cato attacked
him, and Lucilius came near losing his tribunate,
and many of Pompey 's friends came forward in
defence of him, declaring that he neither asked nor
desired that office. And when Cato applauded
Pompey and urged him to devote himself to the
cause of law and order, for the time being he did
so, out of shame, and Domitius and Messala were
installed in the consulship 2 ; but afterwards an
anarchy arose again, and more people now agitated
the question of a dictatorship more boldly. There-
fore Cato and his party, fearing lest they should be
overborne, determined to allow Pompey a certain



1 That is, 110 consuls were elected.

2 In 53 B.C., seven months after the regular time.



257



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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Be fjirj TrapatcaXfjTai, Brf^ocria cfrpdcreiv TO
pevov. TOIOVTOS fiev ovv Kara>^ ev Trdcri.

1 In 52 B.C.
258



POMPEY, LIV. 3-6

legalized office, and so to divert him from the un-
mixed tyranny of a dictatorship. Consequently,
Bibulus, who was an enemy of Pompey, was first to
propose in the senate that Pompey be chosen sole
consul ; for thus, he said, the city would either be
set free from the prevailing disorder, or would
become the slave of its strongest man. The pro-
posal seemed strange, considering the man who
made it ; but Cato rose, leading everybody to think
that he was going to speak against it, and when
silence was made, said that he himself would not
have introduced the proposed measure, but that
since it had been introduced by another, he urged
its adoption, because he preferred any government
whatever to no government at all, and thought that
no one would govern better than Pompey in a time
of such disorder. The senate accepted the measure,
and decreed that Pompey, if elected consul, should
govern alone, but that if he himself desired a col-
league, he might choose whom he thought fit after
two months had fully expired. Having in this way
been made consul l and so declared by Sulpicius,
the Interrex/ 2 Pompey addressed himself in a
friendly manner to Cato, acknowledging that he
was much indebted to him, and inviting him to
give advice in a private capacity on the conduct of
the government. But Cato would not admit that
Pompey was indebted to him, declaring that none
of his words had been spoken in the interests ot
Pompey, but in the interests of the city ; and that
he would give him advice in a private capacity if he
were invited, and in case he should not be invited,
would publicly make known his opinion. Such,
indeed, was Cato in everything.

2 One who held supreme power in the absence of regularly
elected consuls.

259



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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260



B



POMPEY, LV. i~4

L\ r . Poinpey now entered the city, and married
Cornelia, a daughter of Metellus Scipio. She was
not a virgin, but had lately been left a widow by
Publius, the son of Crassus, whose virgin bride she
had been before his death in Parthia. The young
woman had many charms apart from her youthful
beauty. She was well versed in literature, in playing
the lyre, and in geometry, and had been accustomed
to listen to philosophical discourses with profit. In
addition to this, she had a nature which was free
from that unpleasant officiousness which such ac-
complishments are apt to impart to young women ;
and her father's lineage and reputation were above
reproach. Nevertheless, the marriage was displeasing
to some on account of the disparity in years ; for
Cornelia's youth made her a fitter match for a son
of Pompey. Those, too, who were more critical,
considered that Pompey was neglectful of the un-
happy condition of the city, which had chosen him
as her physician and put herself in his sole charge ;
whereas he was decking himself with garlands and
celebrating nuptials, though he ought to have re-
garded his very consulship as a calamity, since it
would not have been given him in such an illegal
manner had his country been prosperous. Moreover,
although he presided over the suits for corruption
and bribery, and introduced laws for the conduct
of the trials, and in all other cases acted as
arbiter with dignity and fairness, making the
court-rooms safe, orderly, and quiet by his presence
there with an armed force, still, when Scipio, his
father-in-law, was put on trial, he summoned the
three hundred and sixty jurors to his house and
solicited their support, and the prosecutor abandoned
the case when he saw Scipio conducted from the

261



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

dyopds VTTO TWV BiKacrrcov, Trakiv ovv rJ
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TO arpaTitoTiKov.

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'2 /ca#' rjcrv^iav o KaTepyacrdjjLevos. 01/0-77? Be

262



POMPEV. i.v. 4-Lvi. 2

forum by the jurors. Once more, therefore, Pompey
was in ill repute, and this was still further increased
because, although he had put a stop by law to
encomiums on persons under trial, he himself came
into court to pronounce an encomium on Plancus.
Cato, who happened to be one of the jurors, clapped
his hands to his ears and said it was not right for
him, contrary to the law, to listen to encomiums.
Cato was therefore set aside before he could cast his
vote, but Plancus was convicted by the other votes,
to the disgrace of Pompey. For, a few days after-
wards, Hypsaeus, a man of consular dignity, who was
under prosecution, lay in wait for Pompey as he was
returning from his bath for supper, clasped his knees,
and supplicated his favour ; but Pompey passed along
contemptuously, telling him that, except for spoiling
his supper, he was accomplishing nothing. In this
way he got the reputation of being partial, and was
blamed for it. Everything else, however, he suc-
ceeded in bringing into good order, and chose his
father-in-law as his colleague for the remaining five
months of the year. It was also decreed that he
should retain his provinces for another four years,
and receive a thousand talents yearly, out of which
lie was to feed and maintain his soldiers.

LVI. But the friends of Caesar took occasion
from this to demand that some consideration be
shewn for Caesar also, who was waging so many con-
tests in behalf of the Roman supremacy ; they said he
deserved either another consulship, or the prolonga-
tion of his command, so that no one else might suc-
ceed to his labours and rob him of the glory of them,
but that the one who had performed them might
himself continue in power and enjoy his honours un-
disturbed. A debate arose on these matters, during

263



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Trapairov/J-evos VTrep rov
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264



POMPEY, LVI. 2-Lvn. 3

which Pompey, giving the impression that it was
goodwill towards Caesar that led him to deprecate
the odium in which Caesar stood, said he had letters
from Caesar wherein he expressed a wish to have
a successor and be relieved of his command ; he
thought it right, however, that he should be per-
mitted to stand for the consulship even in his absence.
Opposition to this was made by Cato and his party,
who urged that Caesar must lay down his arms and
become a private citizen before he could obtain any
favour from his fellow-citizens ; and since Pompey
made no contention, but as it were accepted defeat,
there was more suspicion about his sentiments towards
Caesar. He also sent and asked back the troops
which he had lent him, 1 making the Parthian war
his pretext for doing so. And although Caesar knew
the real reasons for asking back the soldiers, he sent
them home with generous gifts.

LVII. After this Pompey had a dangerous illness
at Naples, 2 but recovered from it, and on the advice
of Praxagoras the Neapolitans offered sacrifices of
thanksgiving for his preservation. Their example
was followed by the neighbouring peoples, and so
the thing made its way throughout all Italy, and
every city, small and great, held festival for many
days. No place could contain those who came to
greet him from all quarters, but roads and villages
and ports were filled with sacrificing and feasting
throngs. Many also with garlands on their heads
and lighted torches in their hands welcomed and
escorted him on his way, pelting him with flowers,
so that his progress and return to Rome was a most
beautiful and splendid sight. And yet this is said to
have done more than anything else to bring about

1 Of. chapter lii. 3. 2 In 50 B.C.

265



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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