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yLtecrro? ware Kal rwv SeSiorwv rov TroXefJiov
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crovrai Kai Tre^LKal Kal IrrTriKa

LVIII. "H8?7 8e Kal Kalo-ap erretyvero rot?
Trpdyftacriv eppcojuevecrrepov, atTO? /ii^ OVKCTI
'IraXta? aTratpcov, et? Se TT)I^ TroXiv

del TOU? arparuoras aTrocrreXXco^ d

POAIPEY, LVII. 3-Lvin. i

tlie war. For while the public rejoicing was so great,
a spirit of arrogance came upon Pompey, which
went beyond the calculations based upon facts,
and, throwing to the winds that caution which
had thus tar always given security to his successful
achievements, he indulged himself in unlimited con-
fidence and contempt for Caesar's power, feeling that
he would need neither an armed force to oppose him
nor any irksome labour of preparation, but that he
would pull him down much more easily than he had
raised him up. Besides this, Appius came, bringing
from Gaul the troops which Pompey had lent Caesar.
He said much to belittle Caesar's achievements there,
and gave out scandalous stories about Caesar. He
also said that Pompey knew not his own power and
reputation if he surrounded himself with other troops
against Caesar, for he could put down Caesar with
Caesar's own soldiers as soon as he appeared on the
scene, so great was their hatred of Caesar and their
warm affection ror Pompey. In this way, then,
Pompey was elated, and his confidence filled him
with so great a contempt for his adversary that he
mocked at those who were afraid of the war ; and
when some said that if Caesar should march upon
the city, they did not see any forces with which to
defend it from him, with a smiling countenance and
calm mien he bade them be in no concern ; " For,"
said he, " in whatever part of Italy I stamp upon
the ground, there will spring up armies of foot and

LVII I. And now, too, Caesar devoted himself
to public affairs with greater vigour. He no longer
kept himself far away from Italy, was always send-
ing his soldiers back to the city to take part in
the elections, and by means of his money



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cret? L>7rep Katcrapo? ecpaivovro St]fMOTiKCi)Tepcu.
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5 apxeiv Kal /jiCTeaTfjorav ol TrXetou?. avOis B
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.secretly working upon many of the magistrates and
corrupting them. Among these was Paul us the
consul, who was won over by a bribe of fifteen
hundred talents ; and Curio the popular tribune,
whom Caesar set free from innumerable debts ; and
Mark Antony, whose friendship for Curio had in-
volved him in Curio's obligations. It was said,
indeed, that one of Caesar's centurions who had
come back to Rome and was standing near the
senate-house, when he heard that the senate would
not give Caesar a prolongation of his term of office,
struck his hand upon his sword and said : " But this
will give it." And Caesar's intrigues and prepara-
tions had this purpose.

And yet the requests and demands which Curio
made in behalf of Caesar seemed to be very popular
in their character. For he demanded one of two
things : either that Pompey also should be required
to give up his soldiery, or else that Caesar's should
not be taken away from him ; for whether thev
became private persons on just and equal terms, or
remained a match for each other with their present
forces, they would make no disturbance ; but he who
weakened one of them doubled the power of which
he stood in fear. To this Marcellus the consul
replied by calling Caesar a robber, and urging that
he be voted a public enemy unless he should lay
down his arms ; nevertheless, Curio, aided by Antony
and Piso, prevailed so far as to have the opinion of
the senate taken. He therefore moved that those
should withdraw to one side who wished that Caesar
only should lay down his arms and that Pompey
should remain in command ; and the majority with-
drew. But when he moved again that all those
should withdraw who wished both to lay down their



ra 07r\a Ka-raOea-Qcu KOL arjBerepov d

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, KOI auro? eKTre^eiv TOV dvriTa6/jivov
avrols vTrep TT}? TrarpiBos.

LIX. 'E rovrov ra? ecr^ra? a>? eVl TrevOa
fjiT/3d\ovTO. Map/ceXXo? Se TT/OO? Ylo/jLTnj'iov Bi
dyopds /3d8i%6 TT}? /3ouX?}? e7ro/ie^?, KOI tcara-

evavrios, " KeXeuw ere," eljrev, tf w TlofATnjie, 65
TTJ TTarpiBi teal %pr\<j6ai rat? Trape-
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yap dveyvo) Ttvd Kattrapo? eVtcrToX^ '
ev TO) S?7/Ltft), ftiaadfAevos T^V /3ov\?]i>,
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7rpaTT BiaXXayds, oVax? Katcra/3,


POMP3iY, LVIII. 5-Lix. 3

arms and neither to remain in command, only
twenty-two favoured Pompey, while all the rest
sided with Curio. Curio, therefore, felt that he had
won the day, and witli a joyful countenance rushed
before the people, who clapped their hands in
welcome and pelted him with garlands and flowers.
Pompey was not present in the senate, since com-
manders of armies cannot enter the city ; Marcellus,
however, rose and declared that he would not sit
there listening to speeches, but since he saw ten
legions already looming up in their march over the
Alps, he himself also would send forth a man who
would oppose them in defence of his country.

LIX. Upon this, the city went into mourning, as
in the presence of a public calamity ; and Marcellus,
followed by the senate, marched through the forum
to meet Pompey, and standing before him said : " I
bid thee, Pompey, to defend thy country, to employ
the forces now in readiness, and to levy others."
Lentulus also said the same, being one of the consuls
elected for the coming year. But when Pompey
began to levy recruits, some refused to obey the
summons, and a few came together reluctantly and
without zest, but the greater part cried out for a
settlement of the controversy. For Antony, in defiance
of the senate, had read before the people a letter of
Caesar containing propositions which were attractive
to the multitude. He asked, namely, that both
Pompey and he should give up their provinces, dis-
band their armies, put themselves in the hands of
the people, and render an account of what they had
done. But Lentulus, who was by this time consul,
would not call the senate together ; Cicero, however,
who was just returned from Cilicia, tried to effect a
settlement of the dispute on these terms, namelv,



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dfiaprdveiv TOV llo/nTTtji
fiowvros OVK ea"%ov ai Sia\vcreLS

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fjiivov, 7ro\iv /AeydXriv rr}
fcal fiaBi^cov avrifcpvs eVt

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TIJV 'Pco/xrjp fjierd tc7r\r)%ws Qopvfto? KOI </>o/3o?


TOI/ o/ATnov &vv&ip3%G KOI TTapr)<rav at


that Caesar should renounce Gaul and dismiss the
rest of his forces, but should retain two legions and
Illyricum, and wait for his second consulship. And
when Pompey was dissatisfied with this, the friends
of Caesar conceded that he should dismiss one of the
t\vo legions; but since Lentulus still opposed, and
Cato cried out that Pompey was blundering again in
allowing himself to be deceived, the settlement
came to naught.

LX. And now word w r as brought that Caesar had
seized Ariminum, 1 a large city of Italy, and was
marching directly upon Rome with all his forces.
But this was false. For he was marching with no
more than three hundred horsemen and five thousand
men-at-arms ; the rest of his forces were beyond the
Alps, and he did not wait for them, since he wished
to fall upon his enemies suddenly, when they were
in confusion and did not expect him, rather than to
give them time and fight them after they were pre-
pared/ And so, when he was come to the river
Rubicon, which was the boundary of the province
allotted to him, he stood in silence and delayed to


cross, reasoning with himself, of course, upon the
magnitude of his adventure. Then, like one who
casts himself from a precipice into a yawning abyss,
he closed the eyes of reason and put a veil between
them and his peril, and calling out in Greek to the
bystanders these words only, " Let the die be cast,"
he set his army across.

As soon as the report of this came flying to Rome
and the city was filled with tumult, consternation,
and a fear that was beyond compare, the senate at
once went in a body and in all haste to Pompey, and

1 In January, 49 B.C. See the Caesar, chapter xxxii.



ap-^ai, TTvOouevov Be rov TuXXof rcepi en par ids
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Be vri avrov rcerrpa^Oai.

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rr)yov avrotcpdropa TIo/xTT^io^, eTrenroDV on ra)i>
avrwv ean KOI iroielv ra aeydXa KUKCL /cat rraveiv.
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Kal rapd%a) roaovrw rb uev


POMPKY, LX. 3-Lxi. 2

tlie magistrates came too. And when Tullus asked
Pompey about an army and a military force, and
Pompey, after some delay, said timidly that he had
in readiness the soldiers who had come from Caesar,
and thought that he could speedily assemble also
those who had been previously levied, thirty thou-
sand in number, Tullus cried aloud, " Thou hast
deceived us, Pompey!" and advised sending envoys
to Caesar ; and a certain Favonius, a man otherwise
of no bad character, but who often thought that his
insolent presumption was an imitation of Cato's
boldness of speech, ordered Pompey to stamp upon
the ground and call up the forces which he used to
promise. But Pompey bore this ill-timed raillery
with meekness l ; and when Cato reminded him of
what he had said to him at the outset about Caesar,
he replied that what Cato had said was more pro-
phetic, but what he himself had done was more

LX1. Cato now advised that Pompey should be
elected general with unlimited powers, adding that
the very men who caused great mischief must also
put an end to it. Then he set out at once for Sicily,
the province which had fallen to his lot, and the other
senators likewise departed for the provinces which
had severally been allotted to them. But since
nearly all Italy was in commotion, the course ot
things was perplexing. For those who dwelt out-
side the city came rushing in hurried flight from all
quarters into Rome, and those who dwelt in Rome
were rushing out of it and abandoning the city, where,
in such tempestuous confusion, the better element

1 In Appian, Bell. Civ. ii. 37, Pompey replies : " You will
have them if you follow me, and do not think it a terrible
thing to leave Rome, and Italy too, if it should be necessar}'."



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W9 TOVTO (frr/dai %a\67rov rjv



was weak, and the insubordinate element strong and
hard for the magistrates to manage. For it was
impossible to check the reigning fear, nor would any
one suffer Pompey to follow the dictates of his own
judgement, but whatever feeling each one had,
whether fear, or distress, or perplexity, he promptly
infected Pompey's mind with this. Therefore oppo-
site counsels prevailed in the same day, and it was
impossible for Pompey to get any true information
about the enemy, since many reported to him what-
ever they happened to hear, and then were vexed if
he did not believe them. Under these circumstances
he issued an edict in which he recognized a state ot
civil war, ordered all the senators to follow him,
declared that he would regard as a partisan of Caesar
any one who remained behind, and late in the
evening left the city. The consuls also fled, without
even making the sacrifices customary before a war.
But even amid the actual terrors of the hour Pompey
was a man to be envied for the universal good will
felt towards him, because, though many blamed his
generalship, there was no one who hated the general.
Indeed, one would have found that those who fled
the city for the sake of liberty were not so numerous
as those who did so because they were unable to
forsake Pompey.

LXII. A few days after this, Caesar entered and
took possession of Rome. He treated everybody
with kindness and calmed their fears, except that
when Metellus, one of the tribunes, attempted to
prevent him from taking money out of the public
treasury, he threatened to kill him, and added to
the threat a still harsher speech, namely, that it was
easier for him to execute it than to utter it. 1 Having

1 Cf. the Catsar xxxv. 4.


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LXIII. Oi yu-ev oS^ a\\OL TOV Ylo/jL7rr)iov TOV
a7ro7r\ovv ev TO?? aptcrrot? TiOevTat o




thus driven away Metellus, he took what he wanted,
and then set out in pursuit of Pompey, being anxious
to drive him out of Italy before his forces came back
from Spain. But Pompey, having taken possession
of Brundisium, where he found plenty of transports,
immediately embarked the consuls, and with them
thirty cohorts of soldiers, and sent them before him
to Dyrrachium ; Scipio his father-in-law, however,
and Gnaeus his son, he sent to Syria to raise a fleet.
He himself, after barricading the gates and manning
the walls witli his lightest-armed soldiers, ordered
the Brundisians to remain quietly in their houses,
and then dug up all the ground inside the city into
trenches, and filled the streets with sunken stakes, 1
all except two, by which he himself finally went
down to the sea. Then on the third day, when he
had already embarked the rest of his host at his
leisure, he suddenly raised a signal for those who
were still guarding the walls to run swiftly down to
the sea, took them on board, and set them across to
Dyrrachium. Caesar, however, when he saw the
walls deserted, perceived that Pompey had fled, and
in his pursuit of him came near getting entangled in
the ditches and stakes ; but since the Brundisians
told him about them, he avoided the city,- and
making a circuit round it, found that all the trans-
ports had put out to sea except two, which had only
a few soldiers aboard.

LXII I. Other people, now. count this sailing
away of Pompey among his best stratagems, but
Caesar himself was astonished that when he was in

1 Ditches were dug across the streets, sharpened stakes
planted in the ditches, and the whole work lightly covered
so as to look undisturbed. Cf. Caesar, Bell. Cir. I. xxvii.

8 He had besieged it for nine days, and had also begun to
close up the harbour (Caesar, Bell. Civ. I. xxv. -xxvii.).




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possession of a strong city and expected his forces
from Spain and was master of the sea, he gave up
and abandoned Italy. Cicero also blames him l for
imitating the generalship of Themistocles rather
than that of Pericles, although he was situated like
Pericles, and not like Themistocles. Moreover,
Caesar had shown by what he did that he greatly
feared a protraction of the war. For after capturing
Numerius, a friend of Pompey, he sent him to
Brundisium with a request for a reconciliation on
equal terms. But Numerius sailed away with
Pompey. Then Caesar, who in sixty days had be-
come master of all Italy without bloodshed, wished
to pursue Pompey at once, but since he had no
transports, he turned back and marched into Spain,
desiring to win over to himself the forces there.

I. XIV. In the meantime a great force was
gathered by Pompey. His navy was simpl\ r irre-
sistible, since he had five hundred ships of war,
while the number of his light galleys and fast
cruisers was immense ; his cavalry numbered seven
thousand, the flower of Rome and Italy, preeminent
in lineage, wealth, and courage ; and his infantry,
which was a mixed multitude and in need of training,
lie exercised at Beroea, not sitting idly by, but
taking part in their exercises himself, as if he had
been in the flower of his age. And indeed it was a
great incentive to confidence when they saw Pompey
the Great, who was now sixty years of age less two,
but who nevertheless competed in full armour as a
foot-soldier, and then again, as a horseman, drew
his sword without trouble while his horse was at a
gallop and put it back in its sheath with ease ; while
in hurling the javelin he not only displayed accuracy,

1 Epist. ad Alt. vii. 11.



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