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yeypcKjxMS ical fteftovXevfJievos,
r) ryeveaOai rov TrpoKivSwevovros d

rj\6e Se /cat TtSto? Se^TiO?, e'cr^a-
az^/j Odrepov rrercripw

oi/ rw^ a\\u)v yeXwvrwv KOL
6 rioyu/7r?7t'o9 t8a>^ e^avearr) Kal rrpoae-
$pa/ji, /jieya vo^i^wv ^aprvpiov elvai Kal TOI)?
' rjXiKiav Kal rrapa ^vva/juv alpovjjievovs rov
' avrov fcivBvvov dvrl rijs acr^aXeta?.
LXV. 'E?rel Be /JouX?}? yevo/Aevris Kal
Karwi^o? elrrovros e^i^lcravro /nrj&eva '
avev 7rapard%6(i)<s dvaipelv /jitfie Siap7rd%iv rrokiv
tot9, eri /jid\\ov r)



Kal yap ol? fjLrjSev fjv TTpay/JLa rov
7ro\6/jLOV Troppco KaroiKovcriv Tf Si dcrOevGiav
d/j,e\ov/j,6vois, rut ye /BovXeaQai, crvyKarendevro
Kal TW Xo7&> avvepd'xpvv vrrep rwv BiKaiwi>,

1 Aa/3(7]t/bs with Coraes and Bekker :
282



POMPEY, LXIV. 2-LXV. I

but alsu vigour in the length of his cast, which many
of the young men could not surpass. There kept
coming to him also kings of nations and potentates,
arid of the leading men from Rome there were
enough about him to form a full senate. Labienus
also came, having deserted Caesar, though he had
been his friend and had served under him in Gaul ;
and Brutus, a son of the Brutus who had been put to
death by Pompey in Gaul, 1 a man of lofty spirit, who
had never spoken to Pompey nor even saluted him
before, because he held him to be the murderer of
his father, but now he put himself under his com-
mand, believing him to be a deliverer of Rome.
Cicero, too, although he had advocated other
measures in his writings and his speeches in the
senate, nevertheless was ashamed not to be of the
number of those who risked all for their country.
There came also Tidius Sextius, a man of extreme
old age and lame of one leg, into Macedonia. The
rest laughed and jeered at him, but when Pompey
saw him, he rose and ran to meet him, counting it a
great testimony that men past the years and past
the power of service should choose danger with him
in preference to their safety.

LXV. When their senate convened and a decree
was passed, on motion of Cato, that no Roman
should be killed except on a field of battle, and that
no city subject to Rome should be plundered, the
party of Pompey was held in still greater favour.
For those even who took no part in the war, either
because they dwelt too far away, or were too weak
to be regarded, attached themselves to it in their
wishes at least, and, as far as their words went,
fought with it in behalf of the right, considering

1 Cf. chapter xvi. 3 f . ; Hrutus, iv. If.

283



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

deals elvai Kal dvQpu>Troi<$ e^Opov w
/j,r) Ka(f r)Bovr]V can VLKCLV Yloft'TfTjiov.
2 Ov /jirjv d\\d teal \Lalcrap evyvw/Aova Trapel^ev
eavTov ev T> Kparelv, o? Kal Trt? ev 'Iftrjpia TOV



rou? (TTpar^jov<i, rot?



. teal TTaKiv V7rep/3a\cov Ta? "AXTre^? /cal
&ia$pa/ji(t)v Trjv '\ra\iav et? l&pevrecriov ijicev ev

3 TpoTTcus 77877 TOV xei/jiwvos 6Wo?' /cal &ia7Tpd(ras
TO 7re\ayo<; atTo? fjiev et? "Qpi/cov
OvilBov\\iov 1 Be TOV TIo/jLTTTjiov

TOV e'xwv GVV eavTU) TT/JO? YlofjLTTtj'iov dve

TcpOKa\ovfjLevos et? ev crvve\9ovTa<; d

jj/jiepa TpiTrj TTCLVTCI SiaXvcrai TO,

Kal *yev0fievbifa ^tXof? KOI o/juoaavTa^ eTrave\6elv

4 et? \Ta\iav. TavTa TLofj,7rtjio$ av0L^ eve&pav
7}yetTO* /cal /car/3a? o^e&>? errl 6d\aTTav
\afte 'xwpla Kal TOTTOU? eBpas re rot?
(TTpaTOTre&ois vTrepaXfceis e^ovTa, Kal

l KaTapcreis 7ri<p6povs rot? eTTKfiotTWcn Bid
wcrre TrdvTa irvelv avefjiov TiofjiTrrjiw
7'} aTpaTidv TI xprffAaTa KOjJii^ovTa, Kaicrapa
Be Svcrxepeiais tcarra <yf)v ouov Kal KaTa dd\aTTav

5 7repL^6jjL6voi> % dvayKys (^iXo/jLa^eLV, Kal rrpocr-
(3d\\ovTa rot? epvfjiaaL Kal TrpOKa\ovaevov

KdcTTOT6 TO, /JLV TT\el(TTa VLKCLV KOI KpaTLV TO4?

dKpo/3o\ia/jLols, aTrag Be fjiiKpov <jvvTpiftr)i>ai Kal
Trjv GTpaTidv aTroftaXeiv, TOV UO/JLTTIJIOV \afjLTrpo^
ay(i)vi<ra/j,evov ae^pi T/JOTTT}? aTtdvTwv Kal (f)6vov

ftiaGacrOai Be Kal crvveicrTreaelv urj 65
r) <f)o/3ii0i>TO<;, WCTTC elrreiv Kaicrapa



1 Oi>i&ou\\iov after Caesar, Bdl. Civ. \i\. 10 : 'l
284



POMPEY, i,\v. 1-5

liiin a foe to gods and men who did not wish
Pompey to be victorious.

However, it is also true that Caesar showed him-
self merciful as a conqueror ; after defeating and
capturing the forces of Pompey in Spain, he sent
away their commanders, and took the soldiers into
his service. 1 Then he re-crossed the Alps, marched
rapidly through Italy, and came to Brundisium
shortly after the winter solstice. 2 Crossing the sea
there, he himself put in at Oricum, but he dis-
patched Vibullius, the friend of Pompey, who was
his prisoner of war, to Pompey, with a proposition
that they should hold a conference, disband all
their armies within three days, and after renewing
their friendship under oath, return to Italy. This
Pompey thought to be another snare, and marching
swiftly down to the sea, he took possession of the
posts, regions, and sites which offered strong posi-
tions for land forces, as well as of the naval stations
and landing-places which were favourable for those
who came by sea, so that every wind that blew
brought Pompey gram, or troops, or money ; while
Caesar, on the other hand, reduced to straits by sea
and land, was forced to seek a battle, attacking
Pompey's defences and challenging him to come out
all the while. In these skirmishes Caesar was for
the most part victorious and carried the day ; but
once he narrowly escaped being utterly crushed and
losing his army, for Pompey made a brilliant fight
and at last routed Caesar's whole force and killed
two thousand of them. He did not, however, force
his way into their camp with the fugitives, either
because he could not, or because he feared to do so,
and this led Caesar to say to his friends : " To-day

1 See Caesar, Bull. Civ. 1. xli.-lxxxvii. Of 49 B.C.

285



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

TOU? (friXous on %tfuepov av rj V'IKIJ rrapd
rot? TToXe/u'ot? rjv, el rov viKcbvra el^ov.
LXVI. 'E-Trt Touro) /jLeya fypovi'icravres ol

Bid /*a%?7? ecnrevBov KpiOfjvai.
rot? fjiev %a) ftaai\evcri Kal

a)? vevitcrjKtos jpa(f)e, TOP Be r>}?

KiV^VVOV GDpp(t)$l, TO) %pOVU) KOI TCtt?

Kara7ro\iJ,rf(Ttv VQfJiL^wv av&pa<$ a/JLa^ov^ ^ev ev
rot? OTT\OI<? real crvvGiQia^kvov^ vitcav yaer' dX\TJ-

2 \WV 7TO\VV 778?; %pOVOV, TTpOS &6 TYjV ClXXrjV

arpareiav Kalir\dva<; KOI //era/^acrei? Kal rd(f)pa)v
6pvj;is Kal TCI^WV otVo&o/ua? dTrayopevovras
VTTO ytjpa}^, Kal Bid rovro rat? yzpdiv efj,$vvat
rd^Ltna Kal av\Jiir\aK.r]vai (nrevBovras. ov
aXXa Trporepov ayitco? 76 TT&)? Trapfjye TreWwv
Trepl avrov aTpe^elv o HofiTrrjios' eVet Be /nerd
rrjv fjid^i> 6 Kaicrap VTTO TWV diropiMV a^acrra?
eftdBi^e Si' 'AOa/jidvwv et? erraXtai^, OVKCTL

3 Ka9eKTov rjv TO <f)povr)/jLa rcov dvBpcov, d\\d

(frevyeiv Kaicrapa fto&vres ol [lev aKo\ov0elv KOI
Biu>Kiv Ke\evov, ol Be Biafiatveiv et? '
ol Be OepaTrovras et? 'Pco/jLrjv Kal (f)i\ov<; e

ov^ eyyvs dyopas to? av-
eOe\ovral Be 7ro\\ol TT/OO?

KopvrjXiav eTrkeov et? Aeafiov evay<ye\i,6fievoi.
e%eiv rov TroKe^ov e/cet yap avri^v vjre^e-
v o TIofjLTnj'ios.

' A.6poia0eiarj<f Be ySouXr}? 'A^/?a^to? f^ev ajre-
iveTO yvw/jLrjv e%eo-Qai rfjs 'IraXta?, Tavrrjv yap
ivai TOV 7ro\e/jLov TO fiieyiaTOv [email protected]\ov, Trpoari-
286



POMPEY, LXV. 5-Lxvi. 4

victory would have been with the enemy if they
had had a victor in command."

LXVI. At this success the followers of Pompey
were so elated that they were eager to have the
issue decided by a battle. Pompey, however, al-
though he wrote to distant kings and generals and
cities in the tone of a victor, feared the risk of such
a battle, thinking that by imposing delays and
distresses upon them he would finally subdue men
who were invincible in arms and had been accus-
tomed to conquer together now for a long time, but
who for the other duties of a campaign, such as long
marches, changes of position, the digging of trenches,
and the building of walls, were incapacitated by old
age, and therefore eager to come to close quarters
and fight hand to hand without delay. Notwith-
standing their over-confidence. Pompey had hitherto
somehow or other succeeded in inducing his followers
to keep quiet ; but when after the battle Caesar
was compelled by his lack of supplies to break
camp and march through Athamania into Thessaly,
their spirits could no longer be restrained, but, cry-
ing out that Caesar was in flight, some of them were
for following in pursuit of him, others for crossing-
over into Italy, and others were sending their
attendants and friends to Rome in order to pre-
occupy houses near the forum, purposing at once to
become candidates for office. Many, too, of their

/ *

own accord sailed to Cornelia in Lesbos with the
glad tidings that the war was at an end ; for Pompey
had sent her there for safety.

/

A senate having been assembled, Afranius gave it
as his opinion that they should make sure of Italy,
for Italy was the greatest prize of the war, and



287



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



devat, Be rot? Kparovaiv ev0i><>

Y^vpvov, 'Iftrjpiav, Ya\aTiav aTracrav 77? re

o \6yos TIojuLTnjia) TraTpiBos opeyovcrrj^
eyyvOev, ov *raXw? e^eLv Trepiopav TTpoirrj-

Kal SovXevovaav oi/ceVat? teal
5 rvpdvvwv. atTO? Be IIoyLtTr^to? ovre vrpo?
KCL\OV aura) &6VTepav (pvyrjv <$

8ia)Kecr0ai, T}? Tu^>7? Stw/ceLV St-
&ovo"r]<;, ovre oaiov eyKaraXiTreiv ^Ki]7riwva KOI
irepi rrjv 'EXA,aSa /cat erraXtai^ av&pas
, evQvs VTTO Kcticrapi 76^^0-0/^6^01/9
Kal bwdfjietov fjLjd\a)p, TT}? Se '



TOV

Trepl avrr)$, OTTW? airaBr]^ KCUCWV ovaa KOI dvrj-
/eoo? Trepifievy TOV Kparovvra.

LXVII. Taura tyr)(j)tcrdfj,evo<; e&io&fce Kalcrapa,
/jid%ij$ pels eyva)KQ)s aTre^eaOai, 7ro\iopKeiv Be
Kal Tpifteiv rat? d-rropiais eyyvOev e7raKO\ov0wv.
Kal ydp aXXco? ravra <rv/ji(f)6peii> rjjelro, Kal
\6yos Tt9 i? avTOV YIKCV ev TO?? liTTrevai cfrepo-
IJLGVOS, a)? p^p^ rd^KTra rp6i]ra/j,vovs KatVapa
2 crvyKaraXveiv Kaicelvov avrov. evioi Be
Bid TOVTO Kal Kdrcovi fnjBev aiov crTrovBfjs
aaadau TlofMTrijiov, aXXa Kal iropevo/jLevov eVt
TT/OO? 6a\dcrar) Kara\i7reiv 7rl TT}?
a /jLrj Ka/o~a/9o? dvaipeOev-

TO? dvayKaar) KCLKZIVOV evBvs d7TO0ecr6ai TYJV
ovro) Be 7rapaKo\ov0wv drpe/jia TO??
rjv Kal Ka-ra^orjcrecnv a)$ ov

KatVapa Karacrr parrjy wv, d\\d T^V irarpiBa Kal
288



POMPEY, LXVI. 4-Lxvn. 2

would at once put also into the hands of her masters
Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Spain, and all Gaul ; and
since his native land, which was of the greatest
concern to Pompey, stretched out suppliant hands
to him close by, it was not right to allow her to be
enslaved and insulted by servants and flatterers of

/

tyrants. Pompey himself, however, thought it
neither well for his own reputation to run away
a second time from Caesar and to be pursued by
him, when fortune made him the pursuer, nor right
before Heaven to abandon Scipio and the men of
consular rank in Thessaly and Hellas, who would
at once come into the power of Caesar together with
their moneys and large forces ; but that he cared
most for Rome who fought for her at the farthest
remove, in order that she might neither suffer nor
hear about any evil, but quietly await her master.

LXVI I. Having decided the matter in this way,
Pompey set out in pursuit of Caesar, determined to
avoid a battle, but to keep him under siege and
harass him with lack of supplies by following close
upon him. He had reasons for thinking this the
best course, and besides, a saying current among the
cavalry reached his ears, to the effect that as soon as
they had routed Caesar they must put down Pompey
himself also. And some say this was also the reason
why Pompey called upon Cato for no service of any
importance, but even when marching against Caesar
left him at the coast in charge of the baggage,
fearing lest, if Caesar should be taken off, he him-
self also might be forced by Cato to lay down his
command at once. While he was thus quietly
following the enemy he was loudly denounced, and
charges were rife that he was directing his campaign,
not against Caesar, but against his country and the

289



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

rrjv /3ov\ijv, OTTO)? Bid Travrb? dpxy ,/cal
Travcnjrai TO 9 d^iovai rr}9 ol/covpevijs
3 xpwpevos vTrrjperais Kal Bopvcfropois.

Be avrbv 'Aiiv6/[email protected] 'A<ya/ue/j,vova tca\a)v teal
/3acn\ea fia<Ti\ewv e7ri<p&ovov
TITTOV r)v dtj&rjs rwv

V TO) (TKWTTreiV, ""AvflpCOTTOl," /9oW2',



" ou8e Tr}Te? carat ro)V ev Tovo-fcXdvu) crvfcwv
//,6Ta\a/3et/' ; " ACVKIOS 8e 'Ac^awo? o ra? ev 651

&vvdfjit,<; aTroftaXwv eV atria
s, rare 6"e rov Tlo/jLinjiov opwv
ovvra, Oav/jid^eiv e\j6 rou? Kartyyopovvras avrov,
7T/309 rov /Ji7ropov rwv eTTap^iwv ov



Tavra teal rd roiavra iroXXd \eyovres dv&pa
So^?;? tfrrova real rr}9 7T/909 rovs <f>l\oifls aiSovs
rov YIo/JLTrrjiov e^e^Laaavro KOI avverrea'Trda'avro
rat9 eavrwv eXTritri teal opfjials 7raKo\ov0rj<rai,
7rpofjivov TOU9 dpiarovs \oyicr JJLOVS, orrep ovSe
Tr\oiou Kvfiepvrfry, fjLijnye 1 roaovrcov eOvwv KOL
SvvdfjiQ)V avrorcpdropi crrparrfyq) rraOelv fjv Trpocr-
5 f)Kov. 6 Be ra)v fiev larpwv rovs fMjBtTrore
rat9 eTTiOv/jiLais ercrjvecrev, avrbs Be
vocrovvri T7}9 o-rpanas eveBoj/ce, Beiaas ejrl
\VTrr)pbs yeveaQai. 7TC09 yap dv ns
vyiaiveiv e/ceivovs rou9 dvBpas, a>v ol
vjrareias ijBrj KOI (rrpanjyias ev r<w arparo-
rrepivocrrovvres e/jivwvro, ^TTLvOijpi Be /cal



KOi



rjcrav /cal <f)i\oveifelat KOL
6 8e^tcocrei9; axnrep avrois Tiypdvov rov ^



Bekker reads p.^roiyc, with C.
290






POMPEY, LXVII. 2-6

senate, in order that he might always be in office
and never cease to have for his attendants and guards
men who claimed to rule the world. Domitius
Ahenobarbus, too, by calling him Agamemnon, and
King of Kings, made him odious. And Favonius
was no less displeasing to him than those who used
a bolder speech, when he bawled out his untimely
jest : " O men, this vear, also, shall we eat no fiars of

' O

Tusculum ? ' And Lucius Afranius, who lay under
a charge of treachery for having lost his forces in
Spain, 1 on seeing Pompey now avoiding a battle with
Caesar, said he was astonished that his accusers did
not go forth and fight this trafficker in provinces.

With these and many similar speeches they forced
Pompey from his settled purpose, a man who was a
slave to fame and loath to disappoint his friends,
and dragged him into following after their own
hopes and impulses, abandoning his best laid plans,
a thing which even in the master of a ship, to say
nothing of a general in sole command of so many
nations and armies, would have been unbecoming.
Pompey himself approved of those physicians who
never gratify the morbid desires of their patients,
and yet he yielded to the diseased passion of his
followers, for fear of offending if he tried to heal and
save them. For how can one say that those men were
sound and well, some of whom were already going
about among the soldiers and canvassing for consul-
ships and praetorships, while Spinther, Domitius,
and Scipio were quarrelling, scheming, and conspir-
ing over the pontificate of Caesar, 2 just as though
Tigranes the Armenian were encamped over against

1 He was accused of taking a bribe from Caesar for the
purrendcr of the Spains (see the Cae*ar, xli. 2).

2 Since 03 u c., Caesar had been pontifex maximus. Cf.
Bell. Civ. iii. 83.

291



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

7rapa<TTpaT07re$evovTo<$ rj TOV NaftaTaiwv j3a-
crfXect)?, aXX* ov Kai'crapo? eiceivov KOI TT}? Svvd-
/jLeo)<; fi %i\ia<i fjiev I'prj/cei 7roXe/9 Kara /cpdros,
eQvr) Se TrXeiova TpiaKoaiwv vrr^KTO,



fcal Ta\,drais ueaLte^o? a?;TT?;TO9 ocra?



apiO fjLr)(rai yita^a? CKCITOV
eXafter, e/carov 8e direKreive



K

LXVIII. 'AXX' o/ift)? eyKi/j,voi KCU 6opv-
eVel KaTeftrfcrav et9 TO <&apcrd\iov
LOV, r)vd*yKacrav /3ov\rjv TrpoOelvai TOV HO/JL-
Trrjlov, ev y Ka(Birjvo<$ 6 TMV iTnrecov a



7T/3&)TO9 vaGTas M/jLOcre /Jir) va%wpi(reiv etc
el tr reairo TOU9 iTO\jiiov^' ra



2 avTa fcal Trdvres wfjuvvaav. rrj<; 8e VVKTO? e
Kara TOU9 VTTVOVS IToyLt7r7;fc09 et9 TO Beaipov
elffiovro? avrov Kporelv TOV Sr//jLOv, avros 8e
Kocr/jLelv lepov ^A^poSurr]^ VLK^OOOV 7roXXofc9
\a<j)vpois. KOI ra /Jiv eOdppei, rd Se vrredpaTTev
avTov f) o-v|rt9, Se&oi/coTa /nrj TW yevet 'TW Katcra/909



/col



a?r' avTov yfvrjTUt' KCU rraviKOi Tives Oopvftoi,



3 iaTToi/T9 eave&Trcrav avTov.






TOV KatVayo9 (TTaTGireBov TTO\-






TOVTOV Xa/A7ra9 dp6el(ra <p\oyoi&r)<; eVt TO x ITo/i-
KaT<7Krj^lre' Kal TOVTO Ibeiv <f)Tjcn Kaicrap
CTTIMV Ta9 (j)v\afcd^. d/jia Be ?}/xepa ^eX-
avTov rrpbs ^/coTovaav dva^evyvveiv KOL

TMV (TTpaTLWTWV KCtOaipOVVTCOV Kal

VTro^vyia Kal OepdrrovTas, TJKOV ol
(TKorrol (frpd^ovTes orr\a TroXXa xaOopav ev TM

1 ^TTJ rb Coraes and Bekker, after Reiske :
292



POMPEY, LXVII. 6-Lxvm. 3

them, or the king of the Nabataeans, and not that
Caesar, and that army, who had taken by storm a
thousand cities, subdued more than three hundred
nations, and fought unvanquished with Germans and
Gauls in more battles than one could number, taking
a hundred times ten thousand prisoners, and slaying
as many, : after routing them on the battle-field.

LXVIII. But notwithstanding, by their importuni-
ties and agitations, after they had gone down into
the plain of Pharsalia, they forced Pompey to hold a
council of war, where Labienus, the commander of
the cavalry, rose first and took an oath that he would
not come back from the battle unless he routed the
enemy ; then all likewise swore the same oath.
That night Pompey dreamed that as he entered his
theatre the people clapped their hands, and that he
decorated a temple of Venus Victrix with many
spoils. On some accounts he was encouraged, but
on others depressed, by the dream ; he feared lest
the race of Caesar, which went back to Venus, was
to receive glory and splendour through him ; and
certain panic tumults which went rushing through
the camp roused him from sleep. Furthermore,
during the morning watch a great light shone out
above the camp of Caesar, which was perfectly quiet,
and a flaming torch rose from it and darted down
upon the camp of Pompey ; Caesar himself says he
saw this as he was visiting the watches. 1 At break
of day, Caesar was about to decamp and move to
Scotussa, and his soldiers were taking down their
tents and sending on ahead the beasts of burden and
servants, when the scouts came in with a report that
they saw many shields moving to and fro in the

1 Cf. the Caesar, xliii. 3. It is not mentioned in the
Commentaries.

293



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



TWV Troejiwv iaeojieva, KOI



elvai /col 6bpv(3ov avBpwv eVl

4 /jLTa Be TOVTOVS erepoi Traprj&av els rd^iv ij
Kadicrraa-Oai TOU? TrpatTovs Xeyo^Te?. o fj,ev ovv
Kaicra/3 LTTU>V rrjv 7rpocrSoKa)fj.vr)v rjKeiv ij.uepav,
ev TI 7T/305 avSpas, ov vrpo? \ifjiov ovBe Treviav
fjia^ovvTaL, Kara ra^o? Trpo r/}? crKtjvrjs ^K\V(re
TTpoOelvcii TOV (froiviKovv %iTwva' TOVTO yap

5 /jLci^rjs 'Pw^atoi? ecrrt ai>fji^o\ov. ol Be arpa-

0aa'dfjLVOi jjieTCi /3orjs /cal %apas ra?
d(j)evTS effrepovro Trpo? ra orr\a. Kal
x&v dyovrcov els fyv eSei rd^iv, KCL<T-
TO?, WGTrep xopos, dvev Oopvfiov /teyLteXeT^eVfy?
et? rdfyv l Kal irpaws KaQicrTaTO.

LXIX. HofJLTrrjios Se TO i^ev 8eioi> auro? e^cov
e/ji\\v dvOia-racrOai Trpos 'AvTcovtov, Iv Be rco
yLteVft) ^KrjTTLdjva TOV TrevOepov dvrera^e K.a\/3iva>
AevKLw, TO Be GVOOVV/JLOV ei% /j,ev AevKios Aoyite-

2 rios, eppu>a6ri Be rw 7r\r)0ei TWV iTTTrewv. evravOa
yap 6\[yov Belv aTravres eppwjcrav w? KatVa/oa 65
jBiaa-o/JLevoL Kal TO BeKarov rdy/jia BiaKoifrovres,

ov TrXetcrTO? i]v o \6yo<$ &)? fjua^i/moyrdTov, /cal
Kalcrap ev eKeivw rarrojuievos eiwOei fMa^e
Kari&cov Be 7re(f)pay/jLevov ILTTTTW roaavTij
TO ev(i)vvfjiov, Kal <f)O/3rj0els rr/v
TOV OTrXtcrytiou, fJieTeirefji'^raTO (TTreipas
TOW eTTir^iy/jidTcov Kal KaTefTTrjaev

3 roO BeKaTov, K\vcras rjav^iai ayeiv dBr]\ov<?
rot? TToXcytuot? ovTas' OTav Be Trpocrekavvwcnv ol
iTTTrels, Bt,a TWV TT po fjni^wv eKBpa/uovras /AT) irpoe-
cruaL TOW? vcrcrovs, wcnrep GiwOacnv ol

1 (Is rdiv bracketed by Bekker.
294



POMPEY, LXVIII. 3-LXix. 3

enemy's camp, and that there was a noisy movement
there of men coining out to battle. After these,
others came announcing that the foremost ranks
were already forming in battle array. Caesar, there-

J O /

fore, after saying that the expected day had come,
on which they would fight against men, and not
against want and hunger, quickly ordered the purple
tunic to be hung up in front of his tent, that being
the Roman signal for battle. His soldiers, on seeing
this, left their tents with shouts of joy, and hurried
to arms. And when their officers led them to the
proper place, each man, as if in a chorus, not tu-
rn ultuously, but with the quiet ease which training
gives, fell into line.

LXIX. Pompey himself, with the right wing,
intended to oppose Antony ; in the centre he sta-
tioned Scipio, his father-in-law, over against Lucius
Calvinus ; his left wing was commanded by Lucius
Domitius, and was supported by the main body of
the cavalry. 1 For almost all the horsemen had
crowded to this point, in order to overpower Caesar
and cut to pieces the tenth legion ; for this was
generally said to fight better than any other, and in
its ranks Caesar usually stood when he fought a
battle. But Caesar, observing that the left wing of
the enemy was enclosed by such a large body of
horsemen, and alarmed at their brilliant array, sent
for six cohorts from his reserves and stationed them
behind the tenth legion, with orders to keep quiet
and out of the enemy's sight ; but whenever the
cavalry charged, they were to run out through the
front ranks, and were not to hurl their javelins, as

1 Both Plutarch (not only here, but also in his Caesar,
xliv. 1 f.) and Appiain/>'eM. Cir. ii. 7(3) differ in their accounts
of the order of battle from that which Caesar himself gives
(Befl. C't>: iii. 88 f.).

2 95



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



crTrevBovre? eVl ra9 ^upovXtcias, aXXa Traieiv avco
crvvTiTpcoffrcovTas ojjLfjLa-ra KOI TrpocrcoTra rcov
7ro\/jLiO)V ov yap pevelv rou? KCL\OU$ TOVTOVS
KCU av&rjpofa Tru/o/or^o-Ta? Bia rov
e"fyeiv 77/009 TOZ> criBijpov ev
eV rovrois fJLev ovv 6 Kataap rjv.

4 'O 8e Tlo/jiTnJLOS dfi ILTTTTOV rrjv

co? ewpa rou? JJLZV dvrnrakovs
roi' Kaipov ev rd^ei Trpoa-jAevovTas

ttUTft) (TTpCLTiaS TO 7T\l(TTOV OVK flTpe/jLOVV,

d\\a Kvpaivov aTreipia KCLI Oopvftovjjievov, efteicre
firj SiaaTraaOfj iravidnracjiv ev dp^fj TT}?
teal 7rapdyye\fJ,a rot? TTporeraj/^evoi,^
ecrrwra? ev TrpojSoXfj KOI /JLCVOVTCIS dpapoTws Be-

5 %ecrdai rou? TroAe/uoi"?. o Be Kaicra/3 alridrat,
TO crrparijyijijia TOVTO' TWV re <yap TrKrjywv rov

rovov dfjLavpw&ai, teal TTJV /iid\i(TTa
TroXXoi;? ev TW o-v/jL^epeaOai rot?

v0ovcriacr/j,ov KOI (f)opd$

criv, dfj.a Kpawyfj KOI Bpo/jia) TOV OV/AOV av^ovaav,
d<j)\6vTa Trrj^ai KOI Kara^v^ai TOU?
r)0~av Be ol fJLev fierd Katcra/oo? Bi,a-%L\i,oi,
, 01 Be pera YIo/nTrrjiov ftpa^el



r) $nr\dcnoi TOVTWV.



LXX. "Ho"?; Be (TvvO^jJLaTO^ BiBo/j,evov Trapa
Tepwv KOL TT}? rTaX7Ti770? dp%o/Aevr)<> ey/ce-

296



POMPRY, LXIX. 3-Lxx. i

the best soldiers usually did in their eagerness to
draw their swords, but to strike upwards with them
and wound the faces and eyes of the enemy ; for
these blooming and handsome war-dancers (he said)
would not stand their ground for fear of having
their youthful beauty marred, nor would they face
the steel when it was right at their eyes. Caesar,
then, was thus engaged.

But Pompey, who was surveying on horseback
the battle array, when he saw that his antagonists
were standing quietly in their ranks and awaiting
the moment of attack, while the greater part of his
own army was not at rest, but tossing about in
waves of tumult, owing to its inexperience, was
afraid that his array would be completely broken up
at the beginning of the battle, and therefore ordered
his front ranks to stand with their spears advanced,
to remain fixed in their places, and so to receive the
enemy's onset. Now, Caesar finds fault with these
tactics l ; he says that Pompey thereby robbed the
blows of his weapons of that impetus which a rapid
charge would have given them ; and as for that
rushing counter-charge, which more than any thing-
else fills most soldiers with impetuous enthusiasm as
they close with their enemies, and combines with
their shouts and running to increase their courage,
Pompey deprived his men of this, and so rooted
them to the spot where they stood, and chilled their



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