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away into abuse of one another with " frightful
words," 1 if he had not thought the general interests
likely to profit by the mutual rivalry and quarrelling
of the chieftains. This principle, however, must not
be accepted without some reservations ; for excessive
rivalries are injurious to states, and productive of
great perils.

VI. Agesilaiis had but recently come to the
throne, when tidings were brought from Asia that the
Persian king was preparing a great armament with
which to drive the Lacedaemonians from the sea.
Now, Lysander was eager to be sent again into Asia,
and to aid his friends there. These he had left
governors and masters of the cities, but owing to
their unjust and violent conduct of affairs, they
were being driven out by the citizens, and even put
to death. He therefore persuaded Agesilaiis to
undertake the expedition and make war in behalf of

1 Odytsey, viii. 75 ff.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



f EX\a<)o9, dfrwrdrw Btaftdvra Kal <j)dd<ravra rrjv

2 rov ftapfidpov TrapacrKevjjv. dfia Be rot? eV

Aaia (f)i\,ois eVecrreXXe 7re/j,7reiv et9 AaKeBai/j-ova

KCU o~rparrjybv 'AyrjaiXaov alrelvOai. 7rape\-



ovv 49 TO



TOV iroXe/jLOV, el Soiev avra> rpiaKovra fjiev 7776-
(j-ovas KCU (rv/ji/3ov\ovs ^TrapTidras, veo&a/Aoo&eis
Be \oydBas Bicr%i\iovs, rrjv Be (TVfJL^a'^iK^v et?
3 egaKicrxiXiovs Svva/uv. crv/ATrpdrTOVTOS Be rov
AvtrdvBpov Trdvra TrpoOvjjLws e\ffrj(f)i,a'avTo ) /cat
rov 'A<yrjai\aov eifeTre/jLTrov ev0v<$ l e^ovra TOU?
TpiaKovra ^iraprLaTa^, wv o AvcravBpos tjv TT/OW-
To?, 2 ou Bia ri]v eavrov S6av Kal Bvva/xiv JAOVOV,
d\\a Kal Bia



i rrjv
crrparrjyiav eKeivyv.

4 *A0poi%ofjiv?i<; Be T?}? SvvdfjLCi)<; et? Tepaicrrov,

Av\iBa Kare\9odv /zera TWV <^i\wv
i WKTepevcras eBo^e Kara rou? VTTTOVS elirelv
riva 7T/00? avrov " 7 H /3acrt,\ev AaKe^aL^oviutv, 599
OTL IJLGV ovBels r^? 'EXXaSo9 Q/JLOV arv{M7rd(rr)s dire-
Bei%0rj (TTpaniyos rj irpoTepov *A<ya/ae/j,vo)V Kal crv
vvv yuer' eKeivov, evvoels BrjjrovOev eirel Be TWV ^kv
avrwv ap%is CKeivq), rot9 Be ai)Tol<$ 7ro7y.e//.6t9, cnro
Be rwv avrwv TOTTWV opjjiqs ejrl rov rro\.e^ov, etVo9
e&n Kal Ovaai <re rfj 6ew Ovaiav r)v eKeivos ev-

5 rai>6a Bvaas ej;e7r\ev(rev" d/na Be TTWS vjrrfkOe



rov yr](raov o Tr9 Kop^ a->ayia(Tp,os, jv o

ov

f cvOvs MSS. : ^ire/jLTTov after Reiske.
8 irpwTos S : evdvs irpwros.



AGESILAUS, vi. 1-5

Hellas, proceeding to the farthest point across the
sea, and thus anticipating the preparations of the
Barbarian. At the same time he wrote to his friends
in Asia urging them to send messengers to Sparta
and demand Agesilaiis as their commander. Accord-
ingly, Agesilaiis went before the assembly of the
people and agreed to undertake the war if they
would grant him thirty Spartans as captains and
counsellors, a select corps of two thousand enfran-
chised Helots, and a force of allies amounting to six
thousand. They readily voted everything, owing to
the co-operation of Lysander, and sent Agesilaiis
forth at once with the thirty Spartans. Of these
Lysander was first and foremost, not only because of
his own reputation and influence, but also because of
the friendship of Agesilaiis, in whose eyes his
procuring him this command was a greater boon than
his raising him to the throne.

While his forces were assembling at Geraestus, 1
Agesilaiis himself went to Aulis with his friends and
spent the night. As he slept, he thought a voice came
to him, saying : " King of the Lacedaemonians, thou
art surely aware that no one has ever been appointed
general of all Hellas together except Agamemnon.
in former times, and now thyself, after him. And
since thou commandest the same hosts that he did,
and wagest war on the same foes, and settest out for
the war from the same place, it is meet that thou
shouldst sacrifice also to the goddess the sacrifice
which he made there before he set sail." Almost at
once Agesilaiis remembered the sacrifice of his own

O

daughter' 2 which Agamemnon had there made in

<3 o

obedience to the soothsayers. He was not disturbed,

1 fn the spring of 396 B.C.

2 Iphigeneia. Cf. Euripides, Iph. Aid, 1540 ff. (Kin-lihoH).



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

avTov, aX\ dvacrras KOI
rot? (tXo? TO, (fravevTa rrjv p,ev Oeov

TLfJbY)(TLV O9 GIKOS (TTL ^CiipeiV 6 GOV OlHTaV, OV

/,iifjitj(TO'0ai 8e Trjv dirdOeiav l TOV rore

yov. KOL ffaracTre'^a^ eXacfrov eKekevaev d

crOai TOV eavrov /JLCLVTIV, ov% axnrep elwOei, rovro

6 TTOieiV O V7TO TO)V BoiCOTWZ^ T6Tay/~lVO<$. aKOV(7aVTS

ovv 01 fioiwrdp^ai TT/OO? opytjj' KivrjOevres e
"fyav vTrrjperas, airayopevovTes T&> ^
Oveiv Trapa TOL>? vo^ovs KOI ra Trdrpia Boio>TO)7>.
ol Se Kal ravra dTreiXav Kal TO,



a7ro TOV /3a)/jLov. ^aXcTrw? ovv G^WV o
aTrevrXet, rot? re @77/3at'o9 Siwpyia -
Kal yeyovcos Bvcre\7ri^ Sia TOV olwvov, 009
avTfo TWV Trpd^erov yevrjcro^evcov xai TT}?
crr/oareta? eVi TO Tcpoar)KOv OVK d(j)i^o/jLvrj^.

VII. 'E?ret Se r^Kev ei? "Ec^ecroz', ev&vs ajfi&fia
/j,eya Kal ^vva/jits rjv eTca^Orj^ Kal ftapela Trepl TOV
A.vaav8pov, o^\ov ^oirco^TO? eVt ra? Ovpas e/cacr-
rore Kal TrdvTwv 7rapaKO\ov0ovvTCi)v Kal Oepa-

TTCVOVTWV KIVOV, CO? OVOfJLa /jiV Kal O"%f]/jia T^?

TOV 'Ayr}(ri\aov e%ovTa, 2 Sia TOV
, epyw Be Kvpiov ovTa 3 dirdvTwv Kal Svvd-
fievov Kal TrpaTTcvTa Trdvra TOV A.vcravo'pov.
2 ovcels yap SeivoTepos ovBe ^o/^epcore/oo?
Trjv Ao~iav d7roa~Ta\ei'Ta)v eyeve
ov&e jjiei^ova TOU? ^tXou? dvrjp aXXo?
evepyTrj(7i' ou8e Katca TrjXiKavTa TOL/? e^Opovs

TTOirj(JV. MV GTl 7TpO(T(f)aTa)V OVTCOV OL dvO pWTTOL



S and Amyot : ajuc^Biav (stupidity).
Coraes, after Reiske :
3 Kvpiov ovra Reiske :



\6



AGESILAUS, vi. 5-vn. 2

however, but after rising up and imparting his vision
to his friends, declared that he would honour the
goddess with a sacrifice in which she could fitly take
pleasure, being a goddess, and would not imitate the
cruel insensibility of his predecessor. So he caused
a hind to be wreathed with chaplets, and ordered
his own seer to perform the sacrifice, instead of the
one customarily appointed to this office bv the
Boeotians. Accordingly, when the Boeotian magis-
trates heard of this, they were moved to anger, and
sent their officers, forbidding Agesilaiis to sacrifice
contrary to the laws and customs of the Boeotians.
These officers not only delivered their message, but
also snatched the thigh-pieces of the victim from the
altar. 1 Agesilaiis therefore sailed away in great
distress of mind ; he was not only highly incensed at
the Thebans, but also full of ill-boding on account of
the omen. He was convinced that his undertakings
would be incomplete, and that his expedition would
have no fitting issue.

VII. As soon as he came to Ephesus, the great
dignity and influence which Lysander enjoyed were
burdensome and grievous to him. The doors of
Lysander were always beset with a throng, and all
followed in his train and paid him court, as though
Agesilaiis had the command in name and outward
appearance, to comply with the law, while in fact
Lysander was master of all, had all power, and did
everything. 2 In fact, none of the generals sent out
to Asia ever had more power or inspired more fe;ir
than he ; none other conferred greater favours on his
friends, or inflicted such great injuries upon his
enemies. All this was still fresh in men's minds, and

1 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. iii. 4, o f.

2 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. iii. 4, 7.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Be TOV /Jiev 'A<yr)(ri\aoi

,fj KOI \LTOV ei> rat? o/jiiXiais KOI ^/JLOTLKOV
opwvres, e/ceivq) Be rt]V avri]v 6//oi&)9 ax^oopor^Ta
/cal rpa^vr^ra teal ftpa^vXayiav rrapovaav,
VTreiriTTTOv avro) TravraTraai KOI /JLOVW irpocrel-^ov.
3 e/c 5e rovrov irpwrov [lev ol \onrol ^Trapridrai
^aXeTrw? efapov vTrrjperai AvcravSpov /j,a\\ov rj
(TVfi/3ov\oi, /3acriXea)9 6Vre?' eTretra S' auro? o
'A7??crtXao9, el teal /JLTJ fyOovepos fjv /jb^Be rj^Oero
rot? TL/jLW/Lievot.^, a\\a <j)i\.oTifjiOS wv cr(f)6Bpa tcai



, tcav



a



, rovro AvadvSpov ^evi]Tai Sid rrjv



ovv



4 UpwTOV dvTexpove rat? (Tu/uL/3ov\ia^ avrov,
/ecu 7T/309 a? Kivo<i ecTTTovSdfcei pd\i<JTa Trpd^eis
ewv %aipeiv teal TrapajueXcov, erepa Trpo etceivwv
eTrparrev eVetra T&V evrvy^avovrwv /cal Beo-
01)9 ai&OoiTO AvadvBpw /j,d\iara
dirpdtcTovs ttTTCTre^Tre' tcdi Trepl ra9
0*9 etcelvos eTnjped^oi, TOUTOVS e
direX-Qeiv, teal rovravriov ou9



rjv
5 /cal jiiw&rvai. ivovwv Be TOVTCOV ov Kara



oov etc TrapacrKevrj? tea
ai<T06/jLi>os TIJV alriav 6 AvaavBpos OVK
fCpvTTTero 777309 TOL/9 (f)L\ovs, aXX' eXeyev &>9 Bi
avrov dri/j,doivTO, /cal Trape/cdXei Oepaireveiv
iovras TOV /SacrtXea teal rou9 /j,a\\ov avrov



VIII. C fl9 ovv ravra Trpdrreiv /cal
eBo/cei (f)06vov eiceivti) fjirij^avw^evo^, en /j,d\\ov
avTOv KaOd-^raaOai /3oiAoyu,ei'09 'A r /7;crtA.ao9 dire-



18



AGESILAUS, vii. 2 vni. i

besides, when they saw the simple, plain, and familiar
manners of Agesilaiis, while Lysander retained the
same vehemence and harshness, and the same brevity
of speech as before, they yielded to the latter's in-
fluence altogether, and attached themselves to him
alone. As a consequence of this, in the first place,
the rest of the Spartans were displeased to find them-
selves assistants of Lysander rather than counsellors
of the king ; and, in the second place, Agesilaiis him-
self, though he was not an envious man, nor displeased
that others should be honoured, but exceedingly ambi-
tious and high-spirited, began to fear that any brilliant
success which he might achieve in his undertakings
would be attributed to Lysander, owing to popular
opinion. He went to work, therefore, in this way.

To begin with, he resisted the counsels of Lysander,
and whatever enterprises were most earnestly favoured
by him, these he ignored and neglected, and did other
things in their stead ; again, of those who came to
solicit favours from him, he sent away empty-handed
all who put their chief confidence in Lysander ; and
in judicial cases likewise, all those against whom
Lysander inveighed were sure to come off victorious,
while, on the contrary, those whom he was manifestly
eager to help had hard work even to escape being
fined. These things happened, not casually, but as
if of set purpose, and uniformly. At last Lysander
perceived the reason, and did not hide it from his
friends, but told them it was on his account that they
were slighted, and advised them to go and pay their
court to the king, and to those more influential with
him than himself.

VIII. Accordingly, since his words and acts
seemed contrived to bring odium upon the king,
Agcsilaiis, wishing to despite him still more,

19



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



real TTpoaeLTrev, o>9 Xeyerav,



aKOVovTOiV " Nu^ ovv



2 OVTOL amovres TOV /nbv KpeoSaiTrjv"

ovv o Ava'avo'pos \eyei TT/OO? aiirov " "LUSe/9 apa
cra(/>a>9, 'A<y?7<nXae, ^/Xou? eXarrovv" "N^ At', ' 60



real o Aucra^Spo?, " 'AXX' t'crco?," e'</>?;,
crot \e\KTai fieXriov TJ e/Jiol TreTrpafcrat. So?
fjiOi TLva rd<~LV KOI j(u>pav ev6a
3 aoi ^p7;criyLto?." e/c rovrou

/cat ^TTiOpLSaT^v, ai>8pa






real Sia/cocriayv i7nT(i)i> tfyaye TT/OO? TOV
'Ayr}a-i\aov, OVK \rjye Se TT}? opyfjs, aXXa ^a-
yoea>? (fiepcov rf&rj TOV \OLTTOV ^povov eftovXeuev
OTTO)? TWV Bvelv OLKWV TrjV (3a<n\Lav a
/UL(TOV airaa-iv aTroSoirj



av aTrecrao'ai KLVOTLV K






T?}? $ia(f)0pds, el ^ TrpoTepov
4 Ti]aev et? Bo^coTtav crTpaTeiHTas. oura)9 at
TifjiOL <jbi;cret9 eV ra?9 7roXtTi'at9, TO a'
(j>v\at;d/jLevai, TOV dyaOov /LLGL^OV TO KCLKOV
KOI yap el Av(Tav8pos i]v (popTiKo
V7rep/3d\\(i)v Ty <^tXort/uta TOV Kaipor, OVK rjyvbet,
&iJ7rov06V 'A77;crtXao9 Tepav d/j.efjL7TTOT6pav eVat/-
opOtoatv ovaav dv$po$ evBo^ov KOL <j)i\OTi{iov

TT\11jJifJLe\OVVTO^. dXX' OLK TdVTti) TCtlQzi /JL1JT6

ap%ovTo<? e^ovaiav yvwvai yttJ/re ouro?



ev



IX. 'E-Tm Se



At" Cobet, comparing Xenophon, Hell. iii. 4, 9 :
(/ know hoiv to humble).



2O



AGESILAUS, vni. i-ix. i

appointed him his carver of meats, and once
said, we are told,, in the hearing of many : " Now
then, let these suppliants go off to my carver of
meats and pay their court to him." Lysander, then,
deeply pained, said to him : " I see, Agesilaus, that
thou knowest very well how to humble thy friends."
"Yes indeed," said the king, "those who wish to be
more powerful than I am." Then Lysander said :
"Well, perhaps these words of thine are fairer than
my deeds. Give me, however, some post and place
where I shall be of service to thee, without vexing
thee." l Upon this he was sent to the Hellespont,
and brought over to Agesilaus from the country of
Pharnabazus, Spithridates, a Persian, with much
money and two hundred horsemen. He did not,
however, lay aside his wrath, but continued his
resentment, and from this time on planned how he
might wrest the kingdom from the two royal families,
and make all Spartans once more eligible to it. And
it was thought that he would have brought about a
great disturbance in consequence of this quarrel, had
not death overtaken him on his expedition into
Boeotia. 2 Thus ambitious natures in a common-
wealth, if they do not observe due bounds, work
greater harm than good. For even though Lysander
was troublesome, as he was, in gratifying his am-
bition unseasonably, still, Agesilaiis must surely have
known another and more blameless way of correcting
a man of high repute and ambition when he erred.
As it was, it seems to have been due to the same
passion that the one would not recognize the au-
thority of his superior, nor the other endure the
being ignored by his friend and comrade.

IX. At first Tisaphernes was afraid of Agesilaiis,

1 Cf. Lysander, xxiii. 9. 2 Cf. Lysander, xxiv.-xxviii.

r ii

VOL. V B



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



i? TOP ^A.y^(TL\aov eTronjcraro crTrov&ds, cb?

avrco T? 'EX\rjviSas acrovro^ auro-



{3a(Ti\ecos, varepov
Svva/-iiv LKavrjv e^rfvey/ce TOV iro\e(jiov, acr^Levo^ 6

2 'A7/;o-tXao9 e'Se^aro. TrpoaSoKLa <yap

(TTyoareta?* /cal Seivov rjyelro TOU?
/jivpious ^KBIV eVl OdXairav,
avrol Toaavrdfcis fBaaikea
, avrov Be AafceSai/jLoviwv apyowros ?;<you-
/jiev(i>i> 777? /cal OaXdaaij^ fjLtj&ev epyov ajftov
/jLVij/jDis fyavrjvai TT/JO? rou? r/ EXXr/i/a?.
ovv a /Avvo/jievos aTraTrj BtKaia Trjv

7TlOpKLaV, 7T6$l!;eV ft)? 67Ti KaplCLV

ercel 8e Trjv $vra/Aiv TOV ftapftdpov avvaOpoi-

3 cra^ro? apas ei? Qpwyiav eVe/SaXe. /cat TroXei?
fjiev elXe crv)(yd<$ /cal ^pj^aTcov aQovwv e/cu-
pievcrev, 7ri&eiKW/jLevos rot? <f)i\ois OTI TO
&7reicrd/jivov dSiKeiv rwv 9ewv e

ev Be TW TrapaX.oyi^eo'dai, TOU? TroXe^tou?
p,ovov TO Sifcaiov, aXXa /cat B6a i jro\\rj /cal TO
/j,ed y r)$ovf)<$ Kp$aii>eiv evecrTi. rot? Se LTTTreixnv
e'Xarrw^et? /cal raV lepoxv d\6/3cov (pavevTcov,
els "E<ecroz> LTTTTIKOV crvvriye, rot?
7rpoei7T(*)V, el fjirj (3ov\ovTai (TTpaTevedOai,
eicaGTOV 'LTTTTOV avff' eavrov /cal

4 TroXXot 8' rjcrav OVTOL, /cal crvvefBaive TW '
\day Ta%v TroXXou? /cat TroXe/zt/coi)? eyeiv
a^Tt $ei\wv 07r\iTwv. efJUffdovvTO yap ol
f3ov\bfJievoL GTpaTevcaOai TOU?



22



AGESILAUS, ix. 1-4

and made a treaty in which he promised him to
make the Greek cities free and independent of the
King. Afterwards, however, when he was convinced
that he had a sufficient force, he declared war, and
Agesilaiis gladly accepted it. For he had great ex-
pectations from his expedition, and he thought it
would be a disgraceful thing if, whereas Xenophon
and his Ten Thousand had penetrated to the sea,
and vanquished the King just as often as they
themselves desired, he, in command of the Lace-
daemonians, who had the supremacy on sea and
land, should perform no deed worthy of remem-
brance in the eves of the Hellenes. At once,

V

then, requiting the perjury of Tisaphernes with a
righteous deception, he gave out word that he was
going to lead his troops against Caria ; but when the
Barbarian had assembled his forces there, he set out
and made an incursion into Phrygia. He captured
many cities and made himself master of boundless
treasure, thus shewing plainly to his friends that the
violation of a treaty is contempt for the gods, but
that in outwitting one's enemies there is not only
justice, but also great glory, and profit mixed with
pleasure. However, since he was inferior in cavalry
and his sacrifices were unpropitious, he retired to
Ephesus and began to get together a force of horse-
men, commanding the well to-do, in case they did
not wish to perform military service themselves, to
furnish instead every man a horse and rider. There
were many who chose this course, and so it came
to pass that Agesilaiis quickly had a large force
of warlike horsemen instead of worthless men-at-
arms. 1 For those who did not wish to do military
service hired those who did, and those who did nut

1 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. iii. 4, 15.

23



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

reveadai, ol Be /JLTJ /3ov\6/j,evot iTnreveiv TOU?
@ov\ofjivov<; iTTTrevetv. 1 /cai yap rbv 'Aya/jLe/mvova
TTOir/crai fca\ws OTI 0)j\eiav LTTTTOV dyadyv \a(3u>v
Kdfcbv avBpa real 7r\ovcriov (i7rij\\a^ TT)? crpa-
5 T6UX9. eVel Be Ke^ev&avros avrov roi)? ai%fj,a\co-
rou9 aTroSyo^re? 7rnr pacr KOV OL \a(f)vpo7ra)\ai,

KOI T?}? uej^ eV$r}ro? i)(rav tovrjTal TroXXot, rwi' e

/ \'^ / ^ v

<rci)fj,aT(i)v \evKWV /cai airaKMV 'navrairacfi oia ra?



CTTCDV Kal fjL'r)vos a^Lwv, eVtcTTa? 6 ' Ayr/(Ti\aos,
" OVTOL /AW" elirev, " ols fid^eaOe, TCLVTO, Be



wv



X. Katyooi) Be ovros avuis efjLpa\elv et9 TIJV
yXe/jLiav TrpoeLTrev et9 AvBiav drra^eiv, ovKeri

evravOa rbv Ti(ra<ppvr)v aXX' e/
eavrbv e^Trdrtjae, Bia rrjv efjiTrpocrOev d 1

TCO 'A7?7<TtXa&), Kal vvv yovv avrov
rij<? Ka/?ta9 vop,i^wv ovo"rjs Bvaircrcov 6(

2 TTO\V rw ITTTTIKU) \L7rb/jLevov. 7rel Be, a)? rrpoei-
rrev, o ' AyrjcriXaos r]Kev et9 TO rrepi z^apBet^ TreoLov,

Kara (TTrovBtjv Kel0ev av @or]0eli> b
' Kal rfj rTTTTft) Bie^eXavvwv BtecfrOeipe
TroXXoi'9 rwv draKrws TO TreBiov TcopOovvrwv.

ovv b A r y7/7tXao9 bri Tot9
Trdpecrri TO rce^bv, avry Be T/}9

3 ovBev arreariv, e&Tieva-e Biaya)VLaaa'6ai,. Kal rot?

ircrceixjLV dva^i^a^ TO r rre\raa'TLKbv, e\avveiv
a>9 rd^icrra Kal rfpocrj3d\\iv rots
auT09 Se ei)^u9 TO 1/9 OTrXtra? eirrjye.
yei'O/jLevijs Be rpoirrjs rwv fiapftdpcov 7raKo\ovdij-



. . . i'ir7rei';ej' bracketed by Sintenis 2 and Cobet.
The sentence is wanting in A^ophthey. Lacon. 12 (Morals,
p. 209 b).

2 4



AGESILAUS, ix. 4 -x. 3

wish to serve as horsemen hired those who did.
Indeed, Agesilaiis thought Agamemnon had done
well in accepting a good mare and freeing a cowardly
rich man from military service. 1 And once when, by
his orders, his prisoners of war were stripped of their
clothing and ottered for sale by the venders of booty,
their clothing found many purchasers, but their
naked bodies, which were utterly white and delicate,
owing to their effeminate habits, were ridiculed as
useless and worthless. Then Agesilaiis, noticing,
said : " These are the men with whom you fight,
and these the things for which you fight."

X. When the season again favoured an incursion
into the enemy's country," Agesilaiis gave out that
he would march into Lydia, and this time he was
not trying to deceive Tisaphernes. That satrap, how-
ever, utterly deluded himself, in that he disbelieved
Agesilaiis because of his former trick, and thought
that now, at any rate, the king would attack Caria,
although it was ill-suited for cavalry, and he was far
inferior in that arm of the service. But Agesilaiis,
as he had given out that he would do, marched into
the plain of Sardis, and then Tisaphernes was forced
to hasten thither from Caria with aid and relief; and
riding through the plain with his cavalry, he cut off
many straggling plunderers there. Agesilaiis, ac-
cordingly, reflecting that the enemy's infantry had
not yet come up, while his own forces were complete,
made haste to give battle. He mingled his light-
armed infantry with his horsemen, and ordered them
to charge at full speed and assault the enemy, while
he himself at once led up his men-at-arms. The
Barbarians were put to flight, and the Greeks,

1 Iliad, xxiii. 296 ff.

2 In the spring of 395 B.C.; cf. Xenophon, Hell. iii. 4, 16 fif.

25



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

frames ol f/ EXXr;i'e? \a/3ov TO crrpaTOTreoov
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vavapyav.



AGESILAUS, x. 3-6

following close upon them,, took their camp and slew
many of them. As a result of this battle, the Greeks
could not only harry the country of the King without
fear, but had the satisfaction of seeing due punish-
ment inflicted upon Tisaphernes, an abominable man,
and most hateful to the Greek race. For the Kin<>

O

at once sent Tithraustes after him, who cut off his
head, and asked Agesilaiis to make terms and sail
back home, offering him money at the hands of
envoys. But Agesilaiis answered that it was for his
city to make peace, and that for his own part, he
took more pleasure in enriching his soldiers than in
getting rich himself ; moreover, the Greeks, he said,
thought it honourable to take, not gifts, but spoils,
from their enemies. Nevertheless, desiring to gratify
Tithraustes, because he had punished Tisaphernes,
that common enemy of the Greeks, he led his army
back into Phrygia, taking thirty talents from the
viceroy to cover the expenses of the march.

On the road he received a dispatch-roll from the
magistrates at home, which bade him assume control
of the navy as well as of the army. 1 This was an
honour which no one ever received but Agesilaiis.

O

And he was confessedlv the greatest and most il-

*/ i?

lustrious man of his time, as Theopompus also has
somewhere said, although he prided himself more on
his virtues than on his high command. But in
putting Peisander in charge of the navy at this time,
he was thought to have made a mistake ; for there
were older and more competent men to be had, and
yet he gave the admiralty to him, not out of regard
for the public good, but in recognition of the claims
of relationship and to gratify his wife, who was a sister
of Peisander.

1 Of. Xenophon, Hell. iiL 4, 27 ff.

27



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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