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this matter of the divine ordering of events must be
left without further discussion. 1

LXXVI. After taking on board his wife and his
friends, Pompey went on his way, putting in at
harbours only when he was compelled to get food or
water there. The first city that he entered was
Attaleia in Pamphylia ; there some triremes from
Cilicia met him, soldiers were assembled for him, and
he was surrounded again by senators, sixty of them.
On hearing, too, that his fleet still held together,
and that Cato had taken many soldiers aboard and
was crossing the sea to Africa, he lamented to his
friends, blaming himself for having been forced to
do battle with his land forces, while he made no use
of his navy, which was indisputably superior, and
had not even stationed it at a point where, if
defeated on land, he might have had this powerful
force close at hand by sea to make him a match for
his enemy. And, in truth, Pompey made no greater
mistake, and Caesar showed no abler generalship,

1 Sintenis 2 follows Amyot in including this last sentence
with the words supposed to be spoken by Cratippus : " But
these matters must be left to the ivill of the gods."


ovTO) fjia/cpav aTToo'TrdcraaOaL TT}?

ov y^v aXX' etc TWV TrapovTwv Kpiveiv

TI teal Trpdrreiv dvajKa^o/jievos, eVl ra?

ra? 8' auro? TrepnrXewv jjret,
/cal vavs TT\r)pov. rrjv 6' O^VTTJTO, rov
7ro\fJilov Kal TO ra^o? SeBoiKoos, /JLTJ TrpoavapTrdcrrj

TT? TrapaaKvr}<s CLVTOV e7re(V, ecrKOTrei Kara-
4 (frvyrjv 7rl TW Trapovn teal a


, TWV Be /3aa-i\eiwv avros fj,ev a7T(f)atve
TTJV TldpOcw iKavwraT^v ovcrav ev re TW Trapovrt,
ai Kal Trepiftaheiv <r^)a? dcrffevels ovras,
re pw(rai /cal TrpoTre/Ji^ai /xera
5 Swdfjiews' TWV 8' a\\(0v ol /JLCV et? Aiftwyv

Tp7TOV TrjV <yV(t)/JL1Jl', O(j)dvl $6 TW

fjuiviKov e&oKei rpiwv f]fjiepwv r jr\ovv
airkyovcrav ALJVTTTOV d7ro\i7rovTa Kal


ptro? Trar^coa? vTro^pecov, TIdpQois virof3a\elv 6C
eavrov, aTrtcTTorarft) <yvei, Kal 'Pco/xatw //,ei> d
Kf]^e<jrrj <yevo/jiev(0 rd bevrepa \e<yovra
elvai TWV d\\ci)v prf deXeiv /i??8e TreipdaQai,
6 eKeivov /jLerpioTijTOS, 'Apa-aKrjv Be TroielaOai KV-
piov eavrou TOV /jujBe Kpdcrcrov BwyOevTa ^WI/TO?'
Kal yvvaiKa veav OLKOV TOV S/a/Trtcoyo? et? /3a/o-
/3a/3ou? KOfJil^eiv vftpei Kal a/coXacrta TIJV e^ovaiav
rj y KOLV fjirj TrdOrj, &6%rj 8e

1 His father was Ptolemy Auletes, mentioned in chapter
xlix. 5. He had been restored to his throne in 55 B.C.
through Pompey's influence. The son, Ptolemy Dionysius,


than in removing the battle so far from naval
assistance. However, since he was compelled to
decide and act as best he could under the circum-
stances, he sent messengers round to the cities ; to
some also he sailed about in person, asking for
money and manning ships. But fearing the quick-
ness and speed of his enemy, who might come upon
him and seize him before he was prepared, he began
to look about for a temporary refuge and retreat.
Accordingly, as he deliberated with his followers,
there appeared to be no province to which they
could safely fly, and as for the kingdoms, he himself
expressed the opinion that the Parthian was best
able for the present to receive and protect them in
their weak condition, and later on to strengthen
them and send them forth with a large force ; of the
rest, some turned their thoughts to Africa and Juba.
But Theophanes the Lesbian thought it a crazy
thing for Pompey to decide against Egypt, which
was only three days' sail away, and Ptolemy, who
was a mere youth and indebted to Pompey for
friendship and kindness shown his father, 1 and put
himself in the power of Parthians, a most treacherous
race ; to refuse to take the second place under a
Roman who had been connected with him by
marriage, and to be second to none other, nay, to
refuse even to make trial of that Roman's moder-
ation, but instead to make Arsaces his lord and
master, a thing which even Crassus could not be
made to do while he lived ; and to carry a young
wife, of the family of Scipio, among Barbarians
who measure their power by their insolence and
licentiousness, where, even if she suffer no harm, but

now fifteen years of age, had been left joint ruler of Egypt
with his sister, Cleopatra.



Beivov evTiv eVl rot? 7roir)(rai Bvva/jLevois yevo-
/J<Vrj. TOVTO JAOVOV, w? <pacriv, aTreTpe^re rrjs errl

TOV Ev^pdTfJV 6BoV TLo/jLTrtfioV el'Slj TLS Tl

\oyi,cr IJLOS, d\)C ov%l ^aL^wv etceivijv
rrjv 6&6v.
LXXVII. f ll? S' ow eVtVa fyevyeiv et9

, dva^Oel^ CLTTO Kuvrpou 2,\VKi8i, rpi-
rjpei /jiera rr}? ryvvaiKos (TWV 8' a\\wv 01 /JLCV ev
fia/cpals o/iotw? vavcriv, ol Be ev o\Kacriv a/jua
crv/jL7rape7r\eov\ TO /^ei^ TreXayos SieTrepacrev dcr-
^>aX&)9, 7rv06/nevo$ Se TOV TlroXefAalov ev II 77-
\ov(ri(p KdOfjaQai yttera crryoarta?, 7ro\efjLovvra
Trpbs rrjv aSeX^>/;V, eVet Karecr^e, TT/JOTre/u.'v/ra?

2 (frpdaovra TW /SacrtXet /val Beijao/jievov. 6

ovv riroXe/Aato? ^ KOfJuSy veo?' o 8e Trdvra
SieirtbP rd Trpdy/^ara TloOeivos ijOpotae /3ov\rjv
rwv SvvaT(i)rdra)V' e&vvavro Se /jLeyiffTOV 01)9
e/3ov\ero' KCU \eyew eKeXevcrev rjv e^et
e/cao^TO?. fjv ovv Seivbv Trepl Tlo/ATrijtov
Mdyvov fiov\i>(r0ai HoQeivbv rbv evvov^ov /cal
TOV X.lov, 7rl fJiicrOS) prjTo
dv6L\tjfji/jievov, KOL rbv
opvtyaioTaTOi yap rjaav ev /caTevva-
<7Tat? KCU TiOrjvols rot? aXXot? OVTOL cry/zySouXof.

3 KOI TOLOVTOV SiKCKTTrjpiov ^ij(j)ov TlofATrtjios eV
dytcvpwv Trpocrci) TT}? ^coyoa? aTroaaXevayv Trepie-
/j,vev, ov Kaicrapi. (ra)Tr)plas J(dpiv ov/c TJV d^iov

Twv fjiev ovv aXX&>i> TOCTOVTOV al yv&fJiai 8ie-
crTrjo-av ocrov ol fiev d7re\avv6iv eice\vov, ol Be

4 KaXelv fcdi Be^eadai TOV dvBpa' (B)eooTov Be
BeivoTtjTa \oyov KOI prjTopelav

POMPEY, LXXVI. 6-Lxxvn. 4

is only thought to have suffered harm, her fate is a
terrible one, since she has come into the power of
those who are able to do her harm. This con-
sideration alone, as we are told, diverted Pompey
from journeying to the Euphrates, if indeed it was
longer any calculation of Pompey's, and not rather
an evil genius, that was guiding him on this last

LXXVII. So when it was decided that he should
fly to Egypt, he set sail from Cyprus on a Seleucian
trireme with his wife (of the rest, some sailed along
with him in ships of war like his own, and others in
merchant vessels), and crossed the sea in safety ; but
on learning that Ptolemy was posted at Pelusium
with an army, making war upon his sister, he put in
there, and sent on a messenger to announce his
arrival to the king and to ask his aid. Now, Ptolemy
was quite young; but Potheinus, who managed all his
affairs, assembled a council of the most influential men
(and those were most influential whom he wished to
be so), and bade each one give his opinion. It was
certainly a dreadful thing that the fate of Pompey the
Great was to be decided by Potheinus the eunuch,
and Theodotus of Chios, who was a hired teacher of
rhetoric, and Achillas the Egyptian ; for these were
the chief counsellors of the king among the
chamberlains and tutors also gathered there. And
it was such a tribunal's verdict which Pompey,
tossing at anchor some distance off the shore, was
waiting for, a man who would not deign to be under
obligations to Caesar for his life.

The opinions of the other counsellors were so far
divergent that some advised to drive Pompey away,
and others to invite him in and receive him. But
Theodotus, making a display of his powerful speech


ovBerepov aTrefajvev acr(aXe9, aXXa
fxev e^eiv Tfiaicrapa TroXe/niov /cal Becnrorrjv HO/JL-
Tnj'iov, dircocrafAevov 9 Be /cal HofiTrijiri) TT}? /c/3o\rj<$
VTrairiovs ecrecrOat /cal KaicrapL TT}? Siaygew
KpaTicrrov ovv ivai /jteTaTrefji'fya/jLevovs dve\eiv
rbv av&pa' teal jap eKeivw %apielcrdai /cal TOVTOV

OV (f)0/3rf(T6a'0ai. 7rpO(T7rL7T & 8ia/J.l$ld(Ta<$, W?

cfracriv, OTL vercpos ov ftd/cvei.

LXXVIII. Tavra Kvpwa-avTe? eV 'A^iXXa
Troiovvrai rrjv Trpd^iv. 6 Se %7TTijj,t6i> nva
Trd\ai yeyovora Tlo/jLTrrjiov ra%Lap)(pv irapa\a-
fttov, teal *2.d\(3iov erepov efcarovrap^rjv /cal
r) rerrapas VTrrjperas, dvrj^Orj TT/OO? rrjv
vavv. erv^ov Be Travres et9 avrrjv ol
ro)v avfJL7r\eovTwv e/x/9e/3?;:oT69, O7r&)9 elbelev TO
2 TrparrofAevov. a>9 ovv el$ov ov (Bacn\iKr)v ovbe
\afjL7rpav ov&e rat9 eo(f)dvov<; e\iri(Tiv o^o'iav



rw HojATrrjio) jrapyvovv et9 7re\ayo<; dvaicpovevOai
rrjv vavv, ea)9 e&) ySeXoi/9 elaiv. ev TOVTW Be
7re\aov<Tr)s rfjs d\id$os (frOdaas 6 Se7rrt/xto9
egavecrrrj /cal 'Pw^aicrrt TOV HO/JLTTIJLOV avro/cpd-
3 ropa Trpoaijyopevcrev. 6 Be 'A^/XXa? ao-Tracra-
fjievos avrov r E\\rjvio~Tl TrapetcdXei /jLereXdetv et9
rrjv d\idBa' revayos yap elvai TroXu, /cal fidffos
OVK %eiv 7r\6i/jiov Tpirjpei Trjv 0d\arrav VTro
IJLOV ovcrav. afia Be /cal vavs Tives ewpwvro

7r\r)pov/Jivai, /cal TOV alyia\ov o
, wcrr' dtyv/cra real /jiTa/3a\\o/j,evoi 9 e<f>ai-

POMPEY, LXXVII. 4-Lxxvin. 3

and rhetorical art, set .forth that neither course was
safe for them, but that if they received Poinpey,
they would have Caesar for an enemy and Pompey
for a master ; while if they rejected him, Pompey
would blame them for casting him off, and Caesar
for making him continue his pursuit ; the best
course, therefore, was to send for the man and put
him to death, for by so doing they would gratify
Caesar and have nothing to fear from Pompey. To
this he smilingly added, we are told, " A dead man
does not bite."

LXXVIII. Having determined upon this plan,
they entrusted the execution of it to Achillas. So
he took with him a certain Septimius, who had once
been a tribune of Pompey's, and Salvius besides, a
centurion, with three or four servants, and put out
towards the ship of Pompey. Now, all the most
distinguished of Pompey's fellow-voyagers had come
aboard of her to see what was going on. Accord-
ingly, when they saw a reception that was not royal,
nor splendid, nor in accordance with the hopes of
Theophanes, but a few men sailing up in a single
fishing-boat, they viewed this lack of respect with
suspicion, and advised Pompey to have his ship
rowed back into the open sea, while they were
beyond reach of missiles. But meanwhile the boat
drew near, and first Septimius rose up and addressed
Pompey in the Roman tongue as Imperator. Then
Achillas saluted him in Greek, and invited him to
come aboard the boat, telling him that the shallows
were extensive, and that the sea, which had a sandy
bottom, was not deep enough to float a trireme. At
the same time some of the royal ships were seen to
be taking their crews aboard, and men-at-arms were
occupying the shore, so that there seemed to be no

3 T 9


VCTO, teal Trpoarjv TO &i$6vai rot? (frovevai rrjv
4 aTrifTTLav avrrjv rr}9 dbircias a r rro\o'ylav. dcnraaa-
/jievos ovv Trjv Kopvr)\iav TTpoarrodprjvoixrav avrov 66
TO TeXo?, teal Svo eteaTOVTap^a^ Trpoefjsftfjvai K-
\V(ras teal TWV dTre\ev6epwv eva ^L^LTTTTOV teal
OepdrrovTa ^Kv6r]v ovo/aa, &6%iov/jivwv avrbv
Trepl TOV 'A%i\\dv etc TT}? aXta8o?,

ls 7T/30? TTfit yvvaitca teal TOV vlov enre

Tvpavvov /j,7ropeveTai
tceivov Vrt SoOXo?, teav e\ev0epo<;

LXXIX. Taura 8' ecr^ara TT/OO? TOU? eavTov
(>0e<yt;dfjLVo<; eVe/3/7' teal av^vov SiacrTr;/iaTO? 6Wo?
^ aTro T/?? Tpirjpovs, &)? ouSet? Trapd TWV


avTov, aTro^Xe-v/ra? et? TOV ^eTTTLfJUov, " Qv

TTOU o~e," eljrev, " eyw yeyovoTa


2 eyu,ov dfifyi'yvow ; ' tedteelvos zTrevevcre TTJ tee<f)a\fi
fjLovov, ovSev TrpocreiTru>v ov$<j)L\o<l)povi]0i,<;. TroX-
XT}? ovv Trd\iv 01/0-77? O-LMTTTJ^ 6 IToyLtTr^io? e^cov
ev /3i/3\LO) fMt/epw yeypajjifjievov VTT avTov \6yov

7rape(TK6va(7TO %prjcr0ai TT/OO? TOV

3 TLTo\e/j,alov, dveyivcocrteev. w? 3e T^ 7/7 Trpoa-
TT\aov, 77 yLtev Kopvrj\ia /J,TO, TWV (j)i\(ov etc
Tpirfpovs TrepiTraOrjs ovcra TO //.eXXov d
teal Oappelv r^p^eTO TroXXou? opaxra TT/OO?

TWV (SaGiKiK&v olov errl Ti/j,fj teal
crei (Tvvepxo/jLevovs. ev TOVTW 8e TOV


POMPEY, LXXMII. 3-Lxxix. 3

escape even if they changed their minds ; and
besides, this very lack of confidence might give the
murderers an excuse for their crime. Accordingly,
after embracing Cornelia, who was bewailing his
approaching death, he ordered two centurions to go
into the boat before him, besides Philip, one of his
freedmen, and a servant named Scythes, and while
Achillas was already stretching out his hand to him
from the boat, turned towards his wife and son and
repeated the verses of Sophocles :

Whatever man unto a tyrant takes his way,
His slave he is, even though a freeman when he
goes. 1

LXXIX. After these last words to his friends, he
went into the boat. And since it was a long
distance from the trireme to the land, and none of
his companions in the boat had any friendly word
for him, turning his eyes upon Septimius he said :
" Surely I am not mistaken, and you are an old
comrade of mine ! " Septimius nodded merely,
without saying anything to him or showing any
friendliness. So then, as there \vas profound silence
again, Pompey took a little roll containing a speech
written by him in Greek, which he had prepared for
his use in addressing Ptolemy, and began to read
in it. Then, as they drew near the shore, Cornelia,
together with his friends, stood on the trireme
watching with great anxiety for the outcome, and
began to take heart when she saw many of the
king's people assembling at the landing as if to give
him an honourable welcome. But at this point,

1 Nauck, Trag. Oraec. Fray* p. 316. The recitation of
these verses is a feature common also to the accounts of the
tragedy in Appian (Bell. Civ. ii. 84) and Dio Cassius (xlii. 4).



^779 rov

pdov e^avaa-rair), SeTTTt/uo? OTTicrOev rw i<et Bie-

\avvet, 7T/3COTO9, erra SaX/3to9 uer* e/ceivov, elra

4 'A%tXXa9 ecnrdaavro ra? fjia^alpa^. o Se rat?

Kara rov 7rpoara)7rov, /jirj&ev eltrwv avd^iov eavrov
fiyBe TTotr/cra?, aXXa crre/'a^a? fiovov, e
rat? TrKii^als, e^Kovra iev ei/o? Seovra
err}, fiia 6' varepov rj^pa T% yeve0\iov

LXXX. Ot 8' avro TWP vewz^ &)? eOedcravro rov

olpoofyrjv e^ciKOVCTTOv a%pi r?}? 77)9 ^
etyvyov, dpdfjLevoi ra<? d<yKvpas Kara
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TOJ)? A-lyvTrrLOvs. rov $e Ho/^TT^tov rv/v JJLZV
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( t > t / Xt7T7ro9, ea>? eyevovro /jiecrrol T7}9 O'v
Trepikovcras rfj Oa\d<Tcnj TO a-co/za /cat

nvl ru>v eavrov TrepiGreiKas, aXXo 8e o
flXXa TrepKTKOTTMV rov alyiaXbv evpe ftiKpds d\id-
009 Xei^at'a, TraXaid /jiev, dpKovvra Se vetcpq)
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3 a^elv. ravra crvyKO/jii^ovros avrov Kal crvvrt,-

> \ > \ f T-> " >r / \ p> \

eincrras avrjp rw/xato? r/o?; yepcov, Ta9 oe

trrpareas ert, veos o/jLirrjLU) avveorrparev-

Biavofj Mdyvov TLo^Trrjlov; ' CKCLVOV Be
co? tt7reXeu$e/909, " 'AXX' 01) fiovw croi" 607;,
TO TO Ka\ov VTrdp^ei' Kafie Be axnrep


POMPRY, LXXIX. 3-Lxxx. 3

while Pompey was clasping the hand of Philip that
he might rise to his feet more easily, Septimius,
from behind, ran him through the body with his
sword, then Salvius next, and then Achillas, drew
their daggers and stabbed him. 1 And Pompey,
drawing his toga down over his face with both hands,
without an act or a word that was unworthy of
himself, but with a groan merely, submitted to their
blows, being sixty years of age less one, and ending
his life only one day after his birth-day.

LXXX. When the people on the ships beheld the
murder, they uttered a wailing cry that could be
heard as far as the shore, and weighing anchor quickly,
took to flight. And a strong wind came to their aid
as they ran out to sea, so that the Egyptians, though
desirous of pursuing, turned back. But they cut off
Pompey's head, and threw the rest of his body un-
clothed out of the boat, and left it for those who
craved so pitiful a sight. Philip, however, stayed
by the body, until such had taken their fill of gazing ;
then he washed it in sea- water, wrapped it in a tunic
of his own, and since he had no other supply, sought
along the coast until he found the remnants of a
small fishing-boat, old stuff, indeed, but sufficient to
furnish a funeral pyre that would answer for an un-
clothed corpse, and that too not entire. As he was
gathering the wood and building the pyre, there
came up a Roman who was now an old man, but
who in his youth had served his first campaigns with
Pompey, and said : " Who art thou, my man, that
thinkest to give burial rites to Pompey the Great? "
And when Philip said that he was his freedman, the
man said : " But thou shalt not have this honour all
to thyself; let me too share in a pious privilege thus

1 Ibi ab Achilla et Septimio interficitur (Caesar, Bdl. Ci>\
iii. 104).

3 2 3


Be^ai KOLVWVQV, to? //,*; Kara iravia
Trjv aTro^evuxnv, aim TTO\\WV dviapwv
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5 TOUTO HofJLTrrj'lov re\o?. OL TTO\\(D 8e vcrrepov 66
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e o

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uio-0VTa, irepl TOV 'A\/3avbv e



offered, that I may not altogether regret my sojourn
in a foreign land, if in requital for many hardships I
find this happiness at least, to touch with my hands
and array for burial the greatest of Roman impera-
tors." Such were the obsequies of Pompey. And
on the following day Lucius Lentulus, as he came
sailing from Cyprus and coasted along the shore not
knowing what had happened, saw a funeral pyre and
Philip standing beside it, and before he had been
seen himself exclaimed: "Who, pray, rests here at
the end of his allotted days ?" Then, after a slight
pause and with a groan he said : " But perhaps it is
thou, Pompey the Great ! " And after a little he
went ashore, was seized, and put to death.

This was the end of Pompey. But not long after-
wards Caesar came to Egypt, and found it filled with
this great deed of abomination. From the man who
brought him Pompey's head he turned away with
loathing, as from an assassin ; and on receiving Pom-
pey's seal-ring, he burst into tears ; the device was a
lion holding a sword in his paws. But Achillas and
Potheinus he put to death. The king himself, more-
over, was defeated in battle along the river, and dis-
appeared. Theodotus the sophist, however, escaped
the vengeance of Caesar ; for he fled out of Egypt
and wandered about in wretchedness and hated of all
men. But Marcus Brutus, after he had slain Caesar
and come into power, discovered him in Asia, and
put him to death with every possible torture. The
remains of Pompey were taken to Cornelia, who gave
them burial at his Alban villa.




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I. Now that their lives lie spread before us, let us
briefly run over the points in which the two men
differed, and bring these together side by side.
They are as follows. In the first place, it was in the
justest manner that Pompey came to fame and
power, setting out on his career independently, and
rendering many great services to Sulla when Sulla
was freeing Italy from her tyrants ; Agesilaiis, on the
contrary, appeared to get his kingdom by sinning
against both gods and men, since he brought Leoty-
chides under condemnation for bastardy, although
his brother had recognised him as his legitimate son,
and made light of the oracle concerning his lameness.
In the second place, Pompey not only continued to
hold Sulla in honour while he lived, but also after
his death gave his body funeral obsequies in despite
of Lepidus, and bestowed upon his son Faustus his
own daughter in marriage; whereas Agesilaiis cast
out Lysander on the merest pretext, and heaped
insult upon him. And yet Sulla got no less from
Pompey than he gave him, while in the case of
Agesilaiis, it was Lysander who made him king of
Sparta and general of all Greece. And, thirdly,
Pompey's transgressions of right and justice in his
political life were due to his family connections, for
he joined in most of the wrongdoings of Caesar and
Scipio because they were his relations by marriage ;
but Agesilaiis snatched Sphodrias from the death
which hung over him for wronging the Athenians,
merely to gratify the love of his son, and when Phoe-
bidas treacherously broke the peace with Thebes, he



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evidently made the crime itself a reason for zealously
supporting him. In a word, whatever harm Pompey
was accused of bringing upon the Romans out of
deference to his friends or through ignorance,
Agesilaiis brought as much upon the Lacedaemonians
out of obstinacy and resentment when he kindled
the Boeotian war.

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