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II. Moreover, if we must assign to any ill-fortune
of the two men the disasters which overtook them,
that of Pompey could not have been anticipated by
the Romans ; but Agesilaiis would not permit the
Lacedaemonians to guard against the " lame sover-
eignty/' although they had heard and knew before-
hand about it. For even if Leotychides had been
ten thousand times convicted of being bastard and
alien, the family of the Eurypontidae could easily
have furnished Sparta with a king who was of legiti-
mate birth and sound of limb, had not Lysander
darkened the meaning of the oracle in the interests
of Agesilaiis.

On the other hand, when we consider the remedy
which Agesilaiis applied to the perplexity of the
state in dealing with those who had played the
coward, after the disaster at Leuctra, when he urged
that the laws should slumber for that day, there
was never another political device like it, nor can
we find anything in Pompey's career to compare
with it ; on the contrary, he did not even think it
incumbent upon him to abide by the laws which he
himself had made, if he might only display the
greatness of his power to his friends. But Agesilaiis*,
when he confronted the necessity of abrogating the
laws in order to save his fellow-citizens, devised a
way by which the citizens should not be harmed by
the laws, nor the laws be abrogated to avoid such



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

KaKelvo TO d/jLifjirjTOV epyov t? iroXiTLKrjv dpeTrjv
TOV *Ayijo~i\dov, TO SeJ;dfj,vov Trjv atcvTakr}V

d7rO\i7TLV T<Z9 V 'AcTtlX TTpd^eiS. OV ydp, ft>9

IIoyu,7rrjfcO9, dfi wv eavTov eiroiei [teyav axfieXei TO
KOLVOV, d\\a TO T7;9 7raT/3to9 aKOTrwv Tti\iKai>Tijv 66
d<f)r)K6 &vva/4iv Kal S6av j]\iKr)v ovbels TrpoTepov
ovBe vffTepov 7r\r)V 'AXe^ai^Spo9 ecr'^ev.

III. 'ATT* aXX?79 TOIVVV dp%fj<;, ev Tat9 ffTpaTrj-
yiai$ Kal TOt9 7roXe//.t/tot9, dpiO^
Kal fjLye&i Bvvdfiewv 09 eirrjydyeTO

7r\tj0i TrapaTa^ewv a9 evLKijaev, ov& av 6
SoKei 7rapaj3a\eiv Ta9 ^AyyjcriXdov
l, CD Sta TaXXa Ka\a KaOdrrep yepas e^aipeTov
SeSoTat, Kal ypdfyeiv o ftovXoiTo KOL \eyii> Trepl
2 TOV dvSpos. olfjiat, 8e Kal Ty 77/309 TOU9 7roXe/zt-
01^9 eTrieLKela $ia<f)peiv TOV avbpa TOV dv&pos. 6

j3ov\6/jLvos, rjv fJLev o/jLOKXrjpov
)v Se /jLr)Tpo7ro\iv TOV yevov?, Trap 1
ovSev rj\0 TTJV %7rdpTr)v a7roySaX

fjye/jioviav 6 Se Kal TWV TreipaTwv TO49

7roXei9 e&(OKe, Kal Ttypavrjv TOV
Ap/Avia)v fiacriXea yevopevov e<^>' e



alwva



3 Et fievTOi TO?? fjLeyi(TTOi<f Kal KvpicaTaTois et?
Ta 6?rXa irpdy^acri Kal \oyia /j,ol<t TrpodTideTai
7rpa)T6iov dpeTfjs dvSpo? r^yepovos, ov fjLLKpov o



33



AGESILAUS AND POMPEY, n. 3-111. 3

harm. Further, I attribute also to political virtue
in Agesilaiis that inimitable act of his in abandon-
ing his career in Asia on receipt of the dispatch-
roll. For he did not, like Pompey, help the com-
monwealth only as he made himself great, but with
an eye to the welfare of his country he renounced
such great fame and power as no man won before or
since his day, except Alexander.

III. And now from another point of view, that
of their campaigns and achievements in war, the
trophies of Pompey were so many, the forces led by
him so vast, and the pitched battles in which he was
victorious so innumerable, that not even Xenophon,
I think, would compare the victories of Agesilaiis,
although that historian, by reason of his other ex-
cellent qualities, is specially privileged, as it were,
to say and write whatever he pleases about the man.
I think also that in merciful behaviour towards their
enemies the two men were different. For Agesilaiis
was so bent on enslaving Thebes and depopulating
Messenia, Thebes the mother-city of his royal line,
and Messenia a sister colony to his country, 1 that he
nearly lost Sparta, and did lose her supremacy in
Greece ; whereas Pompey gave cities to such of the
pirates as changed their mode of life, and when it
was in his power to lead Tigranes the king of
Armenia in his triumphal procession, made him an
ally instead, saying that he thought more of future
time than of a single day.

If, however, it is the greatest and most far-reach-
ing decisions and acts in war that are to determine
preeminence in the virtues of leadership, then the

* Thebes was the birth-place of Heracles, from whom the
Rpartan kings were supposed to be descended; and Messenia,
like Sparta, was settled by the Heracleidae.

33 T



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Ad/c(i)v TOV *Pco[jialov diroKeXoiire. Trpwrov /Jiev
yap ov TrporjKdTO ryv iroKiv 01)8' ee\i7rev ejrra

(TTpaTOV TWV 7TO\/J,i(0V /JL/3d\6vT(DV ,

teal 7rporevi,Krj/jLevou<; ev
Se, e 7revTaKio-'%i\Loi,s /JLOVOIS
real TpidKocriois fiiav Katcrapo? 7r6\iv 'IraXt-
tcaTa\a/36vTo$, e^ejrecre TT}? 'Poo/jLys VTTO
, TJ TO&OVTOIS ei'^a? a*/evvw<s rj



KCLI crvo'/cevaa'dfievos ra re/cva
teal rrjv jwalfca avrov, ra? Be ra)i> a\\a)v
7ro\iTwv epij/jiovs d7ro\i7ra)v e(pvye, Seov r) repareiv
/na^o/jievov vTrep TT}? Trarpi&os rj Se^effOai Sia-
\v<Ti<? Trapa TOV KpeLrrovo^ rjv jap TroXtr^? KOL
5 oiiceios' vvv Be u> crTparrjyia^ %povov

teal vTrareiav ^fii^iaaaQai Beivbv rjyeLro,
Trapecr^e \aft6vri TJJV 7ro\iv eiTrelv TT/^O? MeVeX-
\ov OTI KaKelvov al%/jid\a)Tov aurov vo^i^i KCLI

aXXou? aTravras.

IV. ^O Toivvv ep<yov early dyadov crrparrjyov
/cpeirroi'a /j,ev ovra fiidaaGOai rou?
fjid^ecrdai, \enrofjievov Be Bvi>d/j,i
, rovro TTOLWV 'Ayrj(ri\ao<; del
ev eavTov aviKriTov Ho ^LTT^IOV Be Kat<ra/>, ov
rjv eXdrrcov, BLecfrvye /j,r) [3\a{3rivai, xaOo Be
/cpeirrajv r)V, rjvdyicacrev dycovKrd/Aevov TW 7reft)
irepl Trdvrwv a(f)a\fivai, /col icvpio? evOvs rjv xprj-
fjidrcw KOI dyopds feal ^aXarr?;?, IK^ wv Bieire-
2 Trparcro av avev fJid^rj^ e/cet^ot? Trpoaovrcov. TO B*
vTrep TOVTWV d7ro\6yr)/j,a /JLeyicrrov e
332



AGESILAUS AND POMPEY, HI. 3 -iv. 2

Lacedaemonian leaves the Roman far behind. For,
in the first place, he did not desert nor abandon his
city, though the enemy attacked it with an army of
seventy thousand men, while he had only a few men-
at-arms, and these had recently been vanquished at
Leuctra ; but Pompey, after Caesar had occupied a
single city of Italy with only fifty-three hundred
men, hurried away from Rome in a panic, either
yielding ignobly to so few, or conjecturing falsely
that there were more ; and after conveying away
with him his own wife and children, he left those of
the other citizens defenceless and took to flight,
when he ought either to have conquered in a battle
for his country, or to have accepted terms from his
conqueror, who was a fellow-citizen and a relation
by marriage. But as it was, to the man for whom
he thought it a terrible thing to prolong a term of
military command or vote a consulship, to this man
he gave the power of capturing the city and saying
to Metellus that he considered him and all the rest
of the citizens as his prisoners of war.

IV. Furthermore, the chief task of a good general
is to force his enemies to give battle when he is
superior to them, but not to be forced himself to
do this when his forces are inferior, and by so doing
Agesilaiis always kept himself unconquered ; whereas
in Pompey's case, Caesar escaped injury at his hands
when he was inferior to him, and forced him to
stake the whole issue on a battle with his land
forces, wherein Caesar was superior, thus defeating
him and becoming at once master of treasures, pro-
visions, and the sea, advantages which would have
brought his ruin without a battle had they remained
in his enemy's control. And that winch is urged as
an excuse for this failure is really a very severe

333



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



(rrpartjyov rtj\iKovrou. veov IJLCV jap dp%ovra
Oopvftois teal Karaftoiiaecriv eis ^a\aKiav /cat Bei-
\iav eTTirapa^evra rwv dcrcj)a\e err drwv eKTrecrelv
\oyicr fAwv etVo9 eari Kal crvyyvwo-rov
Be Mdyvov, ov 'Pw/zato/ TO fnev
jrarpi^a, (rv<yK\rjTOV Be TTJV CTK^V^V, d
Be /cal trpoBoras TOI/? ev 'Pco/^rj
teal a"rpaTt]<yovi>Tas /cal vTrarevovras etcdXovv,
3 dp%6[jLvov Be UTT' ovBevos eyvcoarav, Trdaas 8e
avTOKpdropa (jTpaTev<jd^.vov dpicrra ra? arpar-
tta?, Tt? av dvda^OLTO rot? Qatovlov (7K(i)fjL/jiacri
Kal ko/JLeTiov, Kal wa fjirj 'A<ya/j,e/uLvwv \.e<yrjTai,
Trap' \d%icrTov K/3iacr0ei>Ta rov Trepl rfjs rjye^ov-
Kal eKevOepias dvapptyai KLV^VVOV ; 09 6
TO Trap r^JLepav dSo^ov, w<$>i\ev
ev dp'xfi Siayayvio-acrOai Trepl TT}? c Pco-



vtrrepov ev



rrjv ev erraXta irpo /jLd%r)$ Siarpi/Srjv. 66-
4 ov jdp eKeivo <ye ardSiov avrols Kal 6earpov
evaywvi&a&Oai, Trepl 7779 ^76/^0^10.9 o ^eo9 dire-
Bei^e TO <frapcrd\iov TreSiov, ovSe VTTO KrjpvKos
Ka\LTO fjud^eaOai Kanaiv rj \iTreiv erepw rov
crretyavov, aXXa Tro\\d fiev TreBia /Avpias Be TTO-
Kal jrjv aTrXerov 77 Kara Odkarrav evrropia



Kal



Mdpiov Kal AVKO\\OV Kal avrov '
5 09 OVK e\drrova<$ {iev ev ^rrdprr) Oopvftovs vrre-
peive /3ov\o/jievQ)v 77/3atot9 vrrep T^9 %a)pa<$ fid~
%[email protected],, 7roX\a9 B* ev AlyvTrrw Bia/3o\d<; Kal Karrj-
yopia<t Kal vrrovoias rov ^acrt\e&)9 tfvejKev ?}crv-
dyeiv Ke\evcov, xprjad/jievos Be Tot9 dpicrroL?



334



AGESILAUS AND POMPEY, iv. 2-5

accusation against a general like him. For that a
youthful commander should be frightened by tumults
and outcries into cowardly weakness and abandon
his safest plans, is natural and pardonable ; but that
Pompey the Great, whose camp the Romans called
their country, and his tent their senate, while they
gave the name of traitors and rebels to the consuls
and praetors and other magistrates at Rome, that
he who was known to be under 110 one's command,
but to have served all his campaigns most success-
fully as imperator, should be almost forced by the
scoffs of Favonius and Domitius, and by the fear of
being called Agamemnon, to put to the hazard the
supremacy and freedom of Rome, who could tolerate
this ? If he had regard only for the immediate
infamy involved, then he ought to have made a
stand at the first and to have fought to its finish the
fight for Rome, instead of calling the flight which he
then made a Themistoclean stratagem and after-
wards counting it a disgraceful thing to delay before
fighting in Thessaly. For surely Heaven had not
appointed that Pharsalian plain to be the stadium
and theatre of their struggle for the supremacy, nor
was he summoned by voice of herald to go down
thither and do battle or leave to another the victor's
wreath ; nay, there were many plains, ten thousand
cities, and a whole earth which his great resources
by sea afforded him had he wished to imitate
Maximus, or Marius, or Lucullus, or Agesilaiis him-
self, who withstood no less tumults in Sparta when
its citizens wished to fight with the Thebans in de-
fence of their land, and in Egypt endured many
calumnies and accusations and suspicions on the part
of the king when he urged him to keep quiet ; but
he followed his own best counsels as he wished, and

335



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

6 0)9 /3oV\6TO XoytCTyUOt?, OV (JiOVOV AiyVTTTLOVS

drcovras eawaev, ov&e rrjv ^Trdprifv ev rocrourw
(7L(TfjLy /JLOVOS opdrjv del Sie(f>v\aev, a\\a real
rporraiov earrjcre Kara 7j/3aiwv ev Trj 7ro\ei, TO
vitcfjcrai 7rapao")(wv avOts e/c rov rore /zr) Trpoair-
o\e<r0ai ftiacra/jLevovs. odev 'A^^crtXao? [j^v VTTO
Piaerdevrwv vcrrepov eTTyvelTO crwOevrrov,
Se Si aXXou? d/jiapTwv, avrovs ot? eVet-
7 (T0rj KaTrjyopovs el^e. /cairot (fracri rives &>? vrco
rov rrevOepov ^/crjTricovos e^rjirart'iOr)' ra yap



rwv iJLdrwv wv



/3ov\6/jivov avrov voa$i<ja(rQai KOL
Karercel^ai rrjv fjbd^v, &>? ovtcen
ovrwv. o Kav aX^^e? fjv, rraOelv OVK
arparrjyos, ov$e paStw? ovrco
drroKiv&vvevcrai rrepl rwv /Jijio-ra)v. ev /j,ev ovv
rovrois OUTW? ercdrepov drroOewpovfjiev.
V. Et? Aiyv rcrov 8' o ^ev % dvdyKrjs e
, 6 be ovre Ka\w$ ovre dvayKaiws

OTTW? e%r) rols "RXXrjcri, rroKefJielv dfi
wv rot? jSapftdpois ea-rpartfyrjcrev. elra a Sid
Ho/jLirrjiov AlyvTrrioi? eyKa\ovfJLev, ravra Alyv-
Trrtoi /car^yopovcriv 'AyrjcriXaov. 6 fjt,ev yap
r)SiKij0r] Tria-revcras, 6 $e rcicrrevOeis ey/careXiTre
teal /jLerecrrrj TT/JO? TOL? TroXeyuoO^ra? ol? 7T\vae



336



AGESILAUS AND POMPKY, iv. 6-v. i

not only saved the Egyptians against their wills, and
by his sole efforts ever kept Sparta upright in the
midst of so great a convulsion, but actually set up a
trophy in the city for a victory over the Thebans,
which victory he put his countrymen in the way of
winning later, by keeping them then from the de-
struction into which they would have forced their
way. Wherefore Agesilaiis was afterwards com-
mended by those whom he had forced to take the
path of safety, while Pompey, whom others had led
into error, found accusers in the very ones to whom
he had yielded. And yet some say that he was
deceived by his father-in-law Scipio, who wished to
appropriate to his own uses the greater part of the
treasure which he had brought from Asia, and there-
fore hid it away, and then hastened on the battle,
on the plea that there was no longer any money.
But even if this were true, a general ought not to
suffer himself to be so easily deceived, nor after-
wards to put his greatest interests at hazard. In
these matters, then, such is the way in which we
regard each of the men.

o

V. And as to their voyages to Egypt, one went
thither of necessity and in flight ; the other for no
honourable reason, nor of necessity, but for money,
that what he got for serving the Barbarians as com-
mander might enable him to make war upon the
Greeks. Then again, as to the charges which we
bring against the Egyptians for their treatment of
Pompey, these the Egyptians lay at the door of
Agesilaiis for his treatment of them. For Pompey
trusted them and was wronged by them ; while
Agesilaiis was trusted by them and yet forsook them
and went over to the enemies of those whom he
had sailed to assist.

337



PELOP1DAS



I. Karw^ o TT peer /3vT epos Trpos Tivas eTrairovv-
.vOpMTrov aXo7U7TO)? 7rapd/3o\ov Kal roX-

V TOLS 7TO\fJLLKols Bia(f)ep6lV e(/>?7 TO TToXXoO

Tiva Trjv dpeTrjv d^iav Kal TO firj TToXXoO d^iov TO
vofu^eiv opOcos d7ro(j)ai,v6f^evoS' o yovv Trap*
cTTpaTevo/nevos tra/zo?, <f>av\os Be TYJV
Kal TO crwjjia Bi(j)9opct)s, epo^evov TOV (Bacri-
Ttjv aiTiav TIJS urj^pOT^To? a)fj,o\oyr]o~ Tiva
2 vocrov TCOV djropp^TWV eirel Be (f)i\OTi/jir]0els 6
fiacnXevs TrpocreTa^e rot? laTpois, edv TIS TJ (Borj-
0et,a, /jL^Bev e\\i7relv TTJS aKpas eVi/xeXeta?, oi/ra)
BepaTrevdels 6 yevvalos eKelvos ou/cer' fjv (pt\oKiv-
Svvos ovBe payBacos ev TOLS dywcnv, cocrre Kal TOV
\\VTiyovov eyKa\eiv Kal Oavfjid^eiv TTJV yuera-
/3oX?y^. ov fjirjv o avOpwTTOS direKpv^raTO TO 2
aiTiov, aXX' elTrev "*O {3ao~i\ev, <rv fie TreTTOLij-
9 aTO\/uLOTepov, a7ra\\d^as eKeivwv TMV KaKwv
a TOV {fjv oiXiywpovv" Trpos TOVTO Be <j>al-



VGTCLI Ka vapuTrjs vrjp eirev Trepl TWV S?ra/D-



a>9 ov fteya Troiovai 6avaTMVT<$ ev rot?
vTrep TOV TOCTOVTOVS irovovs /cal TOiavTrjv
aXXa ^fySa/atrat? yikv e/c-
V7TO Tpv(f)fj<; /cal /iaXata? 8m Tr/v TT/OO?
TO Ka\ov op^v Kal <f)t\oTi/jLiav et/cora)? e^atVoz/To
fjucrelv TOV ftiov ol yu,7; (f)0/3ov/j,evoi TOV Odvarov,
4 AaKe&aifAOviots Be Kal tfiv ijBews Kal

340



PELOPIDAS

1. CATO THE ELDER, when certain persons praised
;i man who was inconsiderately rash and daring in
war, told them there was a difference between a
man's setting a high value on valour and his setting
a low value on life ; and his remark was just. At
any rate, there was a soldier of Antigonus who
was venturesome, but had miserable health and an
impaired body. When the king asked him the
reason for his pallor, the man admitted that it was
a secret disease, whereupon the king took compassion
on him and ordered his physicians, if there was any
help for him, to employ their utmost skill and care.
Thus the man was cured ; but then the good fellow
ceased to court danger and was no longer a furious
fighter, so that even Antigonus rebuked him and
expressed his wonder at the change. The man,
however, made no secret of the reason, but said :
" O King, it is thou who hast made me less daring,
by freeing me from those ills which made me set
little value on life." On these grounds, too, as it
would seem, a man of Sybaris said it was no great
thing for the Spartans to seek death in the wars in
order to escape so many hardships and such a
wretched life as theirs. But to the Sybarites, who
were dissolved in effeminate luxury, men whom
ambition and an eager quest of honour led to have
no fear of death naturally seemed to hate life ; where-
as the virtues of the Lacedaemonians gave them



VOL. V M



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

dfjL<f)OTepa aperr) Trapelj^ev, o>? BrjXot TO e
Beiov OiBe yap $r\aiv eOavov 1



ov TO f)v Oe/jLevoi KCL\OV ovBe TO QVY]<TK,.IV,
AXXo. TO Tavra AraXw? aore e/ereXecrat.



ovTe ydp (frvyr] OavaTOV fJie/jurTOV, av opeyrjTai
TOV fiiov {til alcrxptos, ovre VTro/movrj Ka\ov, el
5 /zer' b\i*/wpias <yii>oiTO TOV r/v. o9ev "
del TOL? OappoKewTaTOVs KCU

ev KOI Ka\ws WTrX/cr/ie^of? e$;cvyi
TOU9 dywvas, ol Be TWV 'EiXKrjvwv vo/JLoOeTCii TOV
pi-^racrTciv Ko\dovaiv, ov TOV ^t^>o? ovBe
irpoe/jievov, Si,$d(TKovTes on TOV jjur/ TraOelv
rrporepov i} TOV Trotfjcrai TOU? Tro

Tcpocn'jKei, yu-aXtcrra Se ap%ovTi 7roXe&>9 r)



II. Et yap, ft>? ^IffriKpaTrjs Siypei, %e/?crl
eoi/caaiv ol tyiXoi, Troal Be TO ITTTTLKOV, avTrj Be rj
<j)d\ay^ arepvM KOI OaipciKi, Ke(f>a\y Be 6 (TTpaTij-
<yo9, o v/ X, &VTOV Bo^eiev av aTroKivBvvevcov rrapa-
/jL\elv KOI 0pa(TVv6/uievos, aXX' aTcdvTwv, ot? r)
(TWTripia yiveTai Bi avTOv Kal TQVVCLVTIOV. oOev
o Ka\\LKpaTiBas, KaiTrep wv raXXa fA6ya$, OVK
ev TT/oo? TOV fjidvTiv eiire' Beo/uevov yap avTOv
fyvKaTTecrOai OdvaTov, W9 TWV tepwv TrpoBr)\ovi'-
2 TWV, e<})r) fir) Trap eva elvai TCIV ^Ttdprav. /za^o-
/jievos yap et? r]V KOI rr\ecov Kal aTpaTevofjLevo^ o
Ka\\i/cpaTiBa<s, a-TpaTfjyMV Be Trjv aTrdvTwv el%e
a)v ev avTw Svvajmiv, MCTTe OVK rjv el? w
avvaTrcoXXvTO. (3e\Tiov Be 'AvTiyovos o



1 O* Gdi'ov ov r"b fay KT\. , attributed to Simontdes (Bergk,
t. Lyr. Grace, iii 4 p. 516).



342



PELOP1DAS, i. 4-n. 2

happiness alike in living or dying, as the following
elegy testifies : These, it says, died,

" not deeming either life or death honourable in

themselves,

But only the accomplishment of them both with
honour."

For neither is a man to be blamed for shunning

E5

death, if he does not cling to life disgracefully, nor
to be praised for boldly meeting death, if he does
this with contempt of life. For this reason Homer
always brings his boldest and most valiant heroes
into battle well armed and equipped ; and the Greek
lawgivers punish him who casts away his shield, not
him who throws down his sword or spear, thus teach-
ing that his own defence from harm, rather than the
infliction of harm upon the enemy, should be every
man's first care, and particularly if he governs a city
or commands an army.

/

II. For if, as Iphicrates analyzed the matter, the
light-armed troops are like the hands, the cavalry
like the feet, the line of men-at-arms itself like chest
and breastplate, and the general like the head, then
he, in taking undue risks and being over bold, would
seem to neglect not himself, but all, inasmuch as
their safety depends on him, and their destruction
too. Therefore Callicratidas, although otherwise he
was a great man, did not make a good answer to the
seer who begged him to be careful, since the sacri-
ficial omens foretold his death ; " Sparta," said he,
" does not depend upon one man." For when fight
ing, or sailing, or marching under orders, Callicratidas
was "one man"; but as general, he comprised in
himself the strength and power of all, so that he
was not "' one man," when such numbers perished
with him. Better was the speech of old Antigonu^

343



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

yepwv, ore vavfj,a%iv rrepl "AvBpov efjLeXXev, el-
rcbvros nvbs ft>? TroXu 7r\Lovs at Twv TTo\efjiiwv

1 1C 'Tl v N ' " " -L l( v '

eiev, hue oe avrov, 6997, TT/OO? Trocra?
' a TO T^? ap^s, wcnrep ecnlv 9
TTOIWV yu-era e/ZTre^pta? /cat apery? rarro-
9 Trpwrov epyov earl cru>^eiv rov arravra

3 raX,Xa crco^o^Ta. Sto /caXw? o
Kvvp,vov Trore rot? 'AOyvaiois rov Xapr^ro?
Xa? rivas ev TW crw/jiari KOI rrjv dcrrriSa

8e," elrcev, " a>

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eirecre /^e'Xo?, co? /neipaKicoBearepov /JLavrw
fjievos 1} Kara (Trparrjyo'v /cal r^y

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pOTrrjv 6 rov crrpari]yov KivSvvos, evravOa

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rot? eov(Tiv ft>? 9 TOZ/



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yepovra Ovrjcnceiv orrov Be /jLifcpov rb Trepiyivo-
fjLevov K rov Karopdw/jLaros, rb Be rrav (rvvarroK-
\vrai (T(j)a\evro<;, ov&els drrairel arparicorov
rrpafyv Ktv^vvw rrparro/jievrjv crrpariyyov.
5 TaOra Be /LLOL rrapearr} rrpoavafyiovricrai <ypd-
rov HeXorriBov fiiov /cal rov Ma/^eXXou,
dvBpwv rrapaXoyw^ rrecrovrcov. Kal yap
fia^LfJiwraroL yevo/j.evoi, Kal arpa-
emfyavecrrdrais Koorjurjcravres d^orepoL
ra? rrarpiBas, en Be rcov /Sapvrdrcov dvraywvi-
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\eyerai, rpe-fydfjievos, b Be yijs Kal Oa\drrr)<$ d
ra? AaKeBai/jioviovs K rrapard^eax; viK^Ga
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ftiov omjviKa /.idXtara roiovrcDv Kaipbs ?]V dvBpwv

344



PKLOPIDAS, ii. 2-5

as he was about to fight a sea-tight off Andros, and
someone told him that the enemy's ships were far
more numerous than his : " But what of myself/' said
he, " how many ships wilt thou count me ? " implying
that the worth of the commander is a great thing,
as it is in fact, when allied with experience and
valour, and his first duty is to save the one who
saves everything else. Therefore Timotheus was
right, when Chares was once showing the Athenians
some wounds he had received, and his shield pierced
by a spear, in saying : " But I, how greatly ashamed
I was, at the siege of Samos, because a bolt fell near
me ; I thought I was behaving more like an im-
petuous youth than like a general in command of
so large a force." For where the whole issue is
greatly furthered by the general's exposing himself
to danger, there he must employ hand and body
unsparingly, ignoring those who say that a good
general should die, if not of old age, at least in old
age ; but where the advantage to be derived from
his success is small, and the whole cause perishes
with him if he fails, no one demands that a general
should risk his life in fighting like a common soldier.
Such is the preface I have thought fit to make for
the Lives of Pelopidas and Marcellus, great men who
rashly fell in battle. For both were most valiant
fighters, did honour to their countries in most illus-
trious campaigns, and what is more, had the most
formidable adversaries, one being the first, as we
are told, to rout Hannibal, who was before invincible,
the ether conquering in a pitched battle the Lace-
daemonians, who were supreme on land and sea ; and
yet they were careless of their own lives, and reck-

' * J

lessly threw them away at times when it was most
important that such men should live and hold

345



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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ol fjiev ov

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Kal ayj^dfyov rf/ TroXet TOV airav-
yjpovov f}\aTT(0(Te Trjv ovcriav. TWV Be (j)L\wv
Kal \ey6vTwv 009 dvaytcaiov rrpd-



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