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346



PELOPIDAS, IT. 5-iTi. 4

command. These are the resemblances between them
which have led me to write their lives in parallel.

III. Pelopidas the son of Hippoclus was of a
highly honourable family in Thebes, as was Epamin-
ondas, and having been reared in affluence, and
having inherited in youth a splendid estate, he
devoted himself to the assistance of worthy men
who needed it, that he might be seen to be really
master of his wealth, and not its slave. For most
wealthy men, as Aristotle says, 1 either make no use
of their wealth through avarice, or abuse it through
prodigality, and so they are forever slaves, these
to their pleasures, those to their business. The
rest, accordingly, thankfully profited by the kind-
ness and liberality of Pelopidas towards them ; but
Epaminondas was the only one of his friends whom
he could not persuade to share his wealth. Pelopidas,
however, shared the poverty of this friend, and
gloried in modest attire, meagre diet, readiness to
undergo hardships, and straightforward service as
a soldier. Like the Capaneus of Euripides, he " had
abundant wealth, but riches did not make him
arrogant at all, 2 ' and he was ashamed to let men
think that he spent more upon his person than the
poorest Theban. Now Epaminondas, whose poverty
was hereditary and familiar, made it still more light
and easy by philosophy, and by electing at the out-
set to lead a single life ; Pelopidas, on the contrary,
made a brilliant marriage, and had children too, but
nevertheless he neglected his private interests to
devote his whole time to the state, and so lessened
his substance. And when his friends admonished
him and told him that the possession of money, which



1 Fragment 5G (Rose) ; cf. Morals, p. 527 a.

2 Supplices, 863 f. (Kirchhoff, ViKurra 5' tf



347



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



TOV



* Kvay-
? TIVCL

oV Kttl TV<fi\OV.

IV. 'Hcraz; Se /cat TT/JO? Tracrav apeTTjv

OTi

, rco 8e pavd aveiv
, /cat ra? Siarpiftas ev rw cryo\d^eiv o JJLGV Trepl

/ \ ^ ' 5>\ * / \

/cat Kvviyyecria, o oe atcovcov n /cat
eTTOielro. TTO\\WV Be KOI Ka\wv
a/LKporepois TT/OO? S6%av, ovBev ol vovv
rjyovvrai T^\IKOVTOV rjXiicov rrjv &ia rocr-



OVTWV aya)vo)i> real arpaTriyiwv KOL
evvoiav KOI



2 reXou? efjLfjif.ivaaav. el yap rt? a7ro/9Xe"v/ra? rrjv

J AplCTTeL?)OV KOI e/JLl(7TOK\OVS KOL KtyLtft)^09 KOI

TTept/cXeou? /cat NIKLOV Kal'A\K!/3id8ov TroXirelav,
ocro)v yeyove fJLeaTrj &ia<f)op<Mi> /cal (frfloi'cov Kai

aiTO TTaKlV TT)V

o? y E>7ra/jieivci)v$av ev}j.eveLav /cal



Ti/j,iji>, TOVTOVS av op^w? /cat iKauws Trpoaayo-
pevaeie a-vvdp^ovTa^ Kal (rva-rpar^yov^ rj



ol /jbd\\ov aXX^Xwi' ij TWV
3 Trepielvcii $iere\eaav. alria Be akijOivv) fiev fjv rj
aperi], Si' rjv ov &6%av, ov TT\.OVTOV cnro

, ol? o ^aXevro? KOI Sv
bvos, aXX' epcoTa Oelov cnf /
ifyorepoi TOV rrjv TrarpiBa \ap,rrpo-
/cal fieyicmjv efi eavrcov IBelv



waTrep iBwLs eirl TOVTO rot? avrwv



Ov /JLTJV aXX' OL ye TroXXol vop,iovcriv avrois TT
crfpoBpdv d)i\iav cnro TT}? ev ^lavrt-veia

348



PELOPIDAS, in. 4-iv. 4

he scorned, was a necessary thing, " Yes indeed/'
he said, "necessary for this Nicodemus here," point-
ing to a man who was lame and blind.

IV. They were also fitted by nature for the
pursuit of every excellence, and in like measure, ex-
cept that Pelopidas delighted more in exercising the
bodjr, Epaminondas in storing the mind, so that the
one devoted his leisure hours to bodily exercise and
hunting, the other to lectures and philosophy. Both
had many claims upon the world's esteem, but wise
men consider none of these so great as the un-
questioned good will and friendship which subsisted
between them from first to last through all their
struggles and campaigns and civil services. For it
one regards the political careers of Themistocles and
Aristides, or of Cimon and Pericles, or of Nicias and
Alcibiades, which were so full of mutual dissensions,
envy ings, and jealousies, and then turns his eyes
upon the honour and kindly favour which Pelo-
pidas showed Epaminondas, he will rightly and
justly call these men colleagues in government and
command rather than those, who ever strove to get
the better of one another rather than of the enemy.
And the true reason for the superiority of the The-
bans was their virtue, which led them not to aim in
their actions at glory or wealth, which are naturally
attended by bitter envying and strife ; on the con-
trary, they were both filled from the beginning with
a divine desire to see their country become most
powerful and glorious in their day and by their
efforts, and to this end they treated one another's
successes as their own.

However, most people think that their ardent
friendship dated from the campaign at Mantineia, 1

1 In 418 B.C., when Athens gave assistance to Argos, Elis,
and Mantineia against Sparta. See the Alcibiades, xv. 1.

349



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



r)v (rvveo-Tpareva-avro
en <t'Xo9 /col crvfji/j,d%ois overt, ire/n^OeLcrr]^ etc

j3oi)6eias. rerajfjievot yap ev rot? oTrXtrat? 28
' d\\ij\a)v KOI [jLa^Q^evoi TT/DO? TOi/9
a>9 eveow/ce TO fear' avrous tcepas TWV
[jLoviwv real rpojrrj TO)V TTO\\WV eyeyovei, crvvacnri-
5 cravT<$ r)[JivvavTO TOU? eTTL^epo/Jievov^. KOL IleXo-
pew 7rra rpav/^ara \a$u>v evavTia TroXXoi?
vercpois OJJLOV <J>I\OL<$ /cat TroXfyutot?,
s Se, Ka'nrep a/Stcorw? e%eiv avrov
r)<yov/jievo$, vTrep rov crco^aro? fcal TWV oir\G)v
7rpoe\0a)v KOI ^ieKiv^vvevae irpos
, yw&KG)$ aiToOaveiv /xaXXoy rj
d7ro\i7relv K.eifj,erov. rj^rj 8e KCU TOVTOV

/cat XOY^T; yue^ et? TO arfjdo^, %i(f)i. Se et?
(3pa%iova Terpco/Aevov, Trpoaefiorj^ticrev OLTTO
Oarepov rep&)? ^Ay^criTroXt^ 6 fiaaiXev? TMV
fcal TrepieTroirjcrev a^eXTrtcrTw? au-



TOU?



V. MeTa 8e TavTa TMV ^TrapTiarwv \6y(p



TO



, fca fjiaicna rr)v

KOL AvopoK\ei8ov /jLicrovvTcov eraipeiav, ^9 yu.T6t-
^ei/ o IIeXo7rt8a9, $>i\e\ev0epov a/ia teal Srj/jiori-
2 Krjv elvai Sofcovcrav, 'A/r^t'a9 Arai Aeovri&as fcal
( E ) tXf7T7ro9, avSpe? o\t,yap)/iKol KOL ir\ovcrLOL KOI
perptov ov&i> fypovovvres, ava7rei6ovcri QuiftiSav
rov AaKMva fiera (rrparid^ Bia7ropev6/Avov e%al-
Kara\a^eiv TTJV KaS/jieiav real TOU9 virevav-
avTols K,8a\.6vra Trpos TO AaKe&cu-
VTTTKOOV apfjioffacrOai, Si o\iya)v TIJV TTO\L-
3 reiav. 7retcr^e^TO9 8' e/ceivov /cal fir)

350



PELOPIDAS, iv.-4-.v. 3

where they fought on the side of the Lacedaemonians,
who were still their friends and allies, and who
received assistance from Thebes. For they stood
side by side among the men-at-arms and fought
against the Arcadians, and when the Lacedaemonian
wing to which they belonged gave way and was
routed for the most part, they locked their shields
together and repelled their assailants. Pelopidas,
after receiving seven wounds in front, sank down
upon a great heap of friends and enemies who
lay dead together ; but Epaminondas, although he
thought him lifeless, stood forth to defend his body
and his arms, and fought desperately, single handed
against many, determined to die rather than leave
Pelopidas lying there. And now he too was in a
sorry plight, having been wounded in the breast
with a spear and in the arm with a sword, when
Agesipolis the Spartan king came to his aid from the
other wing, and when all hope was lost, saved them
both.

V. After this the Spartans ostensibly treated the
Thebans as friends and allies, but they really looked
with suspicion on the ambitious spirit and the power
of the city, and above all they hated the party of
Ismenias and Androcleides, to which Pelopidas be-
longed, and which was thought to be friendly to
freedom and a popular form of government. There-
fore Archias, Leontidas, and Philip, men of the
oligarchical faction who were rich and immoderately
ambitious, sought to persuade Phoebidas the Spartan,
as he was marching past with an army, to take the
Cadmeia by surprise, expel from the city the party
opposed to them, and bring the government into
subserviency to the Lacedaemonians by putting it in
the hands of a few men. Phoebidas yielded to their



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



rols (jb?/3atO9 eirLOe^evov ecrfi.o(f)Opia)V ovrwv,
l Tj}9 aKpa<$ Kvpievcravros, 'Icr/t^ta? uev crvvap-
KCU KOfiiarOel^ et? AaKeBai/jiova /xer* ov
TTO\VV %povov dvypeOr), Tle\07riBa<? Be KOI <&epe-
Kal 'Ai/Spo/cXetSa? /JLCTO, av\ywv aXXwv <f)ev-

Se Kara



VI. 'E7T6/ 6

a/3%^9 #al Se/ca

v, TTJV Se Kabfieiav ov&ev rjrrov fypovpa
, ol /j,ev aXXot Travres" EiXXrjves edav/j,a-
droTriav, el TOV fjiev irpd^avra K0\d^ov(n,



rr]i> ^e Trpa^iv ^OKifid^ovcn, rot? Be 7;y9atoi? rrjv



Trdrpiov dTrofieftXiifcocri TroXirelav KOI

\(0/jLevoi<; VTTO TWV 7repl 'Ap%iav /cal AeovrlSav

ov&e e\7rtcrat TrepiTjV diraXXa'yrjv TWO, r/}? Tvpav-

2 vlBos, r)v eaypwv rfj ^TrapTiarwv ^opv<^opovfjievr]v

ia KOL Kara\v0t}vai f^rj ^vva^evriv, el
apa Travcreie KaKeivovs ryrjs KOI

ov JJL^V a\\' ol Trepl AeovriSav TrvvQa-
TOU? (fyvydbas ' A.6r)vrfcn Siarpifteiv ry re
7r/30<T0tXet? 6Wa? Kal Ti/jLrjv e^o^ra? VTTO
TWV Ka\a)v Kal dyaQwv, eTre/Sovkevov avrols Kpv-
<j)a' Kal Tre/u/v^az'Te? dvOpunrovs dyvwras 'Av&po-
K\i$av /jiev airoKTivvvovai So'X.ut, rwv Be a\\a)v

3 Bia/jLaprdvovaiv. rjKe Be Kal irapa AaKeSatfiomcov

rot? 'A^iWoi? TrpoardcrdovTa /J,r) Be-
/j,r)Se TrapaKivelv, aXX' e%e\ai>veiv TOI)?
a)? KOIVOVS 7ro\e/4Lovs VTTO ra>v

352



PELOPIDAS, v. 3-vi. 3

persuasions, made his attack upon the Thebans when
they did not expect it, since it was the festival of
the Thesmophoria, and got possession of the citadel. 1
Then Ismenias was arrested, carried to Sparta, and
after a little while put to death ; while Pelopidas,
Pherenicus, Androcleides and many others took to
flight and were proclaimed outlaws. Epaminondas,
however, was suffered to remain in the city, because
his philosophy made him to be looked down upon as
a recluse, and his poverty as impotent.

VI. But when the Lacedaemonians deprived Phoe-
bidas of his command and fined him a hundred
thousand drachmas, and yet held the Cadmeia with
a garrison notwithstanding, all the rest of the Greeks
were amazed at their inconsistency, since thev pun-
ished the wrong-doer, but approved his deed. And as
for the Thebans, they had lost their ancestral form
of government and were enslaved by Archias and
Leontidas, nor had they hopes of any deliverance
from this tyranny, which they saw was guarded by
the dominant military power of the Spartans and
could not be pulled down unless those Spartans
should somehow be deposed from their command of
land and sea. Nevertheless, Leontidas and his as-
sociates, learning that the fugitive Thebans were
living at Athens, where they were not only in favour
with the common people but also honoured by the
nobility, secretly plotted against their lives, and
sending men who were unknown, they treacherously
killed Androcleides, but failed in their designs upon
the rest. There came also letters from the Lacedae-
monians charging the Athenians not to harbour or
encourage the exiles, but to expel them as men

1 In the winter of 382 B.C. Cf. the Agesilaiis, xxiii.
3-7.

353



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

4 aTToBeBeiyfjievovs. ol /JLCV ovv \\0ijvaloi, TT/DO? TW
irdrpiov avTols KOI av/j.(j)vrov elvai TO <f)i\dv& pco-

7TOV, d/jLl/36/AVOl TOU9 H?7/3atOU5 fJidXlCTTa CTVVai-

TtoL"? yevofjievovs TO> BIJ/AM rov Kare\0elv, real
frrjtyiaafAevovs, edv riS ' A.0r)vaia)V e-Trl TOI>? rvpdv-
vovs 07r\a Bid TT)? Boiwrta? KOfii^y, firjSeva
TOV drcoveiv /J,rjSe 6pdi>, ovSev



VII. 'O Be Yle\O7riBa<>, KaiTrep ev rois vecord-

Kdl 7T/309 TO 7r\fjuO<> 7TOl,r)(TClTO \oyOV$, 609 28]

tca\ov ovre ocriov ei'rf l Bov\evovcrav rrjv
TrarpiBa KOL fypovpovfJievrjv Trepiopdv, avrovs Be
fjiovov TO (TOi^ecrOat /cal Bia^rjv dycnrwvTas efCKpe-
fj,aa6ai, ra)v A&tfviycri ^ryi^KTfjidrwv KOU 6epa-

/f / >\^-V/ f

ireveiv v7ro7r7TT(i)Kora^ aei TOIS A,eyiv ovvafjievois

2 real TreiOetv rov o^Xov, d\\d KivSvvevreov vjrep
ra)v {Ayi<TTO)v, Trap doe iyfJid OefAevovs T^JV paa~v-
Sov\ov roX-Liav Kai dperriv, iva, 9 eicelvos etc

l I

rj{3a)V Trporepov op/jLr)dels fcare\vae rovs ev \
vais rvpdvvovs, oi/TQ)9 avrol 7rd\tv e *A
Trpoe\6ovT<$ \evdep(t)<T(jL>cn T9 @7;y5a9. &>9 ovv
ravra \eywv, Tre/jLTrova-iv els ?y/9a9 Kpv(f)a
>09 TOi'9 v7ro\e\eifji/jLvovs TWV (f)i\cov Ta BeBoy-

3 [leva (frpd^ovres. ol Be avvejnivovv /cal Xdpcov

' " ' JL ' f -v '

fj^ev, ocTTrep ?]v eirKpaveo'TCiros, (i)LLO\,oy?)(T
oiKiav Trape^eiv, QiXhiBas Be Bierrpd^aro
jrepl ^Apxiav Kal <&i\i7T7rov ypa/bi/Aarevs yevecrdai
7ro\/jLap%ovvra)v. E,7rajueiv(t)vBa<? Be TOU9 veovs
1 fl-n Coraes and Bekker, with most MSS. : flvai with A.

1 In 403 B.C., when Thrasybulus set out from Thebes on
his campaign against the Thirty Tyrants at Athens (Xcno-
phon. Hell. ii. 4, 2).

354



PELOPIDAS, vi. 4-vn. 3

declared common enemies by the allied cities. The
Athenians, however, not only yielding to their tradi-
tional and natural instincts of humanity, but also

/ *

making a grateful return for the kindness of the
Thebans, who had been most ready to aid them in
restoring their democracy, 1 and had passed a decree
that if any Athenians marched through Boeotia
against the tyrants in Athens, no Boeotian should
see or hear them, did no harm to the Thebans in
their city.

VII. But Pelopidas, although he was one of the
youngest of the exiles, kept inciting each man of
them privately, and when they met together
pleaded before them that it was neither right nor
honourable for them to suffer their native city to be
garrisoned and enslaved, and, content with mere life
and safety, to hang upon the decrees of the Athen-
ians, and to be always cringing and paying court to
such orators as could persuade the people ; nay, they
must risk their lives for the highest good, and take
Thrasybulus and his bold valour for their example,
in order that, as he once sallied forth from Thebes '
and overthrew the tyrants in Athens, so they in their
turn might go forth from Athens and liberate Thebes.
When, therefore, they had been persuaded by his
appeals, they sent secretly to the friends they had
left in Thebes, and told them what they purposed.
These approved their plan ; and Charon, a man of
the highest distinction, agreed to put his house at
their disposal, while Phillidas contrived to have him-
self appointed secretary to Archias and Philip, the
polemarchs. Epaminondas, 2 too, had long since filled

3 There is no mention either of Epaminondas or Pelopidas
in Xenophon's account of these matters (II dl. v. 4, 1-12),
and his story differs in many details from that of Plutarch.

355



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



TraXcu (frpovtjijLaTos r\v e/i7re7r XT; /<? K\eve yap
ev rot? yv/jLvacriois 7U\afji/3dvecr6ai TMV AaKeBat-
fjLovioyv real iraXaieiv, elra opwv eTrl TM Kpareiv
teal irepielvai <yavpov}jLevov<; eVeTrA/^TTei', &><?
ala")(yveaQai /j,a\\ov avrols 7rpocrf)Kov, el Bov\ev~
ovai 8*' avavbpiav ow TOCTOVTOV rat?



VIII. 'H/^-e/oa? Be TT/QO? rrjv irpa^iv 6picr0eicrr]<;,
e8oe rot? (f>vydcri TOU? yaei^ aXXof? a-vvayayovra
<&epeviKOV ev TW Qpiacriw Trepi^eveLv, oXt'you? Se
TWV vewrdTwv 7rapa(Ba\e<jdai TrpoeiaeXOelv 6i?
Trjv 7ro\iv, edv Be TL TrdOwaiv VTTO TWV Tro
OVTOI, rou? aXXof? e7ri/jLe\Lcrdai, Trdvras O
fj,rjTe TraiBes avrwv yu,f;re yovels eVSeet? e&ovrai
2 TWV dva^Kaiwv. v^LararaL Be TIJV Trpd^iv IleXo-

, elra MeXto^ Kal Aa/to/cXetSa? ral

, dvBpe? OLKCOV T 7Tp(i)T(OV Kal 7T/30?

ra aXXa /ze^ (^XtArw? /cat TTICTTWS, vTrep
Be B6ij<? real dvBpeia? del ^tXo^et/ca)? e^o^re?.
Be ol GVjjLTravTes BaiBeKa, KOL TOU? a?ro-






\i7ro/jLevovs dcTTracrd^evoi, Kal

TW Xdpcovi, Trpofjyov ev ')(\afj,vBiois,
T OrjpaTiKa^ Kal (nd\iKas e^oz're?, co?
TOTrrevoi TWV evrvy^avovTWV Ka6' 6Bov,
aXX aXvovres aXXa)? 7T\avdcr6ai Kal
BoKoiev.

3 'Evrel Se o Tre/Lt^et? Trap' avra)i> ayyeXo? ?^/
TT/OO? TOZ; Xa/3&>i/a al a^' oSot' 6Wa? etypa^ev,
auro? /Ltei/ o Xdpcov ovBe VTTO TOV Beivov 7r\rj<Tid-
&VTOS erpe^re n TJ}? 7^/^779, aXX' ai'^
rjv Kal Trapel^e rrjv OLKiav, < \Trrroa'6evi^a^ Be
ot> Trovrjpos /xev, aXXa /cat (f)i\07raTpi<; Kal
(frvydcriv evvovs avOptoiros, evBerjs Be

35 6



PELOPIDAS, vn. 3-vni. 3

the minds of the Theban youth with high thoughts ;
for he kept urging them in the gymnastic schools to
try the Lacedaemonians in wrestling, and when he
saw them elated with victory and mastery, he would
chide them, telling them they ought rather to be
ashamed, since their cowardice made them the slaves
of the men whom they so far surpassed in bodily
powers.

VIII. A day for the enterprise having been fixed, 1
the exiles decided that Pherenicus, with the rest of
the party under his command, should remain in the
Thriasian plain, while a few of the youngest took the
risk of going forward into the city ; and if anything
happened to these at the hands of their enemies, the
rest should all see to it that neither their children nor
their parents came to any want. Pelopidas was first
to undertake the enterprise, then Melon, Damoclei-
des, and Theopompus, men of foremost families, and
of mutual fidelity and friendship, although in the
race for heroic achievement and glory they were
constant rivals. When their number had reached
twelve, they bade farewell to those who stayed be-
hind, sent a messenger before them to Charon, and
set out in short cloaks, taking hunting dogs and nets
with them, that anyone who met them on the road
might not suspect their purpose, but take them for
hunters beating about the country.

When their messenger came to Charon and told
him they were on the way, Charon himself did not
change his mind at all even though the hour of peril
drew nigh, but was a man of his word and prepared
his house to receive them; a certain Hippostheni-
das, however, not a bad man, nay, both patriotic and
well disposed towards the exiles, but lacking in that

1 In the winter of 370 KC.

357



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

oVr;? 6 re /caipos 6i>9 &>i> at re vrroKei-
fJievai rrpd^eis a/irfitovv, wcrirep i\iyyid<ras rrpos
TO iieyeOos rov dywvos ev %pcrl yevofjievov, teal
/uoXt9 TTore ru> Xoyicr/jifo (rv/ji(j)povr](Tas on rporrov
nvd rrjv TWV AarceScii/jioviwv aa~\.vov(Tiv dp^rjv
KOI rrjs etcelOev Suva/lews v7roftd\\oi>Tai Kard-
\vati', 7ricrTv<TavT<> airoois KOL



\TTl(TLV, d7T\0(it)l> o'iKaSe (TLMTrf) 7T/JL7Tl TlVCi

<pi\a>v 7rpo9 MeXo>z>a KOI rieXomtat', dvafiaXe

K\VO)V V TM TTdpOVTi KOL TTeplfjieveiV /3e\TLOl'a



rjv ovofjia TO> Tre^OevTL, KCL\ Kara crrrovBrji'
rrpos avrov r parr operas teal rov 'trrrrov e^ayaycav
5 rjrei rov %a\ivov. drropov/jLv>iS Se TI)?
o)<? OVK el%e Bovvai, KCL\ ^pr\(jai nvi rwv
\eyovcn]?, Xoioopiai ro rrpwrov r^aav, elra
niai, Tt}? yvvaiKos errapw/jievrjs avrM re
0801/9 Kii'0) teal TOt9 rre/ATrouo'iv, warre /cal rov
XXtSw^a TroXi) T^9 7;/.te/?a9 dva\axravra rrpbs
rovrois Si opytjv, a/ia Se teal TO <rfya/3e/3?;A:o9
oiwviffdfjievov, d(j)Lvai rrjv oBov 0X0)9 Kal 77/909
XXo n rparreaOai. rrapd rocrovrov ftey rf\6ov 28
al /iieyiarai Kal Ka\\L(rrat rwv rrpd^eaiv evOvs ev
dpxfj &ia$>v<yelv rov Kaipov.

IX. Ot Be rrepl rov Tle^orriSav &9r)ra$ yewp-
JMV [JLera\a[Bovres Kal Sie\6vres avrovs aXXot
Kar\ aXXa //epr; rrjs 7roXe&)9 rrapeiafjX^ov ert,
fj/jiepas ovcr^s. fjv &e n rrvev^a Kal
ap"%Ofjievov rperrecrdat, rov depos, Kal
e\a6ov Kararre^evyorcov ijBT) Sid rov ^eif^Mva rwv
rr\ei(Trwv et9 T9 OLKias. 0^9 Se r)i> eTTip,e\e<; rd
rrparrofjieva yivdoffKeLV, dve\dfji(3ai>ov roi>s Trpocr-
epxo/JLevovs Kal KaQiarw evOus eis ri-jv olfciav

358



PELOPIDAS, vin. 3-ix. i

degree of boldness which the sharp crisis and the pro
jected enterprise demanded, was made dizzy, so -.to
speak, by the magnitude of the struggle now so close
at hand, and at last comprehended that, in undertaking
to overthrow the armed force in the city, they were
in a manner trying to shake the empire of the Lace-
daemonians, and had placed their reliance on the hopes
of men in exile and without resources. He therefore
went quietly home, and sent one of his friends to
Melon and Pelopidas, urging them to postpone the
enterprise for the present, go back to Athens, and
await a more favourable opportunity. Chlidon was
the name of this messenger, and going to his own
home in haste, he brought out his horse and asked
for the bridle. His wife, however, was embarrassed
because she could not give it to him, and said she
had lent it to a neighbour. Words of abuse were
followed by imprecations, and his wife prayed that
the journey might prove fatal both to him and
to those that sent him. Chlidon, therefore, after
spending a great part of the day in this angry
squabble, and after making up his mind, too, that
what had happened was ominous, gave up his journey
entirely and turned his thoughts to something else.
So near can the greatest and fairest enterprises come,
at the very outset, to missing their opportunity.

IX. But Pelopidas and his companions, after put-
ting on the dress of peasants, and separating, entered
the city at different points while it was yet day.
There was some wind and snow as the weather
began to change, and they were the more un-
observed because most people had already taken
refuge from the storm in their houses. Those, how-
ever, whose business it was to know what was going
on, received the visitors as they came, and brought

35V



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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KOVTa BVOLV BeovTes.
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rjpepav etceivrjv etc irdkaiov fcaTijy<y\Ka)<t rot?
TOV *&idv TTOTOV Tiva KOL crvvovaiav teal



<yvvaia rwv vTrdv&pwv, eTrparrev on
rat? rjbovais K\e\v/evovs KOI Karoivovs

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OVTOS TOV \6jOV, OyLtft)? 'AyO^ta? 7TfJi^re TIVCL TWV

vTrrjperwv TT/DO? TOV Xdpwva, TrpocrTdcrawv evOvs
avTov. rjv Be eaTrepa, KOI wveTaTTOv evBov
ol Trepl TOV He\o7riBav, ijBt] Tedcopa/ci-

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Be KOTTTO/jLevrjs TT}? 6vpas TrpoaSpa/uwv rt?, real
TfvBofjievos TOV vTr^peTov Xdpatva fjieTievai Trapa
TWV Tro\/jidp'%(i)v (f)d(7KovTO^, dTnjyyei\ev etcrw

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eKfjL,fJLy]vvadai real cr^a? drravTa^ a-TroXtw-
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aXX' e'So^ev vTraKovaai TOV X.dpwva Kal
eavTOV Belv dvvTroTTTCos rot? dp^ovcriv,
aXXo.i? fj,ev dvBp&Brj Kal fiapvv ovra TO) Gappelv

5 rrapd Ta Beivd, TOTC Be Bi* e/ceivovs eKTreTrXriy-
fjievov Kal TrepnraOovvTa, /j,/) rt? vTro^ria Trpo-

360



PELOPIDAS, ix. 1-5

them at once to the house of Charon ; and there
were, counting the exiles, forty-eight of them.

With the tyrants, matters stood as follows. Pliil-
lidas, their secretary, as I have said, was privy to the
plans of the exiles and was co-operating fully with
them, and some time before had proposed for that day
that Archias and his friends should have a drinking-
bout, at which a few married women should join them,
his scheme being that when they were full of wine and
completely relaxed in their pleasures, he would de-
liver them into the hands of their assailants. But
before the party were very deep in their cups, some
information was suddenly brought them, not false,
indeed, but uncertain and very vague, that the exiles
were concealed in the city. Although Phillidas tried
to change the subject, Archias nevertheless sent one
of his attendants to Charon, commanding him to come
to him at once. It was evening, and Pelopidas and his
companions in Charon's house were getting them-
selves ready for action, having already put on their
breastplates and taken up their swords. Then there
was a sudden knocking at the door. Someone ran to
it, learned from the attendant that he was come from
the polemarchs with a summons for Charon, and
brought the news inside, much perturbed. All were
at once convinced that their enterprise had been
revealed, and that they themselves were all lost,
before they had even done anything worthy of their
valour. However, they decided that Charon must
obey the summons and present himself boldly before
the magistrates. Charon was generally an intrepid



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