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man and of a stern courage in the face of danger,
but in this case he was much concerned and fright-
ened on account of his friends, and feared that some



361



PLUTARCH'S LIVES
ta? eV avrov e\0rj rocr&vraiv a/ma teal roiov-



ovv



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irepl ITeX-oTT i&av , el TIVCL $6\ov teal



avrov



6 eiceivu) KOL ^ (frei&ecrOai. 7ro\\oi$ fjiev ovv avrwv
Bd/cpva ?rpo? TO rrdOos teal TO 0/3o^yua TOU Xa-



elval TLva So/cei real SiefyOapiJievov VTTO rov
ovros, w<TTe vTTOvoelv etcelvov r) oXw? alrtd-
KOI TOV vtbv eSeovro fir) Kara/jLiyvveiv av-
XX' K7To8a)v 0ar9ai rov yu-eXXo^TO?, OTTO)?
auTO? ye TJJ 7r6\i teal rots (f)i\OL<t -n^wpo^ VTTO-
rpe(f)oiTO vrepLo-foOels ical Sicupvyoov TOI)? Tvpdv-
7 vov$. 6 Be Xdpcov TOV fjiev viov dira\\d^eLV OVK



' iroov yap avru> ftiov opav r) rva
fca\\iora T^}? O^LOV perd Trarpos Kal <pi\cov roaov-



TCDV vviarov TeXeuT?? ; eVeia'xeyo? 8e



t? /cal jrdvras dairaa'dfjLevo^ Kal irapaOappvvas
dirrjet, 7rpocre%a)i> eavrw Kal pvO^i^wv a^r)fj.an
Trpocra>7rov Kal rovo) <p(ovr/<? dvofjioioraro^ ol?
errparre <f)avr)vai.

X. Tevo/jievov 8' eVt Tat? Ovpais avrov, irpo-
fj\0v 6 'Ap^ta?, Kal ^XXt'^a?, 1 Kal elirev "*n
Xapcov, nvds aKtjKoa 7rape\ij\v06ras ev rfj 7ro\ei
KpvTrrecrOai, Kal (rv/jLTrpdrreiv avrols eviovk rwv
TroXirwv" Kal 6 Xdpcov 8iarapa^0el<; TO Trpw-
rov, elra e/3WTr;cra? T/i/e? elcrlv ol 7rape\r)\v66re<>
Kal TtVe? 01 Kpvrrrovres avrovs, a>? ov&ev ecopa



with the MSS. : lf/\jTr7ros, Bryan's correction
(cf. Morals, p. 595 f.). Bckker brackets Kal $i\nnros.

362



PELOPIDAS, ix. 5-x. i

suspicion of treachery would fall upon him if so many
and such excellent citizens now lost their lives. Ac-
cordingly, as he was about to depart, he brought his
son from the women's apartments, a mere boy as yet,
but in beauty and bodily strength surpassing those of
his years, and put him in the hands of Pelopidas, tell-
ing him that if he found any guile or treachery in the
father, he must treat the son as an enemy and show
him no mercy. Many were moved to tears by the
noble concern which Charon showed, and all were
indignant that he should think any one of them so
demoralized by the present peril and so mean-spirited
as to suspect him or blame him in the least. They
also begged him not to involve his son with them,
but to put him out of harm's way, that he might
escape the tyrants and live to become an avenger of
his city and his friends. Charon, however, refused
to take his son away, asking if any kind of life or
any safety could be more honourable for him than a
decorous death with his father and all these friends.
Then he addressed the gods in prayer, and after
embracing and encouraging them all, went his way,
striving so to compose his countenance and modulate
his voice as not to betray w r hat he was really doing.

X. When he reached the door of the house,
Archias came out to him, with Phillidas, and said :
"Charon, I have heard that certain men have come
and hid themselves in the city, and that some of the
citizens are in collusion with them." Charon was
disturbed at first, but on asking who the men were
that had come and who were concealing them, he
saw that Archias could give no clear account of the

3 6 3



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

es eiTrelv e%ovTa rov ' Ap%t,av, vrrovoijcras air 28
ovbevos TWV eTrKnanevwv yeyovevctt, rrjv fj,i']vvo~iv t



e Toivvv" e</>7/, " yit?) tfez/o? Ti? u/^a?
T) Xoyos. ou /47?y aXXa (TKe"^rop,ar Bel
2 7*1/3 tVa>9 yu^8e^o? Ka-ratypoveiv" ravra teal



KOI TOV



yaycov avQis ei? aKparov TTO\VV Kare/3a\, /cat
rats Tie/oi TW^ <yvvaiKWV \7ri(Ti SieTraiSaycoyei

TOV TTQTOV. CO? S' 7Tavf)\0V 6 Xdp(t)V OLKdSe

Kal Sie<TKva(T/jL6vovs Toi/9 aVS/oa? evpev ov% &>?
az/ Tti/a vircriv rj awrrjpLav eXiri^ovra^, aXX' a>?
aTTo0avovn,evov<; Xa/^Trpw? al /Ltera fyovov TroXXo?)
TWP TToXe/jLLMV, TO yuez^ d\ij8es avrois e<ppae rot?
7T6/ot TOI^ rTeXoTrtSay, TT/DO? 5e Tou? aXXoi/? etyev-
craro Xoyou? Tivas TOV Ap^iov rrepl Trpay/.idT(0v



:i "Eri Se roi) rrpcoTov rrapafapoiJLevov Sevrepov
eTrfjyev rj TV%IJ yziii&va rot? dvSpdaiv. r)/ce ydp
TJ? e^ ' K6rivCov rrapa *-A.p%iov TOV iepocpdvTov

7T/3O? 'A/3^tai^ TOZ^ O/JLtoVV/AOV, %.VOV OVTd KOi (f)L\OV t

Tria-TO\i]v KOfjLL^oov ov Kevrjv e^ouaav ov&e rre-
Tf\acr fievrjv virovoiav, aXXa cra(/)w? e/cdara irepl
TMV 7rpa(T(ro/jiev(dv fyaGKOvaav, w? varepov
t <yvw<r6r]. Tore Se fJLeOvovTt, TU>
6 ypa/ji/iiaTO<f)6po$ Kal
" 'O TUVTIJV

avayvwvai.' rrcpl (nrov&aicov ydp TLVWV
yeypd(f)0ai" Kal 6 'A/^ta? fJLei&id&as, " OVKOVV
et? avpiov" (f>r), " TO,



TO






, auTO5 Se Trd\iv TM QiXXiSa rrepl wv

rrpocrel^ei'. o /JLCV ovv \6yos OV



3 6 4



PKLOPIDAS. x. r-4

matter, and conjectured that his information had not
come from any of those who were privy to the plot.
He therefore said : " Do not, then, suffer any empty
rumour to disturb you. However, I will look into
the matter; for perhaps no story should be ignored."
Phillidas, too, who stood by, approved of this, and
after leading Archias back, got him to drink hard,
and tried to protract the revel with hopes of a visit
from the women. But Charon, when he got back
home, and found the men there disposed, not to
expect safety or victory at all, but to die gloriously
after a great slaughter of their enemies, told the
truth only to Pelopidas himself, while for the rest he
concocted a false tale that Archias had talked with
him about other matters. 1

Before this first storm had yet blown over, for-
tune brought a second down upon the men. For
there came a messenger from Athens, from Archias
the hierophant to his namesake Archias, who was his
guest-friend, bearing a letter which contained no
empty nor false suspicion, but stated clearlv all the
details of the scheme that was on foot, as was subse-
quently learned. At the time, however, Archias was
drunk, and the bearer of the letter was brought to
him and put it into his hands, saying: "The sender
of this bade thee read it at once ; for it is on serious
business." Then Archias answered with a smile :
"Serious business for the morrow"; and when he
had received the letter he put it under his pillow,
and resumed his casual conversation with Phillidas.

1 According to Plutarch's lengthy version of this aftair in
his Discourse concerning the Daemon of Socrates (chapter 29,
Morals, p. 595 f . ), Chai-on hid the truth from no one.

365



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



e Trapoifias raet TTepipofJLevos pt\pi> vvv
8tacro>eTat Trapa -rot? f/ EXXr;o-j.

XI. Tr}? Se Trpa^eeo? SoKovarj^ e^eiv ijS'rj TOV
oLKelov tcatpov, e^pfiwv &t%a SteXoyre? avrovs,
ol fJLev Trepl He\oTr iBav /cat Aa/-to/<:Xetai> eVt
TOZ/ Keovri&av KOI TOV "TTrdrrjv eyyvs d\\,ij\a>v



rot? 0ct)paj;i, teal a<76t<? crre^ai'of? e'Xar*;? T6 /cat

7T6VKTJS 7TplKi/4VOl, KaTaa'Kld^OVTa^ TO, 7Tp6(T-

2 a)7ra. Sto /cat rat? 8vpai<$ TOV (rvfJiirocrLov TO
irp&rov eVtaTa^Te?, /cpoTOv eTTOLrjcrav Kal Oopvftov
olofjLevwv 09 TraXat Trpoa-eSoKcw yvvaiKas rficeiv.
tVet Se TrepL^\e^avTe^ ev KVK\W TO crvfjLTrocriov
l TWV KaTaKK\ifj.ei>(0i> eKacrTOv



ecnrcravTo ra? uaata?, /cat



5ta rwj' Tpaire^wv eVt TOZ^ 'Ap^tav /cat
3 c t ) t / 7U7r7roz> <f)di>ricrav otVep rjcrav, 6~\,i<yov$ fiev o



ayeiv, TOU? Sc aXXpi>5 d^vveaOaL yuera rwi' TroXe-



Kal



Bid Tr/;; fj,[email protected]]v ov irdvv

Tot? 8e ?rept

OTT^VTa TO 7rpd<y/jLa' Kal <ydp eVt vrjfyovTa Kal
Seivbv avSpa TOV AeovTiSav e^wpovv, Kal KCK\I-
TTJV oiKiav evpov ijSi] Ka0vSovTO$, Kal

pOVOV KOTTTOVGIV aUTOt? VTDJKOVCV Ol)5et?.

4 /ioXt? ^e Trore TOU OepdirovTos alcrOofjievov irpol-
OVTOS ev&oOev Kal TOV fjLoy^Xov d(baLpovvTO<$, afia
TW TrputTOv evSovvai Kal ya\daai, ra? Ovpas
e/zTrecro^Te? dOpoot Kal TOV oiKeTtjv dvaTp\jravT<;
7rl TOV 6d\ap,ov wpfjirjaav. 6 $e AeovTiSas avTw
TKfj,aip6fjivo<; T(p KTVTTtp Kal Bpo/jLw TO <yiyvo-

366



PKLOPIDAS. x. 4 xi. 4

Wherefore these words of his are a current proverb
to this day among the Greeks.

XI. Now that the fitting time for their under-
taking seemed to have come,, they sallied forth in
two bands ; one, under the lead of Pelopidas and
Damocleidas, against Leontidas and Hypates, who
lived near together ; the other against Archias and
Philip, under Charon and Melon, who had put on
women's apparel over their breastplates, and wore
thick garlands of pine and fir which shaded their
faces. For this reason, when they stood at the door
of the banquet-room, at first the company shouted
and clapped their hands, supposing that the women
whom they had long been expecting were come.
But then, after surveying the banquet and carefully
marking each of the reclining guests, the visitors
drew their swords, and rushing through the midst of
the tables at Archias and Philip, revealed who they
were. A few of the guests were persuaded by
Phillidas to remain quiet, but the rest, who, with the
polemarchs, offered resistance and tried to defend
themselves, were dispatched without any trouble,
since they were drunk.

Pelopidas and his party, however, were confronted
with a harder task ; for Leontidas, against whom
they were going, was a sober and formidable man,
and they found his house closed, since he had already
gone to bed. For a long time no one answered their
knocking, but at last the attendant heard them and
came out and drew back the bolt. As soon as the
door yielded and gave way, they rushed in together,
overturned the servant, and hastened towards the
bed-chamber. But Leontidas, conjecturing what was
happening by the very noise and trampling, rose from



36;



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

5 p,evov, eo~Trd(Taro fjiev rb e<y%ipiBiov e^avaards,
e\ade Be avrbv Kara/3 a\eiv ra \i>xya Kal Bid



aurou? eaf rot? Treptrreres Troicrai, TOU?
dvBpa<$. ev Be (fxorl TroXXa) KaOopatfjuevos, v



ra? va$ avTos rov a^ov, KOI TOV



irpwrov elaiovra K.^^iaoBcopoi' Trara^a? /care-
(3a\e. Trecro^TO? Be rovrov Bevrepa) GvveTT\eKeTO
TM He\o7riBa' Kol TTJV fid^rjif ^a\7rrjv eiroiet real
Bvaepyov rj arevoTT)^ TWV Ovpwv Kal
6 e/JLTToBayv ijBij i>eKpo$ o K?/0tc7o8a>^o?.

8' ovv o IleXoTTt^a?, Kal Karepyaadfjievo^ rov 28
AeovriBav errl rov 'Tirdr^v ev&u$ e^a)pei yuera
rMV avv avrro. Kal rrapeiaerreaov fjiev et? rrjv
oiKiav oyaotco?, alaOofj&vov Be ra^ew? /cat Kara-
(frwyovra Trpo? TOV? yeirovas, EK TroBwv Bi(*)avre$
el\ov Kal Bt,e<j)06ipav.

XII. Aiairpaj;d/jLevoi Be ravra Kal rot? Trepl



eVt TOU? V7ro\e\i/j./u,evovs eKel rcov
, Ka\ovv Be TOW? TroXtra? e'?n r^ e\ev-
Oepiav, Kal TOL>? rrpoaiovTas &7T\idv, dtyaipouvres
diro rwv (rro&v ra TrepiKei/jLeva aKv\a, Kal ra
Trepl rrjv oiKiav epyaarrfpia Bopv^owv Kal iLaycu-

2 poTTOiwv dvapprjyvvvres. TJKOV Be /3oi]0ovvres
auroi? /j,era rwv OTrXcov ol Trepl 'EiTra/jLeivwvBav
Kal TopyuBav, (rvvei\o%6res OVK o\iyovs rwv ve&yv
Kal rwv TTpecrfivreptov TOL/? fSe\rLarovs. y] Be
TToXt? ^87; [lev dveirrorjro rraaa, Kal TroXu? 66pv-
/3o? TJV Kal (pwra Trepl ra? ot'/aa? Kal BiaBpojjial
Trpo? aXX^Xou?, OVTTW Be o~vveicrrt]Kei rb 7rX7)^o?,
aXX KTr7r\r)<y/jLevoi, TT/JO? ra yivo/jieva Kal cra<e?

3 ovBev elBores rffjuepav rrepiefjievov. o9ev d,f.iaprelv ol
rwvA.aKe^aifjLOviwvdp'^ovre^ eBo^av evOus OVK em-

368



PELOPIDAS, xi. 5-xn. 3

bed and drew his dagger, but he forgot to over-
throw the lamps and make the men fall foul of one
another in the darkness. On the contrary, exposed
to view by an abundance of light, he went to meet
them at the door of his chamber, and struck down
the first one that entered, Cephisodorus. When this
assailant had fallen, he engaged Pelopidas next ; and
their conflict was rendered troublesome and difficult
by the narrowness of the door and by Cephisodorus,
whose body, now dead, lay in their way. But at last
Pelopidas prevailed, and after dispatching Leontidas,
he and his followers went at once to attack Hypates.
They broke into his house as they had done into the
other, but he promptly perceived their design and
fled for refuge to his neighbours. Thither they
closely followed him, and caught him, and slew him.
XII. These things accomplished, they joined
Melon's party, and sent into Attica for the exiles they
had left there. 1 They also summoned the citizens to
fight for their freedom, and armed those who came,
taking from the porticos the spoils suspended there,
and breaking open the neighbouring workshops of
spear-makers and sword-makers. Epaminondas and
Gorgidas also came to their aid with an armed fol-
lowing, composed of many young men and the best
of the older men. And now the city was all in a
flutter of excitement, there was much noise, the
houses had lights in them, and there was running to
and fro. The people, however, did not yet assemble ;
they were terrified at what was going on, and had
no clear knowledge of it, and were waiting for day.
Wherefore the Spartan commanders were thought to
have made a mistake in not attacking and engaging

1 Cf chapter viii. 1.

369



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



ovBe eriy^/SaXone?, avrrj /JLCV rj (frpovpa
Trepl %i\iovs TrevTaKoaiovs oWe?, tc Be T% TroXews 1
7T/50? avTovs TToXXwi' crvvrpc^ovTcov, aXXa rrjv
ftorjv KOI rd Trvpd Kal rbi> o^Xov






4 Tr)i> a/A6ta^ KaT%ovT$. a/jia e r^epa Trap-
fjcrav n>ev CK TT}? ^AmKr)^ ol <f)vydSe<} eoTrXtcryaei'Ot,
Be els Trjv eKK\r)ai.av o &r)/j,os.
&e rovs Trepl TleXoTTibav 'Et
l TopyiSas VTTO TWV lepetov
o"re/J.fjLai-a Trporeivovrtov Kal 7rapaKa\ovi>TO)v rovs
TroXtra? TTJ TrarpiSi Kal roi? (Jeols fioiiOelv.

KK\T)(jia Op0rj TTpO? TtjV O^TIV /Z6Ta KpOTOV

/SOT)? e^ai>(TTrj, Be^Of^evaw ro 1/9 av&pas cos:
evepyeras Kal <7a>T/}pa?.

XIIT. 'E/c 8e TOVTOV /3oiu>Tap%r)<> alpedel^

Kal Xapwi/o? o TTeXoTTtOa? ev0vs a
TTJV aKpo7ro\LV Kal irpoa^oXa^ eiroielro
j;\iv a7rovSd%u>i> rovs AaKeSai/Jio-
vLovs Kal rrjv Y^aB^eiav eXevffepwcrai Trplv CK
2 ^Tray^T?;? arparbv 7re\&LV. Kal Trapa rocrovrov
e(f)0a(Tev d<j)el<s VTroaTrovBovs roi"? avSpas ocrov
ev Meydpois ovaiv avrois dTravrriaai
7rl ra? r;/3a? eXauvovra /jLerd
01 Be ^Traprtdrai, rpiwi' (
ev tyijfiais, 'HpiTTTTiBav pei* Kal "Ap-
dTreKTeivav Kpivavres, o Be TpiTO<;
s %pijjjLa(Ti TroXXot? ^rj/Mcodels aurbv K



3 TavTTjv rrjv 7rpdj;iv dperals /juev dvBpwv Kal
Kal dywcri irapa'n\ri<3iav rfj fypacrv-



Coraes' correction of the MSS.
adopted by I3ekker.

370



PELOPIDAS, xii. 3-xin. 3

at once, since their garrison numbered about fifteen
hundred men, and many ran to join them out of the
city ; but the shouting, the fires, and the great
throngs in motion everywhere, terrified them, and
they kept quiet, holding the citadel itself in their
possession. At break of day the exiles came in from
Attica under arms, and a general assembly of the
people was convened. Then Epammondas and
Gorgidas brought before it Pelopidas and his com-
panions, surrounded by the priests, holding forth
garlands, and calling upon the citizens to come to
the aid of their country and their gods. And the
assembly, at the sight, rose to its feet with shouts
and clapping of hands, and welcomed the men as
deliverers and benefactors.

XIII. After this, having been elected boeotarch,
or governor of Boeotia, together with Melon and
Charon, Pelopidas at once blockaded the acropolis
and assaulted it on every side, being anxious to drive
out the Lacedaemonians and free the Cadmeia before
an army came up from Sparta. And he succeeded by so
narrow a margin that, when the men had surrendered
conditionally and had been allowed to depart, they
got no further than Megara before they were met bv
Cleombrotus marching against Thebes with a great
force. Of the three men who had been hannosts,
or governors, in Thebes, the Spartans condemned
and executed Herippidas and Arcissus, and the
third, Lysanoridas, was heavily fined and forsook the
Peloponnesus.

This exploit, so like that of Thrasylmlus in the
valour, the perils, and the struggles of its hero<-s,

37 1



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

fiov\ov yevofjLev^v, teal fipaftevdeia-av ofjioicos VTTO
U%7;9, a8e\(f)r}v tKeiwrjs Trpocrijyopevov ol
. ov jap (TTI paBio)<t erepovs ciTrelv ol
7T\t6va)v eAaTTOf? Kal ^vvarwrepwv e
roX/jLy Kal SeivoTijri, fcpcnijo-avres amot
4 ayaOa)V Tat? Trarpia-i fcarecrrrjcrav. evbo^orepav
& ravrrjv eTroirjaev 1} fjLera/3o\rj rwv
6 jap tcaToXiHTas TO TT}? SvrapT^?
7rav(ras ap")(ovTa<; avrovs 77}? TC /cal
7ro\fjiO<; % /ceivr)<s eyevero TT;? VVKTOS, ev rj
ov tfrpovpiov, ov Tet^o?, ov/c



el Set ^era(f)Opa TO

TOU? Secrfiovs TT;? A.aKe^>aLfjLOviwv rj
, d\VTOV<? Kal appy]KTov^ elvau SoKovvras.
XIV. 'ETret Toivvv arpaTO) fieyaXa) AaKe-
v et? rrjv BotwTtai^ /jLJ3a\6vTa)v ol
'AOrjvaioi 7rept0o/3ot yev6/j.evoi rrjv re



Tot? ryato/? Kal rwv



et? TO SiKacmjpiov Trapayayovres TOL? [lev dire- 28
Kreivav, TOU? 8' (>vyd$ev(rav, Toy? 3e
%rjiJLicoo~av } eboKei Se /ca/cw? e^eiv ra TWV
rrpdy/jLara /z^oWo? atTot? fto^&ovvros, erv^e
6 IleXoTrtSa? /x6Ta FopyiSov /3oia)Tap%wv,
/3ou\vovres Se (rvyxpovcrai Trd\iv TOJ)? '
i/atof? Tot? AaK&ai/j,oviois roiovbe TI
2 i<^)o6/Jta?, ai>r//? ^TrapridTijs, eu^o/ff/^o? /zez/ eV

TOt? TToXe/JLlKOlS Kttl Xa/X7T/)OS-, VTTOKOV^OS Se



Trepl BecrTrta? /LteTa Bvvd-
rovs d<f)i(TTa/Avovs TWV tyrjftai&v 06%a6ai

l /3orj0lV. TTyOO? TOVTOV VTTOTre/jLTTOVa'lV OL 7Tpl

TOV TTeAo7rt'8ai> t8ta e/jiTropov riva TWV
372



PELOPIDAS, xni. 3 -xiv. 2

and, like that, crowned with success by fortune, tin-
Greeks were wont to call a sister to it. For it is not
easy to mention other cases where men so few in
number and so destitute have overcome enemies so
much more numerous and powerful by the exercise
of courage and sagacity, and have thereby become
the authors of so great blessings for their countries.
And yet the subsequent change in the political
situation made this exploit the more glorious. For
the war which broke down the pretensions of Sparta
and put an end to her supremacy by land and sea,
began from that night, in which Pelopidas, not by
surprising any fort or castle or citadel, but bv coming
back into a private house with eleven others, loosed
and broke in pieces, if the truth may be expressed in
a metaphor, the fetters of the Lacedaemonian
supremacy, which were thought indissoluble and not
to be broken.

XIV. The Lacedaemonians now invaded Boeotia
with a large army, and the Athenians, having become
fearful, renounced their alliance with the Thebans,
and prosecuting those in their city who favoured the
Boeotian cause, put some of them to death, banished
others, and others still they fined, so that the The-

J *

bans seemed to be in a desperate case with none to
aid them. But Pelopidas and Gorgias, who were
boeotarchs, plotted to embroil the Athenians again
with the Lacedaemonians, and devised the following
scheme. Sphodrias, a Spartan, who had a splendid
reputation as a soldier, but was rather weak in
judgement and full of vain hopes and senseless am-
bition, had been left at Thespiae with an armed force
to receive and succour the renegade Thebans. To
this man Pelopidas and Gorgidas privately sent one
of their friends who was a merchant, with money,

373

VOL. V N



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



teal Xoyovs, o't TWV

/zaXXoi/ dveTreicrav avTov o>? xprj jrpajfj.rwv

Kal rov Tleipaid KaraXaftelv,
jj,rj <i>A.aTTO/4efO9 rot?
3 *KOr)vaLow AaKeSai/jLovioL? re <ydp ovbev ovrcos



ra?



re ^aevrw? e^o^ra? aurot? Ka Trpo
vra^ OVK 7ri/3orj0r)(Tei
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XV. 'E/c TOVTOV ird\t,i> TrpoOv/jLoraTa ^
rot? @77/3atot? avv6/Ad%ovv, Kal
dvT6\a/jL(3dvovro, Kal Trepiiovres eSe%ovro Kal
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' ot ^6 rjf3aloi Ka6* aurou? eV T^

ta av/j,7r\Ko/jLei'Oi rot? AaKeBai/jiOviois Ka-

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Kal



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3



374



PELOPIDAS, xiv. 2 xv. 3

and. what proved more persuasive than money with
SphodriaSj this advice. He ought to put his hand
to a large enterprise and seize the Piraeus, attacking
it unexpectedly when the Athenians were off' their
guard ; for nothing would gratify the Lacedae-
monians so much as the capture of Athens, and the
Thebans, who were now angry with the Athenians
and held them to be traitors, would give them no
aid. Sphodrias was finally persuaded, and taking his
soldiers, invaded Attica by night. He advanced as
far as Eleusis, but there the hearts of his soldiers
failed them and his design was exposed, and after
having thus stirred up a serious and difficult war
against the Spartans, he withdrew' to Thespiae. 1

XV. After this, the Athenians with the greatest
eagerness renewed their alliance with the Thebans,
and began hostile operations against Sparta by sea,
sailing about and inviting and receiving the alle-
giance of those Greeks who were inclined to revolt.
The Thebans, too, by always engaging singly in
Boeotia with the Lacedaemonians, and by fighting
battles which, though not important in themselves,
nevertheless afforded them much practice and train-
ing, had their spirits roused and their bodies
thoroughly inured to hardships, and gained expe-
rience and courage from their constant struggles.
For this reason Antalcidas the Spartan, we are told,
when Agesilaiis came back from Boeotia with a
wound, said to him : " Indeed, this is a fine tuition-fee
which thou art getting from the Thebans, for teach-
ing them how to war and fight when they did not
wish to do it." - But, to tell the truth, it was not

1 The attempt of Sphodrias on the Piraeus is more fully
described in the Agesilaiis, xxiv. 3-G.
8 Cf. the Agesilaiis, xxvi. 2.

375



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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6/9 rr)v \OKpiBa yeyevrjcrOai



PRLOPIDAS, xv. 3-xvi. 2

Agesilaiis who was their teacher, but those leaders
of theirs who, at the right time and place, gave the
Thebans, like young dogs in training, experience in
attacking their enemies, and then, when they had
got a taste of victory and its ardours, brought them
safely oft ; and of these leaders Pelopidas was in
greatest esteem. For after his countrymen had once
chosen him their leader in arms, there was not a
single year when they did not elect him to office,
but either as leader of the sacred band, or, for the
most part, as boeotarch, he continued active until
his death.

Well, then, at Plataea the Lacedaemonians were
defeated and put to flight, and at Thespiae, where,
too, Phoebidas, who had seized the Cadmeia, was
slain ; and at Tanagra a large body of them was
routed and Panthoidas the harmost was killed. But
these combats, though they gave ardour and boldness
to the victors, did not altogether break the spirits of



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