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Aulis, he was too tender-hearted to give her, 3 and
thereby brought his expedition to an unsuccessful
and inglorious ending. Others, on the contrary,
argued against it, declaring that such a lawless and
barbarous sacrifice was not acceptable to any one of
the superior beings above us, for it was not the fabled
typhons and giants who governed the world, but the
father of all gods and men ; even to believe in the
existence of divine beings who take delight in the
slaughter and blood of men was perhaps a folly, but
if such beings existed, they must be disregarded, as
having no power ; for only weakness and depravity
of soul could produce or harbour such unnatural and
cruel desires.

XXII. While, then, the chief men were thus
disputing, and while Pelopidas in particular was in
perplexity, a filly broke away from the herd of horses
and sped through the camp, and when she came to
the very place of their conference, stood still. The
rest only admired the colour of her glossy mane,
which was fiery red, her high mettle, and the

1 At Thermopylae. Cf. Herodotus, vii. 220.
a Of. the 7hemi*tocle8, xiii. 2 f.
3 Cf. the Agesilaiis, vi. 4 ff.



PLUTARCH S LIVES

r) re yavpoTijs Kal TO aoftapov teal
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rjyov TWV TtapOevwv, KOL Ka-rev^d^evoi real
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etV TO (npa-roTT&ov Trepl rf;? o^reo)^ TOV IleXo-

Kal r/7? Qvaias (HSoWe?.
XXIII. 'Ey B TTJ /u-a^?; TOV

o^v eVi TO
OTTO)? TWV ci\\wv 'EXX^coy

TO Se^lOV TWV ^TTCLpTLaTMV KOI TOV K\OfA/3pOTOV

ej;(t)o~7) TrpoffTreawv dflpocos KaTa tcepas Kal /3iao~d-
fjievo^, oi /jiv 7ro\fAioi KaTafjLaOovTGs TO
2 ijp^avTO iJLTaKivelv Trj Taipei cr^a? avTovs,
TO oe^iov dveTTTVo'O'ov Kal Trepifjyov a>? KVK\CO-
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, o Se ITeXomSa? ev TOVTW Trpo-



irplv dvaTelvai TOV KXeo/i/3/9OTor TO Kepa?
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TTO\fJLlKWV OVTCS OL ^TTapTLCLTai 7T/909 OV$V

7rai&evov avTOvs Kal avveiOL^ov, &>9 TO

Bia\v-



394



PELOPIDAS, xxn. i xxin. 3

vehemence and boldness of her neighing ; but
Theocritus the seer, after taking thought., cried out
to Pelopidas : ' f Thy sacrificial victim is come, good
man ; so let us not wait for any other virgin, but do
thou accept and use the one which Heaven offers
thee." So they took the mare and led her to the
tombs of the maidens, upon which, after decking her
with garlands and consecrating her with prayers,
they sacrificed her, rejoicing themselves, and pub-
lishing through the camp an account of the vision of
Pelopidas and of the sacrifice.

XXIII. In the battle, while Epaminondas was
drawing his phalanx obliquely towards the left, in
order that the right wing of the Spartans might be
separated as far as possible from the rest of the
Greeks, and that he might thrust back Cleombrotus
by a fierce charge in column with all his men-at-
arms, the enemy understood what he was doing and
began to change their formation ; they were opening
up their right wing and making an encircling move-
ment, in order to surround Epaminondas and en-
velop him with their numbers. But at this point
Pelopidas darted forth from his position, and with
his band of three hundred on the run, came up 1
before Cleombrotus had either extended his wing or
brought it back again into its old position and closed
up his line of battle, so that the Lacedaemonians were
not standing in array, but moving confusedly about
among each other when his onset reached them. And
yet the Spartans, who were of all men past masters
in the art of war, trained and accustomed themselves
to nothing so much as not to straggle or get into

1 There is only a hint of this strategy, and no mention
either of Epaminondas or Pelopidas, in Xenophon's account
of the battle (Hell. vi. 4, 9-15).

395



re



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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/jLeti'cavBov (f)d\ay eTTityepofjbevri /ULOVOLS
KOL TrapaXXaTTOVcra TOV$ aXXou?, o re

ra^ou? CLTTLCTTOV ical roX/z,??? eV rot?

(jvve^eov TCI re (frpovij/JLara teal ra?
CIVTWV ouTft)? w(7T6 <})vyi]i> teal (frovov
Q<JOV OVTTCO TrpoTepov yevecfdai. $16
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t TracrT;? rjyov/Mva) rr)? Swa/iews fjuicpov yu-e/)ou?
, I<TOV rjveytcaTO So^rjs rr}? vi/crjs e/ceivrjs real

TOV KdTOpOcti/JLaTOS.

XXIV. Et? /jievTOi Tle^OTrovvyjaov a^oTepoi
/3oici)Tap%ovvT<; evef3a\ov real TWV eOvwv ra
TrXetcrra Trpocnj'yovTo, AaKeSai/JsOviwv
cravres ^H\LV, "Apyos, 'ApKaSiav

TT}? AaKwviKrjs ra rrXelcna. Ka'noi



fjL6i> r)<jav a

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real Tr)V ap^v eSei TrapaXa/jiftdveiv eTepovs evOvs

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2 Trapa&i&ovTas. ol Se aXkot, fioicoTapxai KOL TOV
VO/JLOV SeSiore? TOVTOV KOI TOV ^eifjiMva fyevyovTes
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l TroXXa? p.ev ypei TroXei? CLVTWV, Tcaaav Be TTJV
v erropOei, /ne^pi ^aXarr?;?, ffypvfiGvos evrra

ij



396



PELOPIDAS, xxm. 3-xxiv. 2

confusion upon a change of formation, but to take
anyone without exception as neighbour in rank or in
file, and wheresoever danger actually threatened, to
seize that point and form in close array and fight as
well as ever. At this time, however, since the
phalanx of Epaminondas bore down upon them alone
and neglected the rest of their force, and since
Pelopidas engaged them with incredible speed and
boldness, their courage and skill were so confounded
that there was a flight and slaughter of the Spartans
such as had never before been seen. Therefore,
although Epaminondas was boeotarch, Pelopidas,
who was not boeotarch, and commanded only a
small portion of the whole force, won as much glory
for the success of that victory as he did.

XXIV. Both were boeotarchs, however, when they
invaded Peloponnesus and won over most of its peo-
ples, detaching from the Lacedaemonian confederacy
Elis, Argos, all Arcadia, and most of Laconia itself. 1
Still, the winter solstice was at hand, and only a few
days of the latter part of the last month of the year
remained, and as soon as the first month of the new
year began other officials must succeed them, or
those who would not surrender their office must die.
The other boeotarchs, both because they feared this
law, and because they wished to avoid the hardships
of winter, were anxious to lead the army back home ;
but Pelopidas was first to add his vote to that of
Epaminondas, and after inciting his countrvmen to
join them, led the army against Sparta and across
the Eurotas. He took many of the enemy's cities,
and ravaged all their territory as far as the sea,
leading an army of seventy thousand Greeks, of
which the Thebans themselves were less than a

1 In 370 B.C.

397



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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OLK, KOI



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epi^ovres Kal Siatyepo/uevoi TT/OO? roi)?
vjrep riyefjiovias, eir avrwv rwv dyaivwv
Trapd rd beivd Tot? eKeivwv avOaiperws

r)KO\ov0ovi>.

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eicd\ovv KOI tcarfjyov



crvvoiKiGavres, aTrtoz/re? e eV oltcou

evlicwv






Trept Ta (nevd KOI K0)\veiv



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, 6 $e avyyevrjs Kal TTO\ITIKOS
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rov yap d/jufiorepoi SiKas etyvyov eTraveXOovres,

OTl TOV VOfAOV K\6VOVTO<$ 6V TO) TT/OCOTft) fJLrjvl

Trapa&ovvai rrjv ^oLwrap^iav ere/oof?, ov Bou-
Kanov ovofjid^ovai, rerTapas oXou? 7r/3oo"e7T6-

398






PELOPIDAS, xxiv. 3 -xxv. i

twelfth part. But the reputation of the two men,
without a general vote or decree, induced all the
allies to follow their leadership without a murmur.
For the first and paramount law,, as it would seem,
namely, that of nature, subjects him who desires to
be saved to the command of the man who can save
him ; just as sailors, when the weather is fair or they
are lying off shore at anchor, treat their captains
with bold insolence, but as soon as a storm arises and
danger threatens, look to them for guidance and
place their hopes in them. And so Argives, Eleans,
and Arcadians, Avho in their joint assemblies con-
tended and strove with the Thebans for the supre-
macy, when battles were actually to be fought and
perils to be faced, of their own will obeyed the
Theban generals and followed them.

On this expedition they united all Arcadia into
one power ; rescued the country of Messenia from the
hands of its Spartan masters and called back and re-
stored the ancient Messenian inhabitants, w r ith whom
they settled Ithome ; and on their way back home-
wards through Cenchreae, conquered the Athenians
when they tried to hinder their passage by skirmish-
ing with them in the passes.

XXV. In view of these achievements, all the rest
of the Greeks were delighted with their valour and
marvelled at their good fortune; but the envy of their
own fellow-citizens, which was increasing with the
men's fame, prepared them a reception that was not
honourable or fitting. For both were tried for their
lives when they came back, because they had not
handed over to others their office of boeotarch, as
the law commanded, in the first month of the new
year (which they call Boukatios), but had added four



399



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

/BaXovro fjLijvas, f.v ol? ra irepl Meecrtjvijv /cal
'Ap/caSiav KOL Trji> Aa/ca)ViKr)v Biw/c

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, Sto teal /j,d\\ov etciv&vvevcrev,
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/ttepo? dvBpeias KOL /jLejaXo-^v^La^ r^v ev

TTO\iTLKols aVG^LKCLKiaV TTOLOVfJieVOS,

Se teal (f>vai 0u/jLoei$e<TTepos coi>, /cat
jmevos VTTO rwv (f)L\cov a^vvaadai TOU? e

3 eVeXa/SeTO Toiavrris airms. Meve/cXei&as 6
rayp rjv fj,ev e?? rwv yuera IleXoTuSoi; /cal

etV rrjv Xa>a>i>o? ol/ciav crvvekOovTwv, eVet e rwv
OVK TI^LOVTO Trapa TO<? ^/3atot?, Sei^oTaro?

/coXacrro? 5e /cat /ca/co?;^7;? TOZ> 29l

T"fj (f)V(Tl 7T/00? TO <TVKO(f)aVT6lV

teal Sm/3aAAeti> TOL/? tcpeirrovas, ovBe

4 Keivr)v Travad/uevos. 'ETra/u-eii/w^S
%fCpov<T TT)? /3ot&)Tap^ta? /cat fear 7ro\tr ever aro

7TO\VV XpOVOV, Tl\07Ti&aV e 7T/30? yLteZ/ TOl' SrjfAOV

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TO) \dpwvi' /cat KOivf]v TIVCL rov (f)06vov irapa-

z^ c5^ avrol /u,?) ^vvavi
i, TOVTOVS ayttw? 76 TTCO? e-repwv
, TroXu? ;^ TT/QO? TO^ Sf)/*ov av^cov rd rou
epya, /cat T? Q-T parity ta? Ta? e/ceivou

5 /cat Ta? W/ca? eyKcofiid^wv. T?}? 5e 7rpo9

TT/OO Twz' A.VKTpiKa)v



rjyov/uevov Xa/owi^o?, eTre^eipr^cfev dvdOrjfJia roiovSe

6



400



PELOPIDAS, xxv. 1-5



whole UK (iilhs to it, during which they conducted
their campaign in Messenia, Arcadia, and Laconia.

Well, then, Pelopidas was first brought to trial,
and therefore ran the greater risk, but both were
acquitted. Epaminoridas bore patiently with this
attempt to calumniate him, considering that for-
bearance under political injury was a large part of
fortitude and magnanimity ; but Pelopidas, who was
naturally of a more fiery temper, and who was egged
on by his friends to avenge himself upon his enemies,
seized the following occasion. Menecleidas, the
orator, was one of those who had gathered with
Pelopidas and Melon at Charon's house, and since
he did not receive as much honour among the
Thebans as the others, being a most able speaker,
but intemperate and malicious in his disposition, he
gave his natural gifts employment in calumniating
and slandering his superiors, and kept on doing so
even after the trial. Accordingly, he succeeded in
excluding Epaminondas from the office of boeotarch,
and kept him out of political leadership for some
time ; but he had not weight enough to bring
Pelopidas into disfavour with the people, and there-
fore tried to bring him into collision with Charon.
And since it is quite generally a consolation to the
envious, in the case of those whom they themselves
cannot surpass in men's estimation, to show these
forth as somehow or other inferior to others, he was
constantly magnifying the achievements of Charon,
in his speeches to the people, and extolling his cam-
paigns and victories. Moreover, for the victory which
the Theban cavalry won at Plataea, before the battle

mf *

of Leuctra, under the command of Charon, he at-
tempted to make the following public dedication.
Androcvdes of Cvzicus had received a commission

r

401



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Trapa TT}? TroXeco? iriva/ca ypdtyai /u-a^/s" erepas,
7reT\ei TO epyov ev ry/^at?' yevo/nev^s Be TT}?
aTrocrracreft)? Aral roO TTO\/JLOV (jvjjLTreaovTO'S, ov
TTO\V rov TeXo? e^eiv e\\ei7rovra rov rrivaKa
Tra/a' eavrot? ot rj/3aloi KaTea^ov. TOVTOV ovv
o MevK\ei$as eireLCJev avaOevras

TOV Xa^&)i>o?, o>? afjLCiv pwcrcov Trjv

Et7ra/jLeii>(t)v$ov Bo^av. r\v Be a/9e\re/3o?
rj (f)i\OTi/uiia, Trapa TOCTOVTOVS Kal Tr)\iKovrovs
dycovas ei>o? epyov Kal /Aids VIK^ d*ya7rco/j,evr)S,



ev y FepdvSav rivd TWV daij/jicov ^TrapriaTuv teal

reaaapaKovra yiter' avrov Tre&eLv, dX\o Be ov&ei>

7 /ueya Trpa^Orjvai, \eyovcri. TOVTO TO

ypd(j)erai TIeXoTrtSa? Trapavo/j-wv,

?7ySatot? ov Trdrpiou rjv ISia KCLT*
, a\Xa rfj TrarpiSi KOIVWS TO T/}?

crto^eiv. KOI TOV fjiev Xdpwva irapd Trdaav
rrji> Bifcrjv ey KM /uaa>i> d(f)@6i>a>s SiereXeffe, TOV Be



atcavov



TOVS i]/3aiovs epwrwv el fj^Bev avrois KO\OV



a



8id






varepov eTre^ep^a-e KLvrjcrai Ka

Tro\LTeiav. ravra jiev ovv eei rivd Kal rov Siov



<7ro

XXVI. 'ETret 8e 'A\edv$pov TOV Qep&v rv-
pdvvov TToXe/jLOvvros fjiev CK 7rpo$ij\ov
fyeTTa\wv, 7ri(3ov\evovTo<s Be irdaiv, e
oav eiV (y)?//3a? at TroXet? a-rpar^yov

l Bvva/jLiv, 6pa)i> o HeXoTTtSa?



1 &<rrf Bryan's correction of the MSS. *o ^T?, wldch Sintenis
and Bekker retain, assuming a lacuna in the text.

402



PELOPIDAS, xxv. 5-xxvi. i

irom the city to make a picture of another battle,
and was finishing the work at Thebes; but the c'itv
revolted from Sparta, and the war came on, before
the picture was quite completed, and the Thebans
now had it on their hands. This picture, then,
Menecleidas persuaded them to dedicate with Cha-
ron's name inscribed thereon, hoping in this way to
obscure the fame of Pelopidas and Epaminondas.
But the ambitious scheme was a foolish one, when
there were so many and such great conflicts, to
bestow approval on one action and one victory, in
which, we are told, a certain Gerandas, an obscure
Spartan, and forty others were killed, but nothing
else of importance was accomplished. This decree
was attacked as unconstitutional by Pelopidas, who
insisted that it was not a custom with the Thebans
to honour any one man individually, but for the
whole country to have the glory of a victory. And
through the whole trial of the case he continued to
heap generous praise upon Charon, while he showed
Menecleidas to be a slanderous and worthless fellow,
and asked the Thebans if they had done nothing
noble themselves ; the result was that Menecleidas
was fined, and being unable to pay the fine because
it was so heavy, he afterwards tried to effect a
revolution in the government. This episode, then,
has some bearing on the Life which I am writing.

XXVI. Now, since Alexander the tyrant of Pherae
made open w r ar on many of the Thessalians, and wa-,
plotting against them all, their cities sent ambassa-
dors to Thebes asking for an armed force and a
general. Pelopidas, therefore, seeing that Kpami-

403



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Bav r9 ev HeXoTT ovvtjcra) npa^eis BiOiKelv,* aurbs
eavrbv erreBo)Ke Kal rrpoa-evei/jie rot? QeacraXols,
/jirfre TTJV iBiav eTTicmjfjirjv teal Bvva/jiLv dpyovcrav
rrepiopdv vrro/^evwv, /jujre orrov rrdpecmv 'Evra-
yLtet^coy^a? erepov SelaBai a-rpaTiyyou vofjii^wv.

2 a>9 ovv ecnpcLTevaev eVt eaaa\iav /xera Svvd-

, rrjv re kdpiacrav evOvs 7rape\affe, KOI rov
e\6ovra Kal bebfjievov BiaXXdrreiv
eireipctTO real Troieiv etc rvpdvvov Trpaov dp^ovra
rot? ecrcraXot? fcdl vofju/jiov. co? Be i]v dv^Kecrro^
Kal Orjpico&rjs KCU 7ro\\r) /jiev CO/ZOTT;? avrov,
7ro\\rj Be daeXyeia KOL TrXeove^ia Kar^yopelro,
rov HeA,O7ri&oi> Trpo? CIVTOV KOL
dirobpas w^ero yuera TWV Sopv-

3 <j)6pa)v. o Be IleXoTrt^a? a&eidv re 7ro\\rjv diro
rov rvpdvvov rot? ecrcraXot? d7ro\i7ra)v Kal TT^O?

ojjiovoiav, ai)ro? et9 ^latce&oviav aTTtjpe,
/nev ' AXe^dvSpat ru> ftaaiXevovn
rro\efJLOvvro^, djjufyorepwv Be
etcelvov 0)9 BiaXXa/crrjv Kal BiKacrrrjv
v Kal ftor)9bv rov BoKOvvros dBLKLcr0at

4 ryevrjcro/j-evov. e\0cov Be Kal BiaXvcras ra9 Bia-
(fiopds Kal Karaya<ywv TOU9 (f>ev<yovras, o
e\a/3e rbv dBe\(f)bv rov /3acrtXe&>9 <&i
rpiaKovra iralBas a'XXoL'9 rwv emfyaveardrayv, 2!!



rroppa) BirjKei rd r)(3aiwv rrpdy-
rfj B6t;r] -7-779 Bvvdaeais Kal rf) rricrrei



5 TO9 ? iXtTTTrcK o TOt9 XX^cr/i^ vdrepov

rro\fjirja'as vrrep rrjs e\ev6epla<s, rare Be 7rat9 wv



eir Bekker has SioiKuvvra, after Coraes.
404



PELOP1DAS, xxvi. 1-5

nondas was busy with his work in Peloponnesus,
offered and assigned himself to the Thessalians, 1
both because he could not suffer his own skill and
ability to lie idle, and because he thought that wher-
ever Epaminondas was there was no need of a
second general. Accordingly, after marching into
Thessaly with an armed force, he straightway took
Larissa, and when Alexander came to him and
begged for terms, he tried to make him, instead of *
tyrant, one who would govern the Thessalians mildly
and according to law. But since the man was incurably
brutish and full of savageness, and since there was
much denunciation of his licentiousness and greed,
Pelopidas became harsh and severe with him, where-
upon he ran away with his guards. Then Pelopidas,
leaving the Thessalians in great security from the
tyrant and in concord with one another, set out him-
self for Macedonia, where Ptolemy was at Avar with
Alexander the king of the Macedonians. For both
parties had invited him to come and be arbiter and
judge between them, and ally and helper of the one
that appeared to be wronged. After he had come,
then, and had settled their differences and brought
home the exiles, he received as hostages Philip, the
king's brother, and thirty -other sons of the most
illustrious men, and brought them to live at Thebes,
thus showing the Greeks what an advance the
Theban state had made in the respect paid to its
power and the trust placed in its justice.

This was the Philip who afterwards waged war to
enslave the Greeks, but at this time he was a boy.

1 In 3<i<j B.C.

405

VOL. V O



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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Bekker has rur\v e5o^i/ . . . /cora-
voT]aa.<nv (to some . . . ivho observed), after Coraes.

406



PELOPIDAS, xxvi. 5-xxvn. 4

and lived in Thebes with Pammenes. Hence he
was believed to have become a zealous follower of
Epaminondas, perhaps because he comprehended his
efficiency in wars and campaigns, which was only
a small part of the man's high excellence ; but in
restraint, justice, magnanimity, and gentleness,
wherein Epaminondas was truly great, Philip had no
share, either naturally or as a result of imitation.

XXVII. After this, when the Thessalians again
brought complaint against Alexander of Pherae as a
disturber of their cities, Pelopidas was sent thither
on an embassy with Ismenias ; l and since he brought
no force from home with him, and did not expect
war, he was compelled to employ the Thessalians
themselves for the emergency. At this time, too,
Macedonian affairs were in confusion again, for
Ptolemy had killed the king and now held the reins
of government, and the friends of the dead king
were calling upon Pelopidas. Wishing, therefore, to
appear upon the scene, but having no soldiers of his
own, he enlisted some mercenaries on the spot, and
with these marched at once against Ptolemy. When,
however, they were near each other, Ptolemy cor-
rupted the mercenaries and bribed them to come
over to his side ; but since he feared the very name
and reputation of Pelopidas, he met him as his
superior, and after welcoming him and supplicating
his favour, agreed to be regent for the brothers of the
dead king, and to make an alliance with the Thebans ;
moreover, to confirm this, he gave him his son
Philoxenus and fifty of his companions as hostages.

1 In 368 B.C.

407



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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