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2 (TLft<^o^a9* eVel 8e rou9 f^ev Qepaiovs o IleXo-
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avrov exeli'ov drrocrreiXas e\eyev co9 aTo?ro9 ean



408



PELOPiDAS. xxvn. 4-xxvm. 2

These, then, Pelopidas sent off to Thebes ; but he
himself, being indignant at the treachery of his mer-
cenaries, and learning that most of their goods, to-
gether with their wives and children, had been placed
for safety at Pharsalus, so that by getting these into
his power he would sufficiently punish them for their
affront to him, he got together some of the Thessa-
lians and came to Pharsalus. But just as he got there,
Alexander the tyrant appeared before the city with
his forces. Then Pelopidas and Ismenias, thinking
that he was come to excuse himself for his conduct,
went of their own accord to him, knowing, in-
deed, that he was an abandoned and blood-stained
wretch, but expecting that because of Thebes and
their own dignity and reputation they would suffer
no harm. But the tyrant, when he saw them coming
up unarmed and unattended, straightway seized
them and took possession of Pharsalus. By this
step he awoke in all his subjects a shuddering fear :
they thought that after an act of such boldness and
iniquity he would spare nobody, and in all his
dealings with men and affairs would act as one who
now utterly despaired of his own life.

XXVIII. The Thebans, then, on hearing of this,
were indignant, and sent out an army at once,
although, since Epaminondas had somehow incurred
their displeasure, they appointed other commanders
for it. As for Pelopidas, after the tyrant had brought
him back to Pherae, at first he suffered all who
desired it to converse with him, thinking that his
calamity had made him a pitiful and contemptible
object ; but when Pelopidas exhorted the lamenting
Pheraeans to be of good cheer, since no\v certainly
the tyrant would meet with punishment, and when
he sent a message to the tyrant himself, saying that

409



PLUTARCH S LIVES



roi/9 /jiev d6\iov$ TToXiras Kal

arpe(3\wv Kal fyovevwv, avrov Be (freiBo-
r, ov fjLa\icrra yivcbcrKei ri/jLcoprjoroaevov avrov
3 dvrrep Bia<f)vyr), 0avudo~as rb (ppovrjaa Kal rrjv
d&eiav avrov, "Ti, Be" (j)tjo~[, " (TTrevBei He\o- 29
drro9avelv;^ KaKelvos aKOvo~as, <<f/ O7ro)9,"
' GV rd^iov drco\fj, aaXXov rj vvv



etc rovrov



avr> rovs e'/ero?.



'H 3e Stfftr), Owydrrjp /JLCV 'lacro^o? ovcra, yvvrj
8e J A\%dvo'pov, 7TW0avofjievr) rrapd rwv <^v\ar-
rovrwv IleXoTruSav TO dappa\eov avrov Kal yev-
valov, 7T60u^r)crev l&eiv rov dv&pa Kal Trpoarenrelv.

4 a>9 Se ?)\0e 7T/00? avrbv Kal are 8r) <yvvr) ro

s rov tfflovs OVK evBvs ev roaavrrj
, Kovpa 8e Kal o-ro\fj Kal Stairy
fjii>r] \V7rpd Kal fjirj TrpeTrovra rfj B6r
avrov direSaKpvo'e, ro yu-ei/ irpwrov dyvowv o
ITeXo7r/5a9 Tt9 elr) yvvaiKwv, 0avjma%v, &)9 Be
eyvay, rrpoo-riyopevaev avr?]v TrarpbOev rjv yap
TW 'Ido-ovi o~vvr)6^s Kal <jf)tXo9. eiTrovcrrjs Be
Keivr)<>, " 'EXew crov rr)V yvvaiKa" " Kat ydp

>/ -? lc r> >/P> -V f / 'A-v^>-

eya) ere, eirrev, on aoero9 ovcra v irofjieveis AA,e^-

5 avBpov" OUT09 eOiye 7Tft>9 6 Xo7O9 TT}? yvvaiKos'
efSapvvero ydp rrjv a)a6rrjra Kal rrjv vfiptv rov
rvpdvvov, aerd T^9 aXX^9 dae\yeia<$ Kal rov
vewrarov avrijs ra)v d$e\(j)wv TraiStKa rcercoiv}-
/jievov. Bib Kal crvve^a)^ $oiru>aa 7r/?09 rov
Tle\o7riSav Kal Trappijo-ia^ouevrj rrepl wv 7rao"%ev
v7re7rifJL7r\aro OV^JLOV Kal (frpovijfjiaros Kal Bvo~-
/Aevelas Trpbs rov 'A.\ej;avBpov.

XXIX. 'ETret Be ol arparrjyol rwv r)/3ai(0v
et9 rrjv erra\iav fjL/3a\6vre<; eirpa^av ovBev,

410



PELOPIDAS, xxvni. 2-xxix. i

it was absurd to torture and slay the wretched and
innocent citizens day by day, while he spared him, a
man most certain, as he knew, to take vengeance on
him if he made his escape ; then the tyrant, amazed
at his high spirit and his fearlessness, said : "And why
is Pelopidas in haste to die?" To which Pelopidas
replied : " That thou mayest the sooner perish, by
becoming more hateful to the gods than now."
From that time the tyrant forbade those outside of
his following to see the prisoner.

But Thebe, who was a daughter of Jason, and
Alexander's wife, learned from the keepers of Pelo-
pidas how courageous and noble the man was, and
conceived a desire to see him and talk with him.
But when she came to him, woman that she was, she
could not at once recognize the greatness of his
nature in such dire misfortune, but judging from his
hair and garb and maintenance that he was suffering
indignities which ill befitted a man of his reputation,
she burst into tears. Pelopidas, not knowing at first
what manner of woman she was, was amazed ; but
when he understood, he addressed her as daughter
of Jason ; for her father was a familiar friend of his.
And when she said, " I pity thy wife," he replied,
"And I thee, in that thou wearest no chains, and yet
endurest Alexander." This speech deeply moved
the woman, for she was oppressed by the savage
insolence of the tyrant, who, in addition to his other
debaucheries, had made her youngest brother his
paramour. Therefore her continued visits to Pelo-
pidas, in which she spoke freely of her sufferings,
gradually filled her with wrath and fierce hatred
towards Alexander.

XXIX. When the Theban generals had accom-
plished nothing by their invasion of Thessaly,

411



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

<iXXa oY GLTreipiav rj Bvcnv^iav

prjcrav, e/ceivcov fjiev etca(nov f) TroXt?

Bpa^fxal^ e^rjfjiicocrev, 'l&TrafjieivayvBav Be

2 Bwd/JLCO)? aTTecrreiXev. V0V<S OVV KLVrj(TLS T? /U-6-

ydXrj eTTaAwf ^ eiraipo^evwv TT^OO? T^;^ Soai/
TOU o-rparrjyov, KOL ra TrpdjfjiaTa rov Tvpdvvov
&iro JLircas U7ro\(i)\ivai' roaovros eve-



7T7Tr(t)Ki /o? T04? 7Tl dVTOV GfJiOdL KUl



tcai X a P ro Ateo^ro?, a>9 vvv

3 67TO-^OyLteVof9 Sl/C^V SlSoVTd TOV TVpCtVVOV. OV

{LIJV aXX' 'ETrayLtefWwSa? T^ avTOv S6av ev
varepw TT}? IleXoTrtSof aoirtjpia^ TiOefJievos, teal
tos IJL-/J TWV TTpayfidTcov Tapa^Oevrwv djro-
eavrbv 'AXe^a^/oo? wcnrep O^pLov TpdTrtjrai
eiceivov, eTrycopeiro rq> TroXeyuw, /cat KVK\O)
icov, rrj Trapacr/cevf} /cal ry fj.e\\r)crei, tcare-

KCU crvvea"re\\e TOV rvpavvov, a>?
avelvai TO avOa^es avrov teal dpacrvvofjievoi'
4 TO iTLKpov teal 0i>fAoeiSe$ ej-epeOlaai, irvv9avo-
vtei'o? T^ oD/jior^ra KOL r^v oXijtopiav TWV KCL\WV
>cal $>iKaitov, w? ^'cot'Ta? /nev dvOpwTrovs
, erepois Be Bep/jiaTa GVWV dypicov /cal

el? /cal TOi/9 OrjpaTiKOvs ejrdywv /cvvas /cal
ical fcarrjicovTi^e, TraiBia ravTij
MeXf/3ota Be /cal ^/corovcrr}, TroKecriv e
/cal </>t'Xa/?, tc/c\yj a layover ais

U? Bopv<f)6pov<t jjftijBbv a7reo-<^a^e, rrjv Be

> f> TIo\v(f)pova rov delov uTrefcreive
412






PELOPIDAS, xxix. 1-4

but owing to inexperience or ill fortune had re-
tired disgracefully, the city fined each of them ten
thousand drachmas, and sent out Epaminondas
with an armed force. 1 At once, then, there was
a great stir among the Thessalians, who were filled
with high hopes in view of the reputation of this
general, and the cause of the tyrant was on the
very verge of destruction ; so great was the fear
that fell upon his commanders and friends, and so
great the inclination of his subjects to revolt, and
their joy at what the future had in store, for they
felt that now they should behold the tyrant under
punishment. Epaminondas, however, less solicitous
for his own glory than for the safety of Pelopidas.
and fearing that if confusion reigned Alexander
would get desperate and turn like a wild beast upon
his prisoner, dallied with the war, and taking a
roundabout course, kept the tyrant in suspense by
his preparations and threatened movements, thus
neither encouraging his audacity and boldness, nor
rousing his malignity and passion. For he had
learned how savage he was, and how little regard he
had for right and justice, in that sometimes he
buried men alive, and sometimes dressed them in
the skins of wild boars or bears, and then set his
hunting dogs upon them and either tore them in
pieces or shot them down, making this his diversion ;
and at Meliboea and Scotussa, allied and friendly
cities, when the people were in full assembly, he
surrounded them with his body-guards and slaugh-
tered them from the youth up ; he also consecrated
the spear with which he had slain his uncle Poly-
phron, decked it with garlands, and sacrificed to it

1 367 B.C.

413



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Kal KaTaaretyas, edvev waTrep 6ew KOI

5 Trpocnjyopeve. TpaywBbv Be Trore Oecofieixx; Et/)i-
TriBov TpwaSa? viroKpivo/jievov co^ero UTTKDV e/c
TOV Oedrpov, Kal Tre/^a? TT/OO? avTov efceXeve
6appe.lv KOL ijufiev a^wvi^ecrOai $ia TOVTO ^elpov,
ov yap etceivov K,aTapovwv aire\6elv, a\\ aia-
%vv6/j,vo<? rovs TroXtra?, el yu^Se^a TrcoTrore

UTT' avrov fyovevofjievwv rj\er)fca)s,e7rl rot? '
/cal 'Ai/Spoyua^;?;? icaKols otpdijaerai

6 OVTO? yueVrot T^ 86<;av avrrjv Kal Tovvopa Kal
TO irpoa^fjia TT}?



' d\eKTwp SoOXo? &>? K\iva<; TTTepdv,

\\>-v / \ \ > ^ 29

L rev? aTrokoyrjcrofAevovs Ta^u 777309 avrov

6 Be (JvvQkaQai JJLCV elptjvrjv Kal (j)t\iav
TOLOVTOV dvBpa r;/3atOf? ov% VTrefJieive,
Be TpiaKov6r)[jLepovs ai^o^a? TOV
7ro\efjLov KOL \aft(t)v TOV TleXoinBav Kal TOV



XXX. O/ Be tyr)(Balot, Trapa TWV

TWV 'AOrjvaiayv alaOofjievoi 77/30? TOV peyav
Trpea-fteis dvafiaivovras vrcep orf/x/za^ta?,
Kal avTol Tle\O7riSav, apiara /3ov\ev-
TT/JO? Trjv 86av avrov. rrpwTOv fjiev
yap dveftaive Sia TWV /5acrtXea)? cTrap^iwv ovo-
yitacrTO? wv Kal 7T6pi/3o>/To?' ov yap r)pep.a BUKTO
TT}? 'Acrta? 01)8' eVt fMiKpbv rj Bo^a TCOV TT/JO?
2 AaKcBai/jLoviovs dyoovcov, a\X', co? TT/OCOTO? Trepl
rr}? eV AevKTpois fjLd%r)s e^eBpa/ne \6yos, del TIVO?
Kaivov TrpocTTiOe/jLevov KaTOpOoofiaros



414



PELOPIDAS, xxix. 4-xxx. 2

as to a god, giving it the name of Tycho. 1 Once
when he was seeing a tragedian act the " Trojan
Women" of Euripides, he left the theatre abruptly,
and sent a message to the actor bidding him be of
good courage and not put forth any less effort be-
cause of his departure, for it was not out of contempt
for his acting that he had gone away, but because he
was ashamed to have the citizens see him, who had
never taken pity on any man that he had murdered,
weeping over the sorrows of Hecuba and Andro-
mache. It was this tyrant, however, who, terrified
at the name and fame and distinction of the
generalship of Epaminondas,

"Crouched down, though warrior bird, like slave,
with drooping wings," -

and speedily sent a deputation to him which should
explain his conduct. But Epaminondas could not
consent that the Thebans should make peace and
friendship with such a man ; he did, however, make
a thirty days' truce with him, and after receiving
Pelopidas and Ismenias, returned home.

XXX. Now, when the Thebans learned that am-
bassadors from Sparta and Athens were on their way
to the Great King to secure an alliance, they also
sent Pelopidas thither ; and this was a most excel-
lent plan, in view of his reputation. For, in the
first place, he went up through the provinces of the
king as a man of name and note ; for the glory of
his conflicts with the Lacedaemonians had not made
its way slowly or to any slight extent through Asia,
but, when once the report of the battle at Leuctra
had sped abroad, it was ever increased by the addition

1 That is, Luck.

2 An iambic trimeter of unknown authorship ; cf. the
Alcibiades, iv. 3.

415



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

tcai dvafBaivovaa TroppcoTarw
TOt9 eVt Qvpais GCLTpdrcais teal (TTpaTijyoLS
rjye/jLocriv o<$et<? 6av/jLa KCU \6yov Trapecr-^ev, a>9
OUTO9 dvi'ip CCTTLV 6 7^79 real Oa\drr^<f eV/SaXwz'
AaKeBaijjioviov? /cal crfcrretXa? VTTO Tavyerov Kal
rbv Eu/ocoraz/ rr)v ^irdpTiiv ri^v oXlyov e
@acri\6i TW /jLeydXo) Kal Tlepa-ais Si' \
TOV Trepl %ova-cov /cal 'EtKftaTavwv
3 TToXe/jLOi'. ravr ovv 6 'A/9Taep?7? e-^aipe, Kal
TOP Tle\O7rl8av eOav^a^e eVi rfj $oi;y [
Tat? Tt/itat?, viro rwv fjyL&T(av



Kal



evret e KOL rrjv o*fyiv avrov elBe Kal TOU?
Karevorjcre, rwv pev 'ArTt/cw^ fieftaLorepovs,
4 Be A.aK$aifjiOVi(ov dTrXovarepovs 6Vra?, ert

\ov rjydTrrjcre, Kal irdOos ftacriXiKov TraOwv OVK
TO rrjv Trpo? TOV avBpa TLfjirjv, ovft
TOL/9 aXXoi/? 7rpecr/3e49 7r\icr
Kairoi SoKei yu-aXicrra TWV '



TOV AaKeBai/Aoviov, OTI TOV



ffT(f)aVOl>, OV TTLVCOV TTpieK6iTO, ySai/ra? 649

5 aTrecrreiXe. YleXoTriBa Se OVTW ^LEV OVK
, o~wpa be \afjnrpoTaTa Kal



Ka ra9 iwereis evre-



Kvpwaev, avTovo/jious /Av elvai roL/9
Be Mecrcrr?*'?;*', ^ySatof? Be



Taura9 eyfov r9 dTTOKpiaeis, TWV Be

OvBeV 6 TL fJ.r) ^a/?fcTO9 ?V (TV/Af3o\OV Kal <f)l\O-

1 ^Tri TTJ 5<{|T? Bekker, after Coraes : rfj
416



PELOPIDAS, xxx. 2-5

of some new success, and prevailed to the farthest
recesses of the interior ; and, in the second place,
when the satraps and generals and commanders at
the King's court beheld him, they spoke of him with
wonder, saying that this was the man who had ex-
pelled the Lacedaemonians from land and sea, and
shut up between Taygetus and the Eurotas that
Sparta which, a little while before, through Agesilaiis,
had undertaken a war with the Great King and the
Persians for the possession of Susa and Ecbatana.
This pleased Artaxerxes, of course, and he admired
Pelopidas for his high reputation, and loaded him
with honours, being desirous to appear lauded and
courted by the greatest men. But when he saw him
face to face, and understood his proposals, which
were more trustworthy than those of the Athenians,
and simpler than those of the Lacedaemonians, he
was yet more delighted with him, and, with all the
assurance of a king, openly showed the esteem in
which he held him, and allowed the other ambassa-
dors to see that he made most account of him. And
yet he is thought to have shown Antalcidas the
Lacedaemonian more honour than any other Greek,
in that he took the chaplet which he had worn at a
banquet, dipped it in perfume, and sent it to him.
To Pelopidas, indeed, he paid no such delicate com-
pliment, but he sent him the greatest and most
splendid of the customary gifts, and granted him his
demands, namely, that the Greeks should be in-
dependent, Messene l inhabited, and the Thebans
regarded as the king's hereditary friends.

With these answers, but wvthout accepting any
gifts except such as were mere tokens of kindness

1 Messene Mas the new capital of Messenia, founded on
the slopes of Mt. Ithome (cf. chapter xxiv. 5) by Epaminondas,
in 369 B.C.

417



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



<f>poffvvr)<; Sea/>iei>o9, dve^ev^ev o real fjid\i(TTa
6 TOL? aXXou? vrpecr/Sei? Ste/SaXe. Ti/Aayopav <yovv
KpivavTes direKTeivav, el pev errl roa
i TWV Swpewv, opdws KOI Si/catco?' ou yap
^pvcriov ovBe apyvpiov eXajSev, a\\a teal
K\ivr)v rro\VT\'fj KOI crT/owra? Qepairovra^, a>?
( }\\ijva)v OVK eTricrTafjievwv, ert Se /Sou?
JKOVTa /cal /3ov/co\ov<;, co? Srj vrpo? appwa"riav
TWO, yd\aKTO<? ftoeiov Beo^ievos, TeXo? 8e /care-
fBaivev eirl OaKacraav ev fyopeiw KojjLi6/j,evo<;,
reaaapa TaXavra rot? Ko^i^ovcn
jrapa /SacrtXea)?* aXX' eoixev ov% rj
Trapo^vvai TOU? 'A0ijvaiovs.
701)^ Trore TOU (rarcecrffcopov //,^'re apvovpevov
Swpa ^e^acrOau irapa fiaai\ew<;, ^^Lo-^d re
ypdcf)6iv fydaKOVTOs CLVT\ TWV evvia



KCLT' eviawrov evvea



ftacri\ea TWV ^ri^oriKwv Kal irevrjrwv, OTTO)?
evTropcoaiv, eye\a<rev 6 Sr}yLt09* aX
eyeyovei irdvra ^aXe?rw9 efyepov, ov
ri]V HeXoTTtSou $6j;av, OCTOJV TJV prj-
lopeiwv Kal ~\,6<yo)v KpeiTrwv Trap dv6pa)7T(p depa-
TreuovTi TOU? TWV OTT\.WV del KpaTovvTa^.

XXXI. 'H {lev ovv 7rpecr/3eta TW ITeXoTrtSa
TrpocreO^Kev ov fjuKpdv evvoiav erraveXdovTi, Bid 29. f
TOV Meacnjvrjs avvoiKLa/jioi' Kal TTJV TWV d\\wv
'}L\\r)vwv avTovo/Jiiav' *A\et;dv8pov 8e TOV <&epaiov
Tfa\iv et? Tr]v avTov (frvcriv dva&pafJiovTOS Kal
fiev OVK 6\iya$ TrepiKOTTTOVTOs TroXe*?,
Be 'A^aioi;? drravTa^ Kal TO Ma<yvri-

418



PELOPIDAS, xxx. 5-xxxi. i

and goodwill, he set out for home ; and this conduct
of his, more than anything else, was the undoing of
the other ambassadors. Timagoras, at any rate, was
condemned and executed by the Athenians, and it
this was because of the multitude of gifts which he
took, it was right and just ; for he took not only gold
and silver, but also an expensive couch and slaves to
spread it, since, as he said, the Greeks did not know
how ; and besides, eighty cows with their cow-herds,
since, as he said, he wanted cows' milk for some
ailment ; and, finally, he was carried down to the sea
in a litter, and had a present of four talents from the
King with which to pay his carriers. But it was not
his taking of gifts, as it would seem, that most
exasperated the Athenians. At any rate, Epicrates,
his shield-bearer, once confessed that he had received
gifts from the King, and talked of proposing a decree
that instead of nine archons, nine ambassadors to the
King should be elected annually from the poor and
needy citizens, in order that they might take his
gifts and be wealthy men, whereat the people only
laughed. But they were incensed because the The-
bans had things all their own way, not stopping to
consider that the fame of Pelopidas was more potent
than any number of rhetorical discourses with a man
who ever paid deference to those who were mighty
in arms.

XXXI. This embassy, then, added not a little to
the goodwill felt towards Pelopidas, on his return
home, because of the peopling of Messene and the
independence of the other Greeks. But Alexander
of Pherae had now resumed his old nature and was
destroying not a few Thessalian cities ; he had also
put garrisons over the Achaeans of Phthiotis and the



419



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



TWV

7raviJKiv al TroXet? evOvs ejr pea ftevov
aiTOVfjievai Bvvajjiiv /ecu aTpaTrjybv

2 Kivov. tyri(j)i<jaiJivwv Be TWV Qrfftaiwv rrpo-
0v/jLU>S, real Ta%v Trdvrwv eroifAwv ^evopevwv tcai
rov crrpaTiyyov Trepl e^o&ov 6Wo9, o f^ev ^Xto?
^\i7T Kal cr/coro? ev rj/juepa rrjv 7ro\iv ea")(ev,
o Be rieXoTTtSa? opwv Trpbs TO ^>da^a crvvre-
rapay/Ji6i>ov<; aTravras OVK w'ero Sew
Kara(f)6{3ovs /cat $vcr\7ri,$as oVra?, ov8e d

3 Sweveiv efnaKia^LXiOL^ 7ro\iTai<$, dXV

rot? ecrcraXot? CTTI&OVS teal rpiarcoo-iovs

dva\a/3cov



ovre TWV fjidvTa)v ecoi'Tcov OUTC



d\\wv crv/jLTrpodv/jiov/jiGVcov TTO\ITWV' fiieja yap
eBo/cet teal TT^O? dvSpa \a/j,7rpbv % ovpavov yeyo-
vevai (rrjfjieiov. o 6e rjv /j,ev Kal Bi opyrjv wv
p(j.oTepo<s eVl TOV 'A\%avBpov t r/X-
Be KOL Trjv oiKiav avTov voaovcrav rjBrj /cal
Bi<f)0ap/uivriv eupijcreiv eg wv BieiXeKTO Trj Sij/Sy.
4 fjid\L<JTa S' avTov Kal TrapeKakei TO TT}? Trpd^ews
, 7ri0v/iiovvTa Kal (f)i\OTi/jiOVfj,evov, ev ot?
AaKeBai/jLOVLOL Aiovvcrifp TW 2



Tvpvvrp (TTpaTrjyovs Ka p/mo(TTds
\\.0ijvaioi Be /jiiaQoBoTrjv 'AXllfavSpov elj^ov
%a\Kovv L(7Tacrav a>? evepyeTtjv, Tore rot9 r/ EXX?/-
<TIV eTTiBei^ai, 7;/9atoL'? povovs vTrep TWV Tvpav-
vov/jLevwv orTpaTevofjievovs Kal KaTaXvovTas ev
rot? r/ EXX?^crt ra? TrapavofAOvs Kal ftiaiovs Bvva-



420



PELOPIDAS, xxxi. 1-4

people of Magnesia. When, therefore, the cities
learned that Pelopidas was returned, they at once
sent ambassadors to Thebes requesting an armed
force and him for its commander. The Thebans
readily decreed what they desired, and soon every-
thing was in readiness and the commander about to
set out, when the sun was eclipsed and the city was
covered with darkness in the day-time. 1 So Pelo-



pidas, seeing that all were confounded at this
manifestation, did not think it meet to use compul-
sion with men who were apprehensive and fearful,
nor to run extreme hazard with seven thousand
citizens, but devoting himself alone to the Thes-
salians, and taking with him three hundred of the
cavalry who were foreigners and who volunteered for
the service, set out, although the seers forbade it,
;md the rest of the citizens disapproved ; for the
eclipse was thought to be a great sign from heaven,
and to regard a conspicuous man. But his wrath at
insults received made him very hot against Alex-
ander, and, besides, his previous conversations with
Thebe 2 led him to hope that he should find the
tyrant's family already embroiled and disrupted.
More than anything else, however, the glory of the
achievement invited him on, for he was ardently
desirous, at a time when the Lacedaemonians were
sending generals and governors to aid Dionysius the
tyrant of Sicily, and the Athenians were taking
Alexander's pay and erecting a bron/e statue of him
as their benefactor, to show the Greeks that the
Thebans alone were making expeditions for the relief
of those whom tyrants oppressed, and were over-
throwing in Greece those ruling houses which reslrd
on violence and were contrary to the laws.

1 July 13, 364 B.C. 2 ' 'f. chapter xxviii. 3 ff.

421



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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422



PELOPIDAS, xxxii. 1-5

XXXII. Accordingly, when he was come to Phar-
salus, he assembled his forces and marched at once
against Alexander. Alexander, also, seeing that
there were only a few Thebans with Pelopidas, while
his own men-at-arms were more than twice as many
as the Thessalians, advanced as far as the temple of
Thetis to meet him. When Pelopidas was told that
the tyrant was coming up against him with a large
force, "All the better," he said, "for there will be
more for us to conquer."

At the place called Cynoscephalae, steep and lofty
hills jut out into the midst of the plain, and both
leaders set out to occupy these with their infantry.
His horsemen, however, who were numerous and
brave, Pelopidas sent against the horsemen of the
enemy, and they prevailed over them and chased
them out into the plain. But Alexander got posses-
sion of the hills first, and when the Thessalian men-
at-arms came up later and tried to storm difficult and
lofty places, he attacked and killed the foremost of
them, and the rest were so harassed with missiles
that they could accomplish nothing. Accordingly,
when Pelopidas saw this, he called back his horse-
men and ordered them to charge upon the enemy's
infantry where it still held together, while he him-
self seized his shield at once and ran to join those
who were fighting on the hills. Through the rear
ranks he forced his way to the front, and filled all
his men with such vigour and ardour that the enemy
also thought them changed men, advancing to the
attack with other bodies and spirits. Two or three
of their onsets the enemy repulsed, but, seeing that
these too were now attacking with vigour, and that
the cavalry was coming back from its pursuit, they
gave way and retreated step by step. Then Pelo-

423



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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