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dve/coTrrja-av VTTO TOV HeXoTriSov, Tives Be
7 Kal 7r\ijyevTe$ T\VTrjaav, oi Be vroXXot Tot?
Bopaat TroppwOev Bia TWV OTT\WV TvirTovTes avTOV

, ew? oi @eo"craXot
CITTO TWV \6(j)a)v

TrevrTft) KOTOS, o'i T

TTJV (j)d\a r yya Kal Bi
V7r\ijcrav VGKpwv Trjv ^wpav, 7r\eov r)
T pi(T%i,\iovs KaTa/3a\6vTe<?.

XXXIII. To /j,v ovv QiiJBaiwv TOI)<?
eirl Trj TOV T[e\o7riBov T\VTrj /9apea)9
TraTepa Kal awTfjpa Kal BiBd&KaXov TWV fJL r yicrTwv
Kal Ka\\i(TTwv dyaOwv d7roKa\ovvTas Keii>ov,
ov irdw OavfjiaaTov yv oi Be BecrcraXot Kal oi
irdaav dvOpwirivrj Trpeirovaav dpeTrj
V7repl3a\6vTe<;, GTL /j,a\-

avrliv Sintenis' correction of the MSS.
ai>T6v ; Bekker, after Coraes and Am} 7 ot, corrects to


PKLOPIDAS, xxxn. 5-xxxin. i

pidas, looking down from the heights and seeing
that the whole army of the enemy, though not yet
put to flight, was already becoming full of tumult
and confusion, stood and looked about him in search
of Alexander. And when he saw him on the right
wing, marshalling and encouraging his mercenaries,
he could not subject his anger to his judgement, but,
inflamed at the sight, and surrendering himself and
his conduct of the enterprise to his passion, he sprang
out far in front of the rest and rushed with challenging
cries upon the tyrant. He, however, did not receive
nor await the onset, but fled back to his guards and
hid himself among them. The foremost of the mer-
cenaries, coming to close quarters with Pelopidas,
were beaten back by him ; some also were smitten
and slain ; but most of them fought at longer range,
thrusting their spears through his armour and cover-
ing him with wounds, until the Thessalians, in dis-
tress for his safety, ran down from the hills, when he
had already fallen, and the cavalry, charging up,
routed the entire phalanx of the enemy, and, fol-
lowing on a great distance in pursuit, filled the
country with their dead bodies, slaying more than
three thousand of them.

XXXIII. Now, that the Thebans who were present
at the death of Pelopidas should be disconsolate,
calling him their father and saviour and teacher of
the greatest and fairest blessings, was not so much
to be wondered at; but the Thessalians and allies
also, after exceeding in their decrees every honour
that can fitly be paid to human excellence, showed



\ov CTreBei^avTo rot? TrdOecn r^v TT^O? TOV avBpa

2 %dpiv. TOI)? fjiev yap TrapayeyovoTas r<w epyy
\eyovai /nrjT QwpaKa OeaOai /jLrjre 'LTTTTOV eV^aXi-
vwaai [Jir)Te Tpav/jta StjaacrOai rrpoTepov, to?
eirvdovTo rrjv e/ceCvov reXevrrjv, d\\a /nera rwv
OTT\WV Oepjjiovs iovras eVt TOV vexpov wcnrep
aiaOavbfJievov, ra TWV TroKe^iwv KVK\W ire pi TO
awyaa Gwpeveiv \d<f)vpa, Kelpai &e YTTTTOVS, tcei-

3 pacrQai, Se teal CLVTOVS, dirLovra^ *& TTO\\OVS eVt

/jLJJre Trvp dvd^rat, ^re SCLTTVOV eXecrOai,,
Be Kal Kar^(f)6iai> elvat, TOV crrparoTreBov
waTrep ov veviKrjKOTWv eTTL^avea-rdrriv
vifcijv Kal /jLeyicrTrjv, aA,V r^TTrjiJLevwv VTTO TOV

4 TVpdvvov Kal KaTaoe$ov\Q)/nei>a)i>. ere Be TWV
TToXeco^, a>? dTrrjyyeXd'rj TavTa, Trapfjaav at re
dp%al /cal /zer' avTWV e^7;/3ot Kal TraiBes Kal iepei?


aT(f)dvov<; Kal Tra^oTrX/a? %pvcra<;


01 TrpeaftvTaTOi, TWV

^)Satoi>5 Bi aiiTMV dd-^rau TOV veKpov. el?
Be avT&v e\eyev ""Az^^pe?

Trap' VJAWV Kocr/jtov ^fjuv eVt
5 TOo~avTr) Kal TrapafivQlav fyepovaav. ov yap


evq) ra? a^ta? rt/za? drroBwcrovcriv, aXX'
re TOV veKpov Tv^wfjiev Kal Bi avTwv
Kal Qdtyai TO crw/^a, Bo^ofAev vfjilv OVK
d7TicrTLV OTL fjiei^wv r; o~v/uL(f)Opd yeyove OeTTaXoT?
rj tyrjftaiow vfuv /juev yap rjyefjiovos dyaOov
H.QVOV, rjiiiv ^e Kal TOVTOV Kal T?}?
(TTepeaOai (rv/JifteftrjKe. TTW? yap GTL


PELOPIDAS, xxxin. 1-5

still more by their grief how grateful they were to
him. For it is said that those who were in the action
neither took off their breastplates nor unbridled
their horses nor bound up their wounds, when they
learned of his death, but, still heated and in full
armour, came first to the body, and as if it still had
life and sense, heaped round it the spoils of the
enemy, sheared their horses' manes, and cut off their
own hair ; and when they had gone to their tents,
many neither kindled a fire nor took supper, but
silence and dejection reigned through all the camp,
as if they had not won a great and most brilliant
victory, but had been defeated by the tyrant and
made his slaves. From the cities, too, when tidings
of these things reached them, came the magistrates,
accompanied by youths and boys and priests, to take
up the body, and they brought trophies and wreaths
and suits of golden armour. And when the body
was to be carried forth for burial, the most reverend
of the Thessalians came and begged the Thebans for
the privilege of giving it burial themselves. And one
of them said : " Friends and allies, we ask of you a
favour which will be an honour to us in our great
misfortune, and will give us consolation. We men
of Thessaly can never again escort a living Pelopidas
on his way, nor pay him worthy honours of which he
can be sensible ; but if we may be permitted to
compose and adorn his body with our own hands and
give it burial, you will believe, we are persuaded, that
this calamity is a greater one for Thessaly than for
Thebes. For you have lost only a good commander ;
but we both that and freedom. For how shall we



airijcrai arrpaTrfybv aXXav Trap 1 vfjiwv OVK CLTTO-
IleXoTrtSai/;" ravra fjiev oi ij/3aioi crvve-

XXXIV. 'Eifceivtov Be TWV Tafywv ov BOKOVCTIV
erepai XayUTT/oorepat yevecrOai rot? TO \afiirpov

OVK V \(f)aVTi, KOi %pV(T(j) KOL

vo^Li^ovaiv, wcnrep ^tXtcrro? VJJLVMV teal
rrfv kiovucrlov ra(j)ijv, olov rpaywSias /jL,6yd\r)<? TI)?
2 rvpavviSos e^oBioi' Oearpifcov yevofjLevi]v. 'AXe^a^-
Spos 8e o /jieyas 'H^atdrtco^o? airodavowros ov
IJLOVOV ITTTTOVS Kip KOI rj/Jiiovovs, d\\a Kal ra?
a^etXe TWV Teu^wv, &)? av boicolev al


IJLOV er^yLta KOI CLTI^OV avakafjiftdvovcrai. Tavra
/jiV ovv Trpoardy/jLara SeaTTOTtov OVTCL, KOL /uera 29
TroXXr}? dvdy/cijs Trepaivo^eva Kal fjiera <j)06i>ov
TMV rv-^ovrwv Kal {li&ovs rwv fBia^o^evdov, ovSe-
/jLia? xdptros rjv ovBe rtyar}?, oy/cov Be /3ap/3apiKOi>
teal Tpvfyrjs Kal aXabi>eta9 7r/Sei^9, et? Keva KOI
3 arj\a TTJV Trepiovcriav SiariOeaevcov avrjp Be
KOS 67Tt !;vr)s TeOvrjKOJS, ov yvvaiKos, ov
, ov crvyyi>a>v Trapovrcov, ov Beopevov
os, OVK dvayKa^ovros, VTTO ByjfJiwv ToaovTwv
dpi\X.a)/jii'Ci)v TT poire /tTro/ze^o? Ka\

TQV T\LOTarov d

4 ov ydp, ax? At'c7&>7ro9 effracrKe, ^aXe7TWTaTO9 e
o TWV VTV%ovvTa)v OdvaTos, aXXa
et9 dcr<f)a\r) %a)pav ra<f evirpa^ia
rwv dyaOwv Kal Tv%r)v fjLTa/3d\\cr0ai /j,r) diro-
Bio ftsXTiov 6 AaKcov Tov y Q\v/j,7rioviKr)i>
(TTtBovra uev vi'dv?


PKLOPIDAS. XXXIH. 5-xxxiv. 4

have the courage to ask another general from you,
when we have not returned Pelopidas?" This
request the Thebaus granted.

XXXIV. Those funeral rites were never surpassed
in splendour, in the opinion of those who do not
think splendour to consist in ivory, gold, and purple,
like Philistus, who tells in wondering strains about
the funeral of Dionysius, which formed the pompous
conclusion of the great tragedy of his tyranny.
Alexander the Great, too, when Hephaestion died,
not only sheared the manes of his horses and mules,
but actually took away the battlements of the city-
walls, in order that the cities might seem to be in
mourning, assuming a shorn and dishevelled appear-
ance instead of their former beauty. These honours,
however, were dictated by despots, were performed
under strong compulsion, and were attended with
envy of those who received them and hatred of
those who enforced them ; they were a manifestation
of no gratitude or esteem whatever, but of barbaric
pomp and luxury and vain-glory, on the part of men
who lavished their superfluous wealth on vain and
sorry practices. But that a man who was a com-
moner, dying in a strange country, in the absence of
wife, children, and kinsmen, none asking and none
compelling it, should be escorted and carried forth
and crowned by so many peoples and cities eager to
show him honour, rightly seemed to argue him su-
premely fortunate. For the death of men in the hour
of their triumph is not, as Aesop used to say, most
grievous, but most blessed, since it puts in safe
keeping their enjoyment of their blessings and
leaves no room for change of fortune. Therefore the
Spartan's advice was better, who, when he greeted
Diagoras, the Olympian victor, who had lived to see



'OXvfj,7riacriv, 7riB6vTa B* vicovovs teal Ov^arpi
801)9, acr7racra/i,ei/09, " Kar^aye," elire,
5 OVK ei9 TOI> "Q\v/ji7rov dvaftijcry" ra<? Se '
Tna/ca? #a/ riu^t/fa? vifea^ OVK dv, ol/j,ai, TJ?
TO at'ro crvvOels cnrdaas evl TWV
7rapa/3a\iv dycbvwv d^iooa-eiev, 01)5

KCU KdTOcDGas, /cat rov iov TO


arrj /SoLcorap^ia, TVpavvoKTOvlq
dpicrreiav dpiaTevcov, VTrep T^? TWV
aa\wv eXevOepias direOavev.

XXXV. ( Q 3e OdvaTO^ avrov
\.vTrr)Ge TOU? crvfjL/jLd'xovs, jjiei^ova Se
rj/3aloi yap, co? CTrvOovro rrjv TOV Tle\o7riBov
re\VTijv, ovBejmiav dvaftoXrjv 7roi,r)<rdfj,voi
Tt/ji(op[a<; /card Ta^o? ea-rpdrevcrav
'maKia"%i\ioLS, iTnrevcri 8' eTTTaArocr/oi?,
2 i>oi' Ma\ATtTou rat kioelrovos. KaTa\a36vres Be

v KOI TrepiKeKOfjLfjizvov
v rjvdjKacrav ecro^aXot?
rat Ta? vroXet? a? et%e^ avT&v, Mdyvrjras Be KOL


%a r ya'yLV, ofioaai Be avrov e'</)' o&

ovv TOV'TOIS rjpKea-0'rjcrav rjv Be 6\iyov vcrrepov T0i9

SoL' Bi/ctjv eBwKe BL^ytjao/jiai.
<JVVOIK,OVGCW avrw Trpwrov /mev, a>9
, ITeXo7rt8a9 eBiBa^e fir) fyofSelaOai rrjv
\afA7rpoTrjTa /cal Trapacr/cevrjv T% rvpavviSos,
vros TWV OTT\WV KOI TWV (j)v\dKu>v ovaav erreiTa
Be (f)0/3ov/^evrj Trjv aTTicrTiav avTOV Kal fjLt<rovcra
Trjv w/jLOTrfra, avvOefJLevr) /jieTa TWV dBe\(f)wv,
rpiwv OVTWV, Tiai(J)6vov, Tlv0o\dov,


PELOPIDAS, xxxiv. 4-xxxv. 3

his sons crowned at Olympia, yes, and the sons of his
sons and daughters, said ; " Die now, Diagoras ; thou
canst not ascend to Olympus." But one would not
deign, I think, to compare all the Olympian and
Pythian victories put together with one of the
struggles of Pelopidas ; these were many, and lie
made them successfully, and after living most of his
life in fame and honour, at last, while boeotarch for
the thirteenth time, performing a deed of high
valour which aimed at a tyrant's life, he died in
defence of the freedom of Thessaly.

XXXV. The death of Pelopidas brought great
grief to his allies, but even greater gain. For the
Thebans, when they learned of it, delayed not their
vengeance, but speedily made an expedition with
seven thousand men-at-arms and seven hundred
horsemen, under the command of Malcitas and
Diogeiton. They found Alexander weakened and
robbed of his forces, and compelled him to restore
to the Thessalians the cities he had taken from
them, to withdraw his garrisons and set free the
Magnesians and the Achaeans of Phthiotis, and to
take oath that he would follow the lead of the
Thebans against any enemies according to their
bidding. The Thebans, then, were satisfied with
this ; out the gods soon afterwards avenged Pelo-
pidas, as I shall now relate.

To begin with, Thebe, the tyrant's wife, as I have
said, had been taught by Pelopidas not to fear the
outward splendour and array of Alexander, since these
depended wholly on his armed guards ; and now,
in her dread of his faithlessness and her hatred of
his cruelty, she conspired with her three brothers,
Tisiphonus, Pytholaiis, and Lycophron, and made an



TOV Tvpdvvov fcaretyov ai (frv\aKal TWV Trapavv-
KTepevovTwv, 6 Be #aXa/0<?, ev w KaQevBeiv elwOe-
aav, inrep&os fjv, Kal Trpb avrov <fyvkaier)V el%e
KVWV $6$/uLevos, Traai cfroftepos 7r\rjv avrois etcei-
vois KOI evi TWV olfceTwv TW rpetyovri. icad* ov
ovv e'yue/VXe /caipbv eirv)(eipw 77 77/9/7, TOL/?

5 KKpv/uifjLi>ov<;, elcreXdoixra Be, wcnrep

TT/OO? TOV ' A.\ej;avSpov ^877 KaBev&ovTCL teal
(jiitcpbv TrdXiv 7rpoe\0ovaa, rw p.ev olfcerr} Trpocre-
raev dirdyeiv e^co TOV KVVO,' ^ov\ecr6ai 'jap
dvcnravecrOai, fjieO' rja-v^La^ etcetvov avTrj Be rqv
tc\lfjLaK,a ^>o^ov^evri /nrj KTVTTOV Trapdcr^r} TWV
veavicrfcwv dvaftaivovrayv eptoe? icaTecrTopecrev

6 elra OI/TW? dvayayovcra TOU? aSeX^ou? ^v^qpevs
KOL cTTTicracra Trpb TWV 6vpwv elari\6ev avTij, teal
KaOe\ovaa TO ^t'^o? virep TT}? tce(f)a\,'f)<? /cpefj,dfjL6-
vov. crTjfj.e'iov elvai TOV /caTe^ecrOat, TOV dvBpa Kal
KaOevBeiv eBei^ev. K7re7r\r)jfjievu>v Be TMV veavL-


r' 0/3777? avTi] TOV 'A\eavBpov e^eyeipaaa
TYJV Trpd^iv, ala")(vv9evTa<$ avTOvs a/za Kal
(f)o(3r]devTas elo'^yaye teal Trepieo-Trjae TTJ K\ivrj,
1 Trpocr^epovcra TOV \v^(vov. TWV Be 6 fj,ev rou? TroBas
KaTel^e Trieaas, 6 Be TIJV Ke(j>a\rjv Xa/9oyue^o? TWV
Tpi%(ov dvK\ao~ev, o Be r/otro? TW %ifyet TVTTTCOV
avTov Bie%pr)craTO, TW /jiev ra^et TT}?
TrpaoTepov laws rj TrpoarJKOv rjv djrodavovTa,
Be fjiovov 77 TTpwTov Tvpdvvcov VTTO yvvaiKos
d7ro\<T0ai, Kal TT} /JLCTCL BdvaTOv aiKia TOV

pi&evTos Kal TraTrjOevTOS VTTO TWV Qepaiwv,
TreTrovdevai Bo^avTa TWV


PELOP1DAS, xxxv. 4-7

attempt upon his life, as follows. The rest of the
tyrant's house was guarded by sentries at night, but
the bed-chamber, where lie and his wife were wont
to sleep, was an upper room, and in front of it a
chained dog kept guard, which would attack every-
one except his master and mistress and the one servant
who fed him. When, therefore, Thebe was about to
make her attempt, she kept her brothers hidden all
day in a room hard by, and at night, as she was
wont, went in alone to Alexander. She found him
already asleep, and after a little, coming out again,
ordered the servant to take the dog outdoors, for
his master wanted to sleep undisturbed ; and to
keep the stairs from creaking as the young men
came up, she covered them with wool. Then, after
bringing her brothers safely up, with their swords,
and stationing them in front of the door, she went
in herself, and taking down the sword that hung
over her husband's head, showed it to them as a
sign that he was fast asleep. Finding the young
men terrified and reluctant, she upbraided them,
and swore in a rage that she would wake Alexander
herself and tell him of the plot, and so led them,
ashamed and fearful too, inside, and placed them
round the bed, to which she brought the lamp. Then
one of them clutched the tyrant's feet and held them
down, another dragged his head back by the hair,
and the third ran him through with his sword. The
swiftness of it made his death a milder one, perhaps,
than was his due ; but since he was the only, or the
first, tyrant to die at the hands of his own wife, and
since his body was outraged after death, being cast
out and trodden under foot bv the Pheraeans, he

may be thought to have suffered what his lawless

/ *^

deeds deserved.




I. ^AdpKov Se KXavSiov TOV
aawra 'PcofJLaicov Ma/o/eou /ue^ viov yevecrtiai
\eyovcri, K\[email protected])vai & TWV cnro rr}? oiKias Trpwrov
^, orrep ecrrlv 'Aprjiov, w? (prjai Tlocrei-



(f)u<Ti 0tXo7roXe/zo9 /cdi^ TOUTCO Sr) TroXu TO yavpov
2 KOL ayepayy^ov eTrufyaivwv ev rot? ay wen, TOO 5e

d\\(t) TpOTTW (TOt)<f)p(i)V, <f)l,\dv0p(i)TTOS, (

rraiSeias Kal \oywv aXP L T v Tt-l^av KOL
TOU? KaTopOovvras epcKTTtjs, aura? e
Xtw^ e0' oaov TIV TrpoOvfjios d<TKrj<jai KOL
OVK f&KOfjievos. L yap aXXoi? Tialv avOpay

O ^609, WCT7T6/3

K VeOTITOS &0)K Kal 669 r>CL$ TO\V7TVLV

3 /cat rot9 Tore Trpwrevovai w/jiaayv, o' veoi
ovres Trepl *iK\iav \\.ap\ri&orioLs, ciKfjid^omes &6
FaXarat9 virep avrr/s *lraXta? eirokefjuovv, ijSi) Se
i(Bq 7rd\tv avvei^ovro Kal Ka/?^?;-
iots, OVK e'^opT69, (ocTTTep ol TToXXot, ja yfjpas

, aXX eVt arparrjyia<; TTO\-

Kal rjye/jLOvias Ka-i evyeveiav Kal apcrrjv

43 6


I. MARCUS CLAUDIUS, who was five times consul of
the Romans, was a son of Marcus, as we are told,
and, according to Poseidonius., was the first of his
family to be called Marcellus, which means Martial.
For he was by experience a man of war, of a sturdy
body and a vigorous arm. He was naturally fond of
war, and in its conflicts displayed great impetuositv
and high temper ; but otherwise he was modest,
humane, and so far a lover of Greek learning and
discipline as to honour and admire those who excelled
therein, although he himself was prevented by his
occupations from achieving a knowledge and pro-
ficiency here which corresponded to his desires. For
if ever there were men to whom Heaven, as Homer
says, 1

" From youth and to old age appointed the accom-
plishment of laborious wars,"

they were the chief Romans of that time, who, in
their youth, waged war with the Carthaginians for
Sicily ; in their prime, with the Gauls to save Italy
itself; and when they were now grown old, con-
tended again with Hannibal and the Carthaginians,
and did not have, like most men, that respite from
service in the field which old age brings, but were
called by their high birth and valour to undertake
leaderships and commands in war.

1 Iliad, xiv. 86 f.




II. Mtt/a/ceAAo? Be Trpo? ovBev pev rjv
elBos dpyb? ovBe dvd<TKr)ro$, avro? 8' eavrov
fcpdnaros ev ru> fjiovofjia^elv yevo/^evos ovBe/Aiav
efyvye, Trdvras Be rovs 7rpoKa\eaa-
direfcreivev. ev 8e %iK\ia rov
KivSvvevovra bieawaev

2 KOI aTTOKTeivas rou? 7rt<>epo(j,vovs. dvff
OVTL jjiei> en V6<p aT6(f)avo{, teal yepa Trapd TWV
crTpariiywv rjaav, ev^OKifJiovvTa Se ^JLO\\OV dyopa-
VO/AOV jjiev aTrebei^e T^? eTufyaveaTepas ra^eo)? o

, ol Be /epe?9 avyovpa. rovro 8' ecrrlv iepo)-
, ft) /Jid\i(JTa rrfV avr' olwvwv
KOI 7rapa(j)v\drrip z/o/^o

3 'RvayfcdaOrf Be dyopavofjL&v BLKTJV d
elcrevey/ceiv. r\v yap avra) vrat? O/JLOOVV/JLO? ev wpq,
rrjv Q-^TLV eKTrpeTrijs, ov% rjrrov Be ra> crwcfrpovelv
teal TreTraiBevcrOai Trept/SXeTTTO? VTTO Tayv TTO\LTMV
rovro) Ka7rTco\ivos 6 rov Ma/?/ce\X

do-e\yr)S dvijp real Opaa-vs, epwv \6yovs
vey/ce. TOV Be TratSo? TO yuei/ Trpwrov avrov
eavrov aTTorpL^lra/jLevov Trjv irelpav, &)? Be
eTre^euprjcre Karenrovros TT/JO? rov Trarepa,
eveyKcov 6 Map/ceAAo? 7rpoo-ijyyei\e TV) /3ov\y rov

4 dvOpa)7Tov. 6 Be TroXXa? fjLev aTroSpacret? KOL 29!
7rapaypa(f)ds e/Jirj^avdro, TOU? Bij/j,dp / %ovs emKa-
\ovfievos, CKCLVCOV Be fjbrj TrpocrBe^o/jievMV rr)V
eir'ucX^a-iv apvijaei rrjv alriav efavye. tcdi

rvpos ovBevbs rwv \6ycov yeyovoros eBoe
TrejJLTrGa'Oai rov TraiBa rfj j3ov\fj. Trapayevo^ievov
8' IBovres epvOrj/uia teal Bd/cpvov KOI /jLe/Aiy/Aevov
r& Ovfjiovfjievu* ro alBov/jLevov, ovBevbs

Bekker corrects to etTrAaa-Ty (unfeigned), after



II. Marcellus was efficient and practised in every
kind of fighting, but in single combat he surpassed
himself, never declining a challenge, and always kill-
ing his challengers. In Sicily he saved his brother
Otacilius from peril of his life, covering him with
his shield and killing those who were setting upon
him. Wherefore, although he was still a youth, he
received garlands and prizes from his commanders,
and since he grew in repute, the people appointed
him curule aedile, 1 and the priests, augur. This is
a species of priesthood, to which the law particularly
assigns the observation and study of prophetic signs
from the flight of birds.

During his aedileship, he was compelled to bring
a disagreeable impeachment into the senate. He
had a son, named Marcus like himself, who was in
the flower of his boyish beauty, and not less admired
by his countrymen for his modesty and good training.
To this boy Capitolinus, the colleague of Marcellus,
a bold and licentious man, made overtures of love.
The boy at first repelled the attempt by himself, but
when it was made again, told his father. Marcellus,
highly indignant, denounced the man in the senate.
The culprit devised many exceptions and ways of
escape, appealing to the tribunes of the people, and
when these rejected his appeal, he sought to escape
the charge by denying it. There had been no witness
of his proposals, and therefore the senate decided to
summon the boy before them. When he appeared,
and they beheld his blushes, tears, and shame mingled

1 Literally, aedile oj the more illustrious class, i.e. patrician,
in distinction from plebeian, aedile.




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dpyvpd \oi/3eia Tronjcrduevos rot?
Oeols KaOtepaxrev.

III. 'Evrei e TOU Trpwrov rwv
erei Sevrepw Kal elfcocnu)

O)V ayu>vwv SieB^ovro rrjv
, ol &e rrjv vTra\7reiav ve/jiop-evoi TT)?

eavrovs oi/Te?, 8vvd/jit<; eicd\oyv, KOI yu-ere-
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2 01 TatadraL /caXovvrai, Oav/jLacrrov fiev eSotcei Kal
dya6f)<? jevearOai TO /Jirj <Tvppayf)i>ai TOV
et? TO auro T<W AiftvKO) 7r6\e/j.ov, aXX'

TOU? FaXara?, o

ovrco rare 5^ rot? veviKrjKocrtv eTraTro&vecrOai

i(T0ai a"^o\rju ayovras' ov
7; re %cu/oa Trapeze <f)6/3ov, Bid rr/
vlaaiv ofjiopw Kal TrpoaoiKO) TroXe/zw GVVOLGO-
/Ltei^ot?, ral TO TrdXaibv d^iwfjia rwv

' are

3 /tal T>V Tro\iv VTT

l Oefievoi VO/JLOV aTeXet? et^ai aTpareias
TT\T]V el ^ YaXariKos 7rd\Lv eV
. eS?;/\ou 5e /cat Toy (poftov avrcov r] re
yap ev ovrXo/?

Tat, 'PayfiaLoyv oirre irpoTepov ouTe vcnepov yeve-
crOai \eyovTai) Kal TCL irepl Ta? Overlap


MARCELLUS, n. 4-111. 3

with quenchless indignation, they wanted no further
proof, but condemned Capitolinus, and set a fine upon
him. With this money Marcellus had silver libation-
howls made, and dedicated them to the gods.

III. After the first Punic war had come to an end
in its twenty-second year, Rome was called upon to
renew her struggles with the Gauls. 1 The Insubrians,
a people of Celtic stock inhabiting that part of Italy
which lies at the foot of the Alps, and strong even
by themselves, called out their forces, and summoned
to their aid the mercenary Gauls called Gaesatae.
It seemed a marvellous piece of good fortune that
the Gallic war did not break out while the Punic
war was raging, but that the Gauls, like a third
champion sitting by and awaiting his turn with the
victor, remained strictly quiet while the other two
nations were fighting, and then only stripped for
combat when the victors were at liberty to receive
their challenge. Nevertheless, the Romans were
greatly alarmed by the proximity of their country
to the enemy, with whom they would wage war so
near their own boundaries and homes, as well as by
the ancient renown of the Gauls, whom the Romans
seem to have feared more than any other people.
For Rome had once been taken by them, 2 and from
that time on a Roman priest was legally exempt from
military service only in case no Gallic war occurred
again. Their alarm was also shown by their prepa-
rations for the war (neither before nor since that
time, we are told, were there so many thousands of
Romans in arms at once), and by the extraordinary
sacrifices which they made to the gods. For though

1 The First Punic War lasted from 265 B.C. till 241 B.C.,
and the Tnsubrians invader! Italy in 225 P. c.

2 In 390 B.C. See the Camillas, xix.-xxiii



4 fjieva' fiapfiapiKov /juev jap 1 ovBev ou<5' erc(f)v\oi>
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'R\\rjviKa)$ BiaKi/jievoi> teal Trpaco? TT/JO? rd 6ela,
rore rov rro\e/ijLOV crv/jurrecrovTOS rjvayKdcrdriaav
el%ai \o<yiois nalv ex rwv ^LJBv\\eL(ov, Kal Bvo
/j,v r 'Ej\\r)vas, avBpa KOI yvvaiKa, Svo Be Ta\d-
ra? o/xotft)? ev rfj Ka\,ov/jievr) fiowv ayopd /caropv-

ot<? eri KOL vvv ev rw

r 'Et\\r]cri, KOI TaXdrais dTropprfrovs teal


IV. Oi fjuev ovv TrpwToi TWV d<yu>vwv vitcas re
KCU ff<pd\/Jiara rot? 'Pa)yu,atO6? evey/cavres
ovftev ereXevrijcrav Trepas fteftaiov <&\aiJLiviov
Be fcal <&ovpiov rwv vrrdrwv /JLeyd\ais eKcrrparev-

vvdfjLe<nv errl roi/9
pewv o Bid TT)

Be rpels a-e\i]vas (fravfjvat, rrepl
2 'Api/jiivov, ol Be errl rat? vrrariKals

7rapa(f)v\drrovre<; olwvovs iepeis SiefBefBcuovvro
/jLO^6rjpd<; teal BvcropviOas a^rot? yeyovevai ra?
rwv vrraTWV dvayopevcreis. evdvs ovv eVe/^'v/rei/ 77
crvyK\r)ro<s errl ro arparbire&ov ypd/jL/^ara tca-
\ovaa Kal jnerarre/JLTro/jLevrj rou? vrrdrovs, OTTO)?

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