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errave\06vres y rd^icrra rrjv
fcal /jbrjBev a>? vrraroi <p&dcrcocri rrpd^ai TT/JO?
ravra Be%d/j,evo<; rd ypd/^/^ara
ov rrporepov e\vaev rj i^d^rj crvvd-^ras rpe-
TOU? ftapfidpovs teal rrjv %(t)pav avrcov
emBpa/jLelv. co? ovv e7ravfj\0e /nerd TroXkwv \a-
, OVK dmjvrr)(rev 6 BTJ/JLO^, aXV on fca\ov-
OVK evOvs vrrrjKovcrev ovB* erce'iaOr) rot?
d\\ evvfipicre Kal
ykp Bekker, after Coraes

MARCELLUS, in. 4-iv. 3

they have no barbarous or unnatural practices, but
cherish towards their deities those mild and rever-
ent sentiments which especially characterize Greek
thought, at the time when this war burst upon them
they were constrained to obey certain oracular com-
mands from the Sibylline books, and to bury alive
two Greeks, a man and a woman, and likewise two
Gauls, in the place called the " forum boarium," or
cattle-market ; and in memory of these victims, they
still to this day, in the month of November, perform
mysterious and secret ceremonies.

IV. The first conflicts of this war brought great
victories and also great disasters to the Romans, and
led to no sure and final conclusion ; but at last
Flaminius and Furius, the consuls, led forth large
forces against the Insubrians. At the time of their
departure, however, the river that flows through
Picenum was seen to be running with blood, and it
was reported that at Ariminum three moons had ap-
peared in the heavens, and the priests who watched
the flight of birds at the time of the consular elec-
tions insisted that when the consuls were pro-
claimed the omens were inauspicious and baleful
for them. At once, therefore, the senate sent letters
to the camp, summoning the consuls to return to
the city with all speed and lay down their office, and
forbidding them, while they were still consuls, to
take any steps against the enemy. On receiving
these letters, Flaminius would not open them before
he had joined battle with the Barbarians, routed
them, and overrun their country. Therefore, when
he returned with much spoil, the people would not
go out to meet him, but because he had not at once
listened to his summons, and had disobeyed the
letters, treating them with insolent contempt, they



/Jiev eBetjcrev drrotyrifyio'aa'Qai rov

avrov, OpiafJi(Bevo~avra Be ISiarfijv eirmrjd-ev, dvay-

fcdcras eojA6o~aa&ai rrjv vrrareiav jjberd rov aw- 30
4 dpyovros. ovrco TrdvTd rd IT pay par a 'Ptwyum'oi?

et? rov Oeov dvrjyero, fjiavreiwv & Kal rrarplwv

vrrepotyiav ov& errl rat? /meyia-Tais

drre$e%ovro, fjid^ov ^yovfjievoi 77/90?

TroXew? TO 6avfJid^LV rd Beta rovs dp^ovras rav

Kparelv rwv rro\e^iwv.

V. Tt/3epto? ovv ^e/jLTrpayvios, dvijp 01 dvopeiav
l KaXotcayaQlav ovBevbs r^rrov dyarr^Oel^ vrro


rriwva Naaircdv Kal Ydiov Mdpxiov, {jSij &e %6v-
rayv avrwv errapxias Kal arparev/nara, tepariKols
vrrofiv^fjLacnv evrv^wv evpev rjyvo^jfjiei'ov vfi avrov
2 ri rwv rrarpiwv. r)V Be roiovrov orav dp~)(wv
err QQVIGI Kade^o^Jievo^ ea> TroXeco? OLKOV i]

vrjv fjie^LO'dwiJLevo^ vrr^ alrias nvbs

fj,r)7ra) yeyovorajv o~r)fjbeiwv fteftaiwv erraveev ei?

, dfyelvai Xptjv TO Trpofjie/jLicrOwfievov
Kal \aftelv erepov, eg ov rronjaGrai rrjv Oeav
vrrap-^rj^. rovro e\a6ev, co? eoifce, rov
Kal 49 rw avrw ^prjadfJLevo^ drreSei^e
TOU? elprnievov<$ dvSpas vrrdrovs. vcrrepov Be
ryvovs rr]V d/j,apriav dvijvejKe TT/JO? rrjv o'vjKXijrov.
3 rj Be ov Kare(j)p6vrjo~e rov Kara fjiiKpbv ovra)<;
e\\eifjL/j,aTOS, aXX' ejpa-^re rot? dvBpdo~t,' Kal
ra? errap'\ia^ aTroXtTro^re? ercavr)\6ov et?
ra%v Kal KareOevro rrjv dp-^rjv. aXXa
ravra /nev vo~repov errpd^drj' rrepl Be rov? avrovs


MARCELLUS, iv. 3-v. 3

came near refusing him his triumph, and after his
triumph, they compelled him to renounce the consul-
ship with his colleague, and made him a private citizen.
To such a degree did the Romans make everything
depend upon the will of the gods, and so intolerant
were they of any neglect of omens and ancestral
rites, even when attended by the greatest successes,
considering it of more importance for the safety of
the city that their magistrates should reverence re-
ligion than that they should overcome their enemies.
V. For example, Tiberius Sempronius, a man most
highly esteemed by the Romans for his valour and
probity, proclaimed Scipio Nasica and Caius Marcius
his successors in the consulship, but when they had
already taken command in their provinces, he came
upon a book of religious observances wherein he
found a certain ancient prescript of which he had
been ignorant. It was this. Whenever a magistrate,
sitting in a hired house or tent outside the city to
take auspices from the flight of birds, is compelled
for any reason to return to the city before sure signs
have appeared, he must give up the house first hired
and take another, and from this he must take his
observations anew. Of this, it would seem, Tiberius
was not aware, and had twice used the same house
before proclaiming the men I have mentioned as
consuls. But afterwards, discovering his error, he
referred the matter to the senate. This body did
not make light of so trifling an omission, but wrote
to the consuls about it ; and they, leaving their
provinces, came back to Rome with speed, and laid
down their offices. This, however, took place at a
later time. 1 But at about the time of which I am

1 Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, father of the two famous
tribunes, was consul for the second time in 163 B.C.



%povovs teal Svo te/jet? eTrKpaveararoi T<Z?

OTI TCL (T7r\dy%va TOV lepeiov rrapd
4 KoinVro? Be ^OV\TTLKLO^ errl TM OVOVTOS avTOV
TOV Kopvfyaiov aTToppvfjvai, TT}? K<paXrjs Trl\ov, ov
ol Ka\ovp,evoi ^\afjiivLOi fyopovcn. M.IVOVKIOV 8e
SiKTaropos i7T7rap%ov aTroSet^a^ro? Ydiov <&\a-
piviov, eVet T/oTyu.o? rj/covcrdr) p,vbs bv cropiKa
KaXovcnv, d7ro-^rri(f)icrd[jLvoL TOVTOVS avdvs e
Karecrrrjaav. teal rrjv eV OVTCO yat/cpot?
ov&ejuia Trpoae/miyi'va'av
TO> ArSev dXXdrreiv

VI. f n? S' ou^ e^w/jLoaavro rrjv dp^rjv ol irepl

TOV <&\a/jLLVlOV, Sid TWV Ka\OV/JLeVCi)V jJL<JoftaO~l,-

\eu>v i/Traro? drroSeifcvvTai Ma/3/ceXXo?. KOI irapa-
\a{3a)v TTJV dp^rjv drroSeiKwcriv aiiTU) crvvdp^ovTa
Tvalov Kopvij\iov. eXe^jdt] jnev ovv co?


eprjvaa ovo/jivrjs,
2 Tpd^vve TOV Sij/AOV eVl TOV Tro\fiov ov fj,r)v d\\d
yvo/jLevr)<t ipqvi]<i dvaKaivlaai TOV rr6\/jLov OL
&OKOVO-I, ra? "AXvret? v7rep(3a\6vTe$ Kal
TGI/? 'Ivao/jiftpovs 7rdpavTS' TpLo~p,vpiOL yap
TrpoaeyevovTO Tco\\aTc\ao~Loi<$ 6Keivoi<$ overt,
l yiteya (frpovovvTe? evOvs eV 'AKeppas
Tr6\iv vrrep Trora/zoO TldSov dvyKicr/jLevriv.
0v & jLViovs TWV YaicraTwv o

1 Cf. the Numa, vii. 5.

2 In 222 B. c. In republican times, an interrex was elected
when there was a vacancy in the supreme power, held office
tor five days, and, if necessary, nominated his successor.
Any number of interreges might be successively ;\p-


MARCELLUS, v. 3 -vi. 2

speaking, two most illustrious priests were deposed
from their priesthoods, Cornelius Cethegus, because
lie presented the entrails of his victim improperly,
and Quintus Sulpicius, because, while he was sacrific-
ing, the peaked cap which the priests called flamens 1
wear had fallen from his head. Moreover, because
the squeak of a shrew-mouse (they call it "sorex")
was heard just as Minucius the dictator appointed
Caius Flaminius his master of horse, the people
deposed these officials and put others in their places.
And although they were punctilious in such trifling
matters, they did not fall into any superstition, be-
cause they made no change or deviation in their
ancient rites.

VI. But to resume the story, after Flaminius and
his colleague had renounced their offices, Marcellus
was appointed consul 2 by the so-called "interreges."
He took the office, and appointed Gnaeus Cornelius
his colleague. Now it has been said that, although
the Gauls made many conciliatory proposals, and
although the senate was peaceably inclined, Marcellus
tried to provoke the people to continue the war.
However, it would seem that even after peace was
made the Gaesatae renewed the war ; they crossed
the Alps and stirred up the Insubrians. They num-
bered thirty thousand themselves, and the Insubrians,
whom they joined, were much more numerous. With
high confidence, therefore, they marched at once to
Acerrae, a city situated to the north of the river Po. 3
From thence Britomartus the king, taking with him

pointed, until the highest office was filled. Cf. the Numa,
ii. 6 f.

3 According to Polybius (ii. 34), no peace was made,
although the Gauls offered to submit, and the consuls
marched into the territory of the Insubrians and laid siege
to Acerrae.



dva\a/3a)v rrjv Trepl HdSov %a)pav e

3 ravra Ma/^eXXo? 7rvdo/j,evo<; TOV ^ev crvvdp^ovTa

'Arceppais a-TreXnre T-TJV TreZrjv /ecu ftapeiav
Tcaaav ey^ovra Svva/jiiv Kal TWV imrewv
TpiTOVt auro9 3e TOU? XOJTTOU? tTTTret? ava-
\a/3a>v Kal TOI/? \a<f>pOT(irov<f TWV
ei;aKO<TLOv<; r)\avvev, OVTG rj/jiepas ovre
TOV Spofjiov, ea)? eVeySaXe roi?
Trepl TO KaXovfievov K.\aaTi8iov, FaXa-


4 yeyevrj/jievTjv. avdXafBelv &e Kal & lav air ava ai TOV
crrparov ov% VTrrjp^ev avrat' ra^v yap aio-0T)<riv
rot? ftapftdpois d^LKOfjievos 7rapea"%e, /cal /care-
^povt]6'r] Tre^wv /JLV oXiywv nravrdTraaiv ovrtav
crvv avro), TO 8' ITTTTIKOV ev ovbevl \6<ya) TWV
KeXrw^ TiOejAevcav. fcpaTia'TOi yap 6We? /TTTTO-
fj,a%eiv /cal pdXicrTa TOVTW Siacfrepeiv SoKovvTes,
TOT real Tr\ri6et, TTO\V TOV M dprc e\\ov vrrepe-
@a\\ov. ev0vs ovv eV avTov &)? dvapTraao/jLevot 30
fj,Ta y8ta? vroXXr)? Kal Secvwv drreiXwv e

5 TOV /SacriXecos Trpo'iTnrevovTOs. 6 be
&)? jj,r) (f)dalev avTov eytcvKkwadfJievoL

0VT<s oKiyoaTov ovTa, ra? t'Xa? 9776 Troppco TWV
Kal 7repitj\avve, \7TTov eKTeivcov TO Kepas,
ov /jiiKpbv arrear^e TWV TroXe/ueoz'. rj&rj Be

7TO)? 6/5 /JL/3o\r)V 7n(JTpe$OVTOS aVTOV (TVVTVy-

%dvei TOV LTTTTOV TTTVpevTa TTf yavpoTtjTt TWV
TToXe/jiiajv aTTOTpaTrecrOat, Kal j3ia (pepeiv OTC'KTW

6 TOV MdpK\\ov. 6 Be TOVTO Cetera? fj,r) Tapa^rjv
K SeicriSai/jiovias rot? r Pa>//,a/O9 evepydcrrjTai,

e<j)' qviav TW %a\ivw Kal Trepi-

TOV LTTTTOV evavTiov rot? Troe/uof?, TOV

auro? 7rpoo~Kvvr]o-ev, ft>? Brj


ten thousand of the Gaesatae, ravaged the countrv
about the Po. When Marcellus learned of this, he
left his colleague at Acerrae with all the heavy-armed
infantry and a third part of the cavalry, while he
himself, taking with him the rest of the cavalry and
the most lightly equipped men-at-arms to the number
of six hundred, marched, without halting in his course
day or night, until he came upon the ten thousand
Gaesatae near the place called Clastidium, a Gallic
village which not long before had become subject to
the Romans. There was no time for him to give his
army rest and refreshment, for the Barbarians quickly
learned of his arrival, and held in contempt the in-
fantry with him, which were few in number all told,
and, being Gauls, made no account of his cavalry.
For they were most excellent fighters on horseback,
and were thought to be specially superior as such,
and, besides, at this time they far outnumbered Mar-
cellus. Immediately, therefore, they charged upon
him with great violence and dreadful threats, think-
ing to overwhelm him, their king riding in front of
them. But Marcellus, that they might not succeed
in enclosing and surrounding him and his few follow-
ers, led his troops of cavalry forward and tried to
outflank them, extending his wing into a thin line,
until he was not far from the enemy. And now,
just as he was turning to make a charge, his horse,
frightened by the ferocious aspect of the enemy,
wheeled about and bore Marcellus forcibly back.
But he, fearing lest this should be taken as a bad
omen by the Romans and lead to confusion among
them, quickly reined his horse round to the left
and made him face the enemy, while he himself
made adoration to the sun, implying that it was not



aXX' Vf.Ka rovrov rfj rrepiayayyfj
ovra) yap e#o? Herri *Pa)fjiaioi<? rr pocr Kvvelv rov$
fleovs 7rpiarp6<pofjLvovs. Kal avrov 778?; 7rpocr/u-
yvvvra rot? evcLV'TiolS rrpoaev^aadai rut fyeperplw
rd Ka\\tcrra rwv irapa rot? 7ro\eyu,tot? OTT\COV

VII. 'Er To^Tft) Se fcari^wv o TWV Ta\arwi>
/Sao'tXet'? tfal T6KfjLr)pd/jt,evos CLTTO TMV <rfyuy9oXa)^
ap^ovra TOVTOV elvai, TTO\V Trpo TMV a\\cov
%\acra<i rov ILTTTTOV vTrrjvriacrev, a^a Trj fywvf)
Va\aXa&>y KOL TO &6pv fcpa&aivayv,
re crco/iaro? e^o^o?
ev dpyvpw Kal ^pucrw /tat

2 miXffovay. w? OL'I' eTriftXe-fyavri TTJV (j)d\a<yya
T&> Ma/):eXXft> ravra rwv O7T\ci)v e$o% fcaXXicrra
tcdi Kara TOVTWV V7re\a(3e TT6Troif)(rQat TW 0ew
rrjv Karev^rjv, Mp^aev irl rov avSpa, Kal ra>
bopari Sta/co-vjra? rov 0(opaKa Kal

r pv/jirj rov LTTTTOV %wvra fj,ev avrov
Sevrepav Be Kal rplrrjv rrXrjyrjv eVet? evQus arrk-
3 Kreivev. drrorr^rjaa^ 8e rov LTTTTOV, Kal rwv
6rr\o)v rov veKpov rat? ^epalv efyatydfjievos, rrpos
rov ovpavbv elrrev " 'H (Jieyd\a crrparrjywv Kal
r)ye/j,6vwv epya Kal rrpd^eis 7ri/3\Trct)v ev TroXe-
Kal fid^aL^ (f>p6rpi Ze>, ^aprvpofjiai ae
rplros dp^wv dp^ovra Kal /3aai\ea
(rrparrjyos ISia %eiyot rovbe rov av&pa Karepyacrd-
lievos Kal Krelvas CTOL KaOiepovv rd rrpwra Kal
Ka\\icrra rwv \afyvpwv. crv $ Sibov rv^ijv o/JLoiav
errl rd XotTra rov TroXeyLtou Trporperro/Aevoi?"

'E rovrov crvvefjuayov ol tTTTret? ov 8iaK6Kpi-


MARCELLUS, vi. 6-vn. 4

by chance, but for this purpose, that lie had wheeled
about; for it is the custom with the Romans to turn
round in this way when they make adoration to the
gods. And in the moment of closing with the enemy
he is said to have vowed that he would consecrate
to Jupiter Feretrius the most beautiful suit of armour
among' them.

VII. Meanwhile the king of the Gauls espied him,
and judging from his insignia that he was the com-
mander; rode far out in front of the rest and con-
fronted him, shouting challenges and brandishing
his spear. His stature exceeded that of the other
Gauls, and he was conspicuous for a suit of armour
which was set off with gold and silver and bright
colours and all sorts of broideries ; it gleamed like
lightning. Accordingly, as Marcellus surveyed the
ranks of the enemy, this seemed to him to be the
most beautiful armour, and he concluded that it was
this which he had vowed to the god. He therefore
rushed upon the man, and by a thrust of his spear
which pierced his adversary's breastplate, and by the
impact of his horse in full career, threw him, still
living, upon the ground, where, with a second and
third blow, he promptly killed him. Then leaping
from his horse and laying his hands upon the armour
of the dead, he looked towards heaven and said :
" O Jupiter Feretrius, who beholdest the great deeds
and exploits of generals and commanders in wars and
fightings, I call thee to witness that I have over-
powered and slain this man with my own hand, being
the third Roman ruler and general so to slay a ruler
and king, and that I dedicate to thee the first and most
beautiful of the spoils. Do thou therefore grant us a
like fortune as we prosecute the rest of the war."

His prayer ended, the cavalry joined battle, fight-



ofjiov Trpoff^epofievovs f^a^o^uevoi, teal VIKUHJI viierjv
IBea TC teal rpotrw rreptTT^v teal TrapdBo^ov
yap imrel^ xal 7rebt><? a/ua TOCTOVTOL
ovre Trporepov ovre uarepov
Kreivas &e rovs TrXetcrrof? teal
aa? OTT\(DV teal ^pri^droyv 7ravf)\06 TT/OO? TO
avvapyowra po^Or) pws TroXe/jiOvvTa KeXroT? Trept
7ro\iv fjLeyicrTrjv val TroXvavOpwrroTdr^v TWV Pa-
5 \aTiKWV. MeBtoXavov fcaXeirai, teal /U,T;T POTT -o\.iv
avTrjV OL TTJ&e KeXrol vo^iCftvaiv bOev e'/e#yyu,a>s
/jLa^o/jLevoi Trepl avrfjs dvT67ro\i,6pfeovv TOV Kopvtf-
\iov. eVeX^oi'To? 5e Ma/o/ceXXof , -at rwi' Yaiaa-
, ft)? GtrvOovTO Tyv TOV ^acriXew? r^rrav teai
7re\.06vTC0v, TO fJLev }Ae$i6\avov d\i-
, ra? Se a\Xa? vroXet? aurol Trapaoi86acrii>

ot ero< ~a ra /ta^' eauroi)? tr-iT7TOV(rt rravra

Aral TOVTOIS fjiev rjv eipijvrj


Map/ceXXw 6pia/j,ftov, elcrijXavvc Tfj p,ev a\\rj Xa/i-
teal TrXoirrw /cat \afyvpoi<$ /eal cra)fAacrii>
ai^yLtaXwra)^ eV 0X17049 ^af/zacrro?,
Be TTCLVTWV Oeafjia KOI teaivoTarov emoei-
avTov KOfJii^ovTa TO) 6ew TIJV TOV ftap-
2 ftapov Travo7T\iav. Spvos yap evKTedvov Trpe^ivov
op0iov /eal /jieya re/tcov teal dcr/crfcras warrcp 30:
Tporratov dve&tfcraTO teal teaTrjpTrjcrev ei; avrov TCL
\dfyvpa, /eocr/jLto BtaOels teal TTepLap^Locra^ eieao~Tov.
Trpo'iovaris Be T?}? TTO/ZTT^? dpdfAevos auro?


MARCELLUS, MI. 4 -vm. 2

ing, not with the enemy's horsemen alone, but also
with their footmen who attacked them at the same
time, and won a victory which, in its sort and kind,
was remarkable and strange. For never before or
since, as we are told, have so few horsemen con-
quered so many horsemen and footmen together.
After slaying the greater part of the enemy and
getting possession of their arms and baggage, Mar-
cellus returned to his colleague, who was hard put
to it in his war with the Gauls near their largest and
most populous city. 1 Mediolanum was the city's
name, and the Gauls considered it their metropolis ;
wherefore they fought eagerly in its defence, so that
Cornelius was less besieger than besieged. But when
Marcellus came up, and when the Gaesatae, on learn-
ing of the defeat and death of their king, withdrew,
Mediolanum was taken, the Gauls themselves sur-
rendered the rest of their cities, and put themselves
entirely at the disposition of the Romans They
obtained peace on equitable terms.

VIII. The senate decreed a triumph to Marcellus
alone, and his triumphal procession was seldom
equalled in its splendour and wealth and spoils and
captives of gigantic size ; but besides this, the most
agreeable and the rarest spectacle of all was afforded
when Marcellus himself carried to the god the armour
of the barbarian king. He had cut the trunk of a
slender oak, straight and tall, and fashioned it into
the shape of a trophy ; on this he bound and fastened
the spoils, arranging and adjusting each piece in due
order. When the procession began to move, he took
the trophy himself and mounted the chariot, and

1 Acerrae had, in the meantime, been taken by the
Romans, who had then advanced and laid siege to Medio-
lanum (Milan). Cf. Polybius, iu 34.



rov reOpiTTTTov, KOLL rpOTraio<^6pov ayaXfJLa rajv CTT'

Kivov KaXXiarov Kal SiaTrpeTrecrrarov ITTO (JLTTCVC

Bid T?}? TroXew?. o Be crrparbs etVero Ka\\io~rois

7rami/a? ITTLVLKIOV^ et9 ro^ 6ebv KOI rbv

3 aTparijyov. ovrco Se Trpoftas Kal 7rap6\6a)v et?
rbv Va>v rov fyeperpiov Ato?, aveanjae Kal
pwae, rpiros Kal re\evralos a^pi rov K.CL&

. TTyOcoro? fj^v yap dvr}i>>yK6 (JKv\a 'Pco-


K.opvr)\ios airb TLO\OV/JLV[OV Tvppyvov,
TOUTOU? MayO/ceXXo? aTro ^piro^dprov,
FaXarwi/, yu-era Se WLdpKe\\ov ovSe et?.

4 KoXeirai be 6 /j.ev ^eo? a>
Zeu?, &)? /tet' effect fyacnv, dirb rov

rpojraiov, Kara rrjv ^XXtji/iSa y\wcrcrav en
r 7ro\\rjv Tore crv/jijjiefjLi r yiJievr)V rfj Aarivwv, co? Be
erepoi, Ato? ecrnv rj Trpoaww^ia Kepavvo^o\ovv-
T09. TO yap rvTrreiv fyeplpe ol 'Pco/^aloL Ka\ov(Tiv.
aXXoi Be Trapa rrjv rov TTo\efJLiov 7T\rurjV yejo-
vkvai rovvo/jia \ejova~L' Kal yap vvv ev Tat?
yua^at?, orav SiWKwai TOU? TroXe/ztof?, TTVKVOV TO
(/>e/3i, rovrearL Traie, Trapeyyvwcriv aXX?;Xoi?. ra
Be <TKV\a (T7r6\ia /JLCV KOIVGOS, iBi&s Be

5 ravra Ka\ov<Ji. KairoL (fracrlv ev TO*? v

av TlofA7ri\iov Kai Trpctircov o^i^i^v Kal Bev-

repcov Kal rplrwv /jLvrj/jboveveiv, ra /JLCV Trpwra

\rj(f)devra ry fyeperpiw Ati' Ke\evovra KaOiepovv,
ra Bevrepa Be rq> ' Apei, ra Be rpira rw }Lvpivw,
\afjL/3dveiv yepas aaadpia rpiaKoaia rbv


MARCELLUS, vm. 2-5

tlius a trophy-bearing figure more conspicuous and
beautiful than any in his day passed in triumph
through the city. The army followed, arrayed in
most beautiful armour, singing odes composed for the
occasion, together with paeans of victory in praise
of the god and their general. Thus advancing and
entering the temple of Jupiter Feretrius, he set up
and consecrated his offering, being the third and last
to do so, down to our time. The first was Romulus,
who despoiled Acron the Caeninensian ; l the second
was Cornelius Cossus, who despoiled Tolumnius the
Tuscan ; and after them Marcellus, who despoiled
Britomartus, king of the Gauls ; but after Marcellus,
no man. The god to whom the spoils were dedicated
was called Jupiter Feretrius, as some say, because
the trophy was carried on a " pheretron," or car;
this is a Greek word, and many such were still
mingled at that time with the Latin ; 2 according
to others, the epithet is given to Jupiter as wielder
of the thunder-bolt, the Latin "ferire" meaning to
.smite. But others say the name is derived from the
blow one gives an enemy, since even now in battles,
when they are pursuing their enemies, they exhort
one another with the word " feri," which means
smite \ Spoils in general they call "spolia," and
these in particular, "opima." And yet they say
that Numa Pompilius, in his commentaries, makes
mention of three kinds of " opima," prescribing that
when the first kind are taken, they shall be conse-
crated to Jupiter Feretrius, the second to Mars, and
the third to Quirinus ; also that the reward for the
first shall be three hundred asses, 3 for the second

1 Cf. the Romulus, xvi. 4-7.

8 Cf. the Romulus, xv. 3 ; Xuma, vii. 5.

3 The Roman as corresponded nearly to the English penny.



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45 6

MARCELLUS, vin. 5-1*. 3

two hundred, and for the third one hundred. How-
ever, the general and prevailing account is that only
those spoils are "opima" which are taken first, in
a pitched battle, where general slays general. So
much, then, on this subject.

The Romans were so overjoyed at this victory and
the ending of the war that they sent to the Pythian
Apollo at Delphi a golden bowl l ... as a thank-
offering, gave a splendid share of the spoils to their
allied cities, and sent many to Hiero, the king of
Syracuse, who was their friend and ally.

IX. After Hannibal had invaded Italy, 2 Marcellus

/ f

was sent to Sicily with a fleet. And when the dis-
aster at Cannae came, 3 and many thousands of Romans


had been slain in the battle, and only a few had saved
themselves by flying to Canusium, and it was expected
that Hannibal would march at once against Rome,
now that he had destroyed the flower of her forces,


in the first place, Marcellus sent fifteen hundred men
from his ships to protect the city ; then, under orders
from the senate, he went to Canusium, and taking
the troops that had gathered there, led them out of

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