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AGESILAUS, xi. 1-4

XI. As for himself, he stationed his army in the
province of Pharnabazus, 1 where lie not only lived in
universal plenty, but also accumulated much money.
He also advanced to the confines of Paphlagonia and
brought Cotys, the king of the Paphlagonians, into
alliance with him, for his virtues, and the confidence
which he inspired, inclined the king to desire his
friendship. Spithridates also, from the time when
he abandoned Pharnabazus and came to Affesilaus.


always accompanied him in his journeys and expedi-
tions. Spithridates had a son. a ver\ beautiful boy,
named Megabates, of whom Agesilaiis was ardently
enamoured, and a beautiful daughter also, a maiden
of marriageable age. This daughter Agesilaiis per-
suaded Cotys to marry, and then receiving from him
a thousand horsemen and two thousand targeteers,
he retired again into Phrygia, and harassed the
country of Pharnabazus, who did not stand his ground
nor trust in his defences, but always kept most of
his valued and precious things with him, and with-
drew or fled from one part of the country to another,
having no abiding place. At last Spithridates, who
had narrowly watched him, in conjunction with
Herippidas the Spartan,' 2 seized his camp and
made himself master of all his treasures. Here,
however, Herippidas, who had too sharp an eye
to the booty that was stolen, and forced the Bar-
barians to restore it, watching over and enquiring
into everything, exasperated Spithridates, so that
he marched off at once to Sardis with the Paph-

This is said to have annoyed Agesilaiis beyond all

1 In the fall of 395 B.C.; cf. Xenophon, Hdl. iv. 1, 1 IT.

* The leader of the second company of thirty Spartan
counsellors sent out in the spring of 39o B.C. Cf. Xenophon,
Hdl. iii. 4, 20.



aviaporaroi'. yj^dero ^ev jap dvBpa yevvaloi'

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d\\d /cal Tr)V TrarpiSci icaOapevovcrav del Trape-
5 %iv e^)tXoTt/zetTo. %w/?t9 e TWV e^avMV rov-
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pci)/jiei>os eireiparp veavLK&s djro-
TTyoo? TTJV einOvfjiiav. /cai vrore TOV

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6 <i\rO'ovTo<s eeK\ivev. eTrel Se

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yeveffQai." TOIOVTOS fjiev r^v TOV M.eya/3aTov
, dTre\9oi>TO<s ye fj/rjv OVTW

eo"%ev &>? ^a\eTrov elirelv el rrdXiv av

teal (fravevTOS eve/capTeprjcre firj (j)i\r)0rivai.

Reiske's correction of the 8eiV of the MSS. , adopted
by both Sinteuis and Bekker ; Stephanus read 8e? (there is
no need).


\<;KSILAUS, .\i. 4-7

else. For he was pained at the loss of a gallant man
in SpithridateSj and with him of a considerable foree,
and was ashamed to labour under the charge of petti-
ness and illiberality, from which he was always am-
bitious to keep not only himself, but also his country,
pure and free. And apart from these manifest
reasons, he was irritated beyond measure by his love
for the boy, which was now instilled into his heart,
although when the boy was present he would summon
all his resolution and strive mightily to battle against
his desires. Indeed, when Megabates once came up
and offered to embrace and kiss him, he declined his
caresses. The boy was mortified at this, and desisted,


and afterwards kept his distance when addressing
him, whereupon Agesilaiis, distressed now and re-
pentant for having avoided his kiss, pretended to
wonder what ailed Megabates that he did not greet
him with a kiss. " It is thy fault," the king's com-
panions said ; " thou didst not accept, but didst
decline the fair one's kiss in fear and trembling ; yet
even now he might be persuaded to come within
range of thy lips ; but see that thou dost not again
play the coward." Then, after some time spent in
silent reflection, Agesilaiis said: "There is no harm
in your persuading him ; for I think I would more
gladly fight that battle of the kiss over again
than possess all the gold I have ever seen." Of
such a mind was he while Megabates was with him,
though when the boy was gone, he was so on fire
with love for him that it were hard to say whether,
had the boy come back into his presence, he would
have had the strength to refuse his kisses. 1

1 Cf. Xenophon's Agesilaiis, v. 47.




XII. Mera raura 4>a/W/3ao? et? \oyovs
vi>e\9elv r)0e\r)<T, /cat avvi}yev djuL(j)OTepov$
eVo? 6 RvfyfeTyvb? 'ATroXXo^az^?. Trporepos

r(Tiaos ewv es TO

, V7TO (TKia TLVi

eavrov, evravOa irepiefieve TOV
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' 'l? v /IJT <('^

biavoiav. l^yoo yap, enrev, ear


AGESILAUS, xii. 1-5

XII. After this, Pharnabazus desired to have a con-
ference with him, and Apollophanes of Cyzicus, who
was a guest-friend of both, brought the two together.
Agesilaiis, with his friends, came first to the appointed
place, and throwing himself down in a shady place
where the grass was deep, there awaited Pharnabazus.
And when Pharnabazus came, although soft cushions
and broidered rugs had been spread for him, he was
ashamed to see Agesilaiis reclining as he was, and
threw himself down likewise, without further cere-
mony, on the grassy ground, although he was clad in
raiment of wonderful delicacy and dyes. After
mutual salutations, Pharnabazus had plenty of just
complaints to make, since, although he had rendered
the Lacedaemonians many great services in their
war against the Athenians, his territory was now
being ravaged by them. But Agesilaiis, seeing the
Spartans with him bowed to the earth with shame
and at a loss for words (for they saw that Pharna-
bazus was a wronged man), said : " We, () Pharna-
bazus, during our former friendship with the King,
treated what belongs to him in a friendly way, and
now that we have become his enemies, we treat it in
a hostile way. Accordingly, seeing that thou also
dcsirest to be one of the King's chattels, we naturally
injure him through thee. 13ut from the day when
thou shalt deem thyself worthy to be called a friend
and ally of the Greeks instead of a slave of the King,
consider this arm} 7 , these arms and ships, and all of
us, to be guardians of thy possessions and of thy
liberty, without which nothing in the world is
honourable or even worthy to be desired." Upon
this, Pharnabazus declared to him his purposes
"As for me, indeed," he said, " if the King shall
send out another general in mv stead, [ will be on

o j


, edv $ e/mol TrapaBfi rrjv rjy
ovSev eXXet^o) irpoOvfJLia^ d/jLvvo/jievos tyta? Aral
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'AyrjcriXaos -ijcrOrj, KOL TT}? Se^/a? avrov \a/3o-
Aral a-vveavaaTds, " Et'^e," elrrev, " M

XIII. 'ATTfoi^TO? Se rot) Qapvafta^ov

<j6tXan>, o v to? V7ro\ei(f)0el^ Trpoa-eSpa/^e rw
<p real fjiei'&Lwv elirev "'706 ere evov,
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2 wov. IScov Be LTTTTOV 'iSaiov l TOV


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avTov Aral (vovTos VTTO TWV

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yap a0\r)TOv vraiSo? e^ 'AQrjvcpv' eVel Se


rrpos TOT 'Ayr]cri\aoi>
o TIepcrr)? 8eo/z.e^o? vnep TOV TraiSos' 6 Se KOI
TOVTO /3ov\o/j.evo$ avT
crvv Tro\\fj

TaXXa fjiev yap "f]v d/cpi/Stj^ xai v6fj,i/jt,o<;, ev
i'ou with S and Xenophon (Hell. iv. 1, 39) : 'ASniou.

AGESILAUS, xii. 5-xiii. 3

your side ; but if he entrusts me with the command,
I will spare no efforts to punish and injure you in his
behalf." On hearing this, Agesilaiis was delighted,
and said, as he seized his hand and rose up with him,
" O Pharnabazus, I would that such a man as thou
might be our friend rather than our enemy." *

XIII. As Pharnabazus and his friends were going
away, his son, who was left behind, ran up to
Agesilaiis and said with a smile : " I make thee my
guest-friend, Agesilaiis," and offered him a javelin
which he held in his hand. Agesilaiis accepted it,
and being delighted with the fair looks and kindly


bearing of the boy, looked round upon his com-
panions to see if any one of them had anything that
would do for a return-gift to a fair and gallant friend ;
and seeing that the horse of Idaeus, his secretary,
had a decorated head-gear, he quickly took this off
and gave it to the youth. Nor afterwards did he
cease to remember him, but when, as time went on,
the youth was robbed of his home by his brothers
and driven into exile in Peloponnesus, he paid him
much attention. He even gave him some assistance
in his love affairs. For the Persian was enamoured
of an Athenian boy, an athlete, who, owing to his
stature and strength, was in danger of being ruled
out of the lists at Olympia. He therefore had re-
course to Agesilaiis with entreaties to help the boy,
and Agesilaiis, wishing to gratify him in this matter
also, with very great difficulty and with much trouble
effected his desires. 2

Indeed, although in other matters he was exact and

1 Of. Xenophon, Hell. iv. 1, '2S-38, where Agesilaiis adds
a promise to respect, in future 1 , the property of Pharnabazus,
even in case of war.

3 Cf. Xenophon, Htll. iv. 1, 89 f.



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4 Bi/caiov. (beperai <yovv eiriGToXiov avrov 71/309
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' et e d&iKei, ^

e '->?." eV xei^ oi;^ rot?

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7T/:09 TO (TV/Ji(f)pOV G^pljTO TO) KCLlpM fJia\\OV, ft)?

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vov yap Seo/jievov Kal Ka\ovvTOS avrov aTTLovra,
fjieracrT panels elirrev w? ^aKeirov eXeeiv ap,a KCLI
cfipoveiv. rovrl fjiev le/^to^f/io? o <^)iXocro^)o? icrro-

XIV. "H&rj e irepiiovTos evLavrcv Bevrepov
TTJ ffrparrf^/ia TroXu? avw Xoyo? tycopei TOV '
<ri\dov, Kal $6j;a dav/nacrTrj Karel^e TT}?
aw(f)pocrvvr)s UVTOV Kal euTe\ias

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iepols, a /u?) TroXXot KaOopwcriv avOpw-
rrpaTTOVTas ?}yUft?, TOVTWV TOU? 6eovs TTOLOV-

Tocravrais ov pa&iws dv T/? ei&e
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7T(f)VK(i)<t. -tjStCTTOV & 6 tafia TOfc? KaTOLKOVGl Tt)l>

> rfcrav ol Trd\ai ftapels Kal d<po-
Kal Stat'oi'Te? VTTO TT\OVTOV Kal

Kal (TTpaTrjyol SeSioTes Kal


law-abiding, in matters of friendship he thought that
rigid justice was a mere pretext. At any rate, there-
is in circulation a letter of his to Hidrieus the Carian,
which runs as follows : " As for Nicias, if he is inno-
cent, acquit him ; if he is guilty, acquit him for my
sake ; but in any case acquit him." Such, then, was
Agesilaiis in most cases where the interests of his
friends were concerned ; but sometimes he used a
critical situation rather for his own advantage. Of
this he gave an instance when, as he was decamping
in some haste and confusion, he left his favourite
behind him sick. The sick one besought him loudly

C7 *

as he was departing, but he merely turned and said
that it was hard to be compassionate and at the same
time prudent. This story is related by Hieronyrnus
the philosopher.

XIV. Agesilaiis had now been nearly two years in
the field, and much was said about him in the interior
parts of Asia, and a wonderful opinion of his self-
restraint, of his simplicity of life, and of his modera-
tion, everywhere prevailed. For when he made a
journey, he would take up his quarters in the most
sacred precincts by himself, 1 thus making the gods
overseers and witnesses of those acts which few
men are permitted to see us perform ; and among so
many thousands of soldiers, one could hardly find a
meaner couch than that of Agesilaiis ; while to heat
and cold he was as indifferent as if nature had given
him alone the power to adapt himself to the seasons
as God has tempered them. And it was most pleasing
to the Greeks who dwelt in Asia to see the Persian
viceroys and generals, who had long been insufferably
cruel, and had revelled in wealth and luxury, now
fearful and obsequious before a man who went about

1 Cf. Xenophon's Ayc-til'iiis, v. 7.



avOpwrrov ev rpiftwvi, rrepilovra \irw, real 77730? ev
pfj/uia j3paj(y Kal AaKcovLKOv apjJLO^ovres eavrovs
real /jLera&XTj/Liari^ovres, ware TroXXot? erryei ra
rov Ti/j,o0eov \eyeiv,

"Apr;? rvpavvos' xpvcrbv &e "EXXa? ov SeSoiree.

XV. Kf/'ou/xe^?;? 8e T?}? 'Acrta? teal 7ro\\a-
\ov Trpo? airoaracnv VTreiKovcnis,
ra? avrodi vroXet?, /cal rat? TroXiretai?
(^ovov KOI (f)v<yrjs [email protected])7r(i)v aTroSou? rbv


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Trepl rov (TcofjiaTos (3a<ri\el KOI T^? ev 'E:/3a-
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7Tpi(T7rd(rai irp&TOV avrov TTJV a-yo\riv, co? fjLrj
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al Sia(f>0eip(0v TOU? $i]/jtayco<yoi>s. ev TOVTW Be
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rrjv TroXe/xo? 'EXX?;^t:o?, :al xdXovcriv e/ceivov 01
e(f)opoi /cal Kekevovari rot? O'IKOI fiorjOelv.

*I1 /3dp/3ap* e^evpovres f/ EXX?;z/e9 icarcd'
T'I yap av rt? aXXo TOI^ cfrdovov eKelvov

Kal rrjv rore crvaraaiv Ka

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eyayye avfJu^epo/JLai rw }Lopu>6i(p ^/JLapdrw fieyd-
drro\e\i<f)0ai (frrjaravri rov<? yu^ Oea-
XX^^a? 'A\e%avSpov ev rw Aapeiov
KaOrjfjierov, aXX' el/corais av o^/^ai Satcpv-


AGESILAUS, xiv. 2 -xv. 3

in a paltry cloak, and at one brief and laconic speech
from him conforming themselves to his ways and
changing their dress and mien, insomuch that many
were moved to cite the words of Timotheus :

" Ares is Lord ; of gold Greece hath no fear." l

XV. Asia being now unsettled and in many
quarters inclining to revolt, Agesilaiis set the cities
there in order, and restored to their governments,
without killing or banishing any one, the proper form.
Then he determined to go farther afield, to transfer
the war from the Greek sea, to fight for the person
of the King and the wealth of Ecbatana and Susa.
and above all things to rob that monarch of the
power to sit at leisure on his throne, playing the
umpire for the Greeks in their wars, and corrupting
their popular leaders. But at this point Epicydidas
the Spartan came to him with tidings that Sparta
was involved in a great war with other Greeks, and
that the ephors called upon him and ordered him to
come to the aid of his countrymen.

te O barbarous ills devised by Greeks ! " z

How else can one speak of that jealousy which now
leagued and arrayed the Greeks against one another ?
They laid violent hands on Fortune in her lofty
flight, and turned the weapons which threatened the
Barbarians, and War, which had at last been banished
from Greece, back again upon themselves. I certainly
cannot agree with Demaratus the Corinthian, who
said that those Greeks had missed a great pleasure
who did not behold Alexander seated on the throne
of Dareius, nay, I think that such might well have

1 Cf. "Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Ui', iii. 4 ]>. <i-2.
a Euripides, Treaties, 700 (Kirchliurt).


aai, avvvoi<javras ori TCLVT ea^/Ko tea

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arparrjyovs Trepl Aevxrpa teal KopwveLav /cat
Y^opivQov Kal 'ApteaBiav KaTavrjKwaav.

4 y Ayr)cri\d(i) uevroi ovSev Kpelacrov /} /xet^ov e
TT)? ava%copri(Tea)s tKeivr)*; SiaTreTrpay/jievov,
yeyove TrapdSeiy/jia 7T6i0ap%ias /cal

eTepov Ka\\iov. OTTOV jap Kvvlfias -tj
Trpdrrwv teal TTepiwOov^evo^ e/c T/}?
fjid\a /ioXi? vTTtJKOvcre TO?? eVl TQV ol'fcot, Tro
tcaXovaiv, 'AXe^az/S/305 8e teal

7TV06/JL6VOS TTjV 7T/309 ' AjlV '

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5 /LtuoyLta^ta 1 " TTW? OL-/C >}^ a^LovTrfV Trdprrjv /uia/ca-

T?}? 'Ay^criXdov TIUIJS Trpo? Tavrrjv teal
O? roi)? VOJJLOVS T/)? evXajBeias; o? r7yaa TO>

Svvauiv Trapoixrav teal T^Xt/taura? e'X7rt8a? u
yov/Avas a^el? Aral 7rpoe/j.evos v&v$ aTreTrXeytrev
" aTeXefTr^Tft) eVt epyw" TTO\VV eavrov iroOor
rot? (TVfjLfjLd^o^ aTroAiTrcoz/, /cat fj.d\i<TTa &rj TOV
'Epa&icrTpdTOV rov Oata/co? \eyas \6yoi>, etV6f-
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6 i^ta e ^A.OrvaloL. 3acrt\ea 3 eavrov


l rj&Lova rot? XpayuevoLs IBta $i\ov Kal
a^e. TOV Be Hepai/cov

1 At Megalopolis, in Arcadia, 331 B.c , Agis fell figli ting,
and the Spartan rebellion at once collapsed. Alexander


AGESILAUS, xv. 3-6

shed tears when they reflected that this triumph was
left for Alexander and Macedonians by those who now-
squandered the lives of Greek generals on the fields
of Leuctra, Coroneia, and Corinth, and in Arcadia.

Agesilaiis, however, never performed a nobler or
a greater deed than in returning home as he now
didj nor was there ever a fairer example of righteous
obedience to authority. For Hannibal, though he
was already in an evil plight and on the point of
being driven out of Italy, could with the greatest
difficulty bring himself to obey his summons to the
war at home ; and Alexander actually went so far as
to jest when he heard of Antipater's battle with
Agis, 1 saying : " It would seem, my men, that while
we were conquering Dareius here, there has been a
battle of mice there in Arcadia." Why, then, should
we not call Sparta happy in the honour paid to her
by Agesilaiis, and in his deference to her laws? No
sooner had the dispatch-roll come to him than he
renounced and abandoned the great good fortune
and power already in his grasp, and the great hopes
which beckoned him on, and at once sailed off, "with
task all unfulfilled," 2 leaving behind a great yearning
for him among his allies, and giving the strongest
confutation to the saying of Erasistratus the son of
Fhaeax, who declared that the Lacedaemonians were
better men in public life, but the Athenians in
private. For while approving himself a most ex-
cellent king and general, he shewed himself a still
better and more agreeable friend and companion to
those who enjoyed his intimacy. Persian coins were
stamped with the figure of an archer, and Agesilaiis

had not the slightest thought of returning home to help

2 Iliad, iv. 175.



, dva^ewyvvwv e'(jor; /-tfptot? TOO-
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TWV teal BiaBoOevrcov rot?
fjL(t)0yjaav ol BTI/LLOL Trpo? TOI;? ^

XVI. Ti? e ftiaftas TOV
*e S/a TT)? pa/c?;?, e^erjOrj /JLEV ouSevos
ftapftdptov, 7rfjL7rcov Be TT/JO? e/cacrroL'? eirvvOave'TO
Trorepov a)<? <$>i\iav rj co? 7ro\e/miav
ot jiev ovv ci\\oi

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ol ^e Ka\ov[JLevoi TyoaXXet?, ot? :al H
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ejropOei r^v %u>pav. et? 5e Adpicrcrav
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ol fiev aXXot /Sapea)? (frepovres MOVTO Belv TOV

1 According to Xenophon (Hell. iii. 5, 1 ff.), Persian money
was distributed in Thebes, Corinth, and Argos. "The
Athenians, though tlie^ 7 took no share of the gold, were none
the less eager for war."


AGESILAUS, xv. 6-xvi. 3

said, as lie was breaking rmp, that the King
driving him out of Asia with ten thousand " archers " ;
for so much money had been sent to Athens and
Thebes and distributed among the popular leaders
there, and as a consequence those peoples made war
upon the Spartans. 1

XVI. And when he had crossed the Hellespont
and was marching through Thrace, 2 he made no
requests of any of the Barbarians, but sent envoys
to each people asking whether he should traverse
their country as a friend or as a foe. All the rest,
accordingly, received him as a friend and assisted
him on his way, as they were severally able ; but
the people called Trallians, to whom even Xerxes
gave gifts, as w r e are told, demanded of Agesilaiis as
a price for his passage a hundred talents of silver
and as many women. But he answered them with
scorn, asking why, then, they did not come at once
to get their price ; and marched forward, and finding
them drawn up for battle, engaged them, routed
them, and slew many of them. He sent his usual
enquiry forward to the king of the Macedonians also,
who answered that he would deliberate upon it.
"Let him deliberate, then," said Agesilaiis, "but we
will march on." In amazement therefore at his
boldness, and in fear, the Macedonian king gave
orders to let him pass as a friend. Since the Thes-
salians were in alliance with his enemies, he ravaged
their country. But to the city of Larissa he sent
Xenocles and Scythes, hoping to secure its friendship.
His ambassadors, however, were arrested and kept
in close custody, whereupon the rest of his command
were indignant, and thought that Agesilaiis ought to

2 Agesilaiis followed " the very route taken by the (
King when he invaded Hellas" (Xenophon, HdL iv. 2, S).



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/jLvos, aXXa KOL nravv ftapv oTevd^as, " Qev

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