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the fortifications to show that he would not abandon
the country. Most of the leaders and influential
men among the Romans had fallen in battle ; and
as for Fabius Maximus, who was held in the greatest
esteem for his sagacity and trustworthiness, his ex-
cessive care in planning to avoid losses was censured
as cowardly inactivity. The people thought they had

1 The indication of its source or value which follows in
the Greek, is uncertain.

2 218 B.C. 3 216 B.C. Cf. the Fabiiis Maximw, xv. f.

457



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



rovrov e%eiv rrpos cr()iav, ov
ij Be TT/oo? d/jivvav err parity ov, errl rov Mdp-
K\\ov dffreoopwv, 1 Kal TO OappaXeov avrov Kal
Bpatfrrjpiov 7T/30? rrjv eKeivov Kepavvvvres KOI
dpjjiorrovres ev\d/3eiav KOI Trpovoiav,
dfji<f)OTepovs a/jia ^eipoTOvovvTe^ vTrdro
eV fjLepet, rov fjiev VTTCLTOV, rov Be dvOvrrarov, e-
4 errefLrrov, 6 Se IlocretSw^io? (prjort rov /j,ev Qaftiov
Ovpeov KokelaOai, rov Se M.dpfce\\ov j;i(f)O<;. avros
be 6 'AiW/3a? eXe^e rov /jiV <&d{3iov co? rraiSaya)- 303
jov (poftela'dai, rov Se Mdp/ceXXov o>? dvraywvL-
v<$> ov fjiev yap Kw\vecr0ai /catcov ri, rroielv,
ov Se KOL rrda")(.iv.

X. TIpWrOV /jiV OVV aV6(T6(OS 7TO\\r)S Kal OpCLGV-

rrjros eV rov Kparelv rov 'Avvifiav rot? crrpa-
TtcoTCU? <y<yevofjLevr]s, rovs drrocrKiSvafjievoVs rov
crrparorreSov Kal Kararpe^ovra<^ rrjv

Kare/corrre Kal urrav
erreira rrpos Neav rro\w Kal NwXaz;
NeavroX/ra? fj,v erreppwcrev
eavrovs /Se/Satof? 6Wa? 'Pw/^atoi?

elaeXdcbv ardaiv evpe, TT)? /3ov\rjs rov
dvvifti^ovra ^era^eiplcrao-OaL Kal Karap-
2 riaai /jurj Swaaevrj^. r)v ydp rt? dvrjp evyeveia
r rrpwrevtov ev rfj rr6\L Kal /car' dvSpeiav em-
(fiavrjs, ovoaa BdvSios" rovrov ev Y^dvvais rrepi-
OTTTO)? dywviadfJLevov Kal TroXXoi/9 ^v dve\6vra
ra)v K.ap'xrjSoviaoV) reXo? Be avrov ev rot?
evpeOevra rro\\(ov /3e\MV Kardrr\ewv TO

o ' Kvviftas ov aovov dtyrJKev dvcv



Coraes aud Bekker have /care^eiryoj/ (^oo^: refuge),
after Stephanus.

458



MARCELLUS, ix. 3-x. 2

in him a general who sufficed for the defensive, but
was inadequate for the offensive, and therefore turned
their eyes upon Marcellus; and mingling and uniting
his boldness and activity with the caution and fore-
thought of Fabius, they sometimes elected both to
be consuls together, and sometimes made them, by
turns, consul and proconsul, and sent them into the
field. Poseidonius says that Fabius was called a
shield, and Marcellus a sword. 1 And Hannibal him-
self used to say that he feared Fabius as a tutor, but
Marcellus as an adversary ; for by the one he was
prevented from doing any harm, while by the other
he was actually harmed.

X. To begin with, then, since Hannibal's victory
had made his soldiers very bold and careless, Mar-
cellus set upon them as they straggled from their
camp and overran the country, cut them down, and
thus slowly diminished their forces ; secondly, he
brought aid to Neapolis and Nola. In Neapolis he
merely confirmed the minds of the citizens, who
were of their own choice steadfast friends of Rome ;
but on entering Nola, he found a state of discord,
the senate being unable to regulate and manage the
people, which favoured Hannibal. For there was a
man in the city of the highest birth and of illus-
trious valour, whose name was Bantius. This man
had fought with conspicuous bravery at Cannae, and
had slain many of the Carthaginians, and when he
was at last found among the dead with his body full
of missiles, Hannibal was struck with admiration of
him, and not only let him go without a ransom, but

1 Cf. the Fabiu* Maximus, xix. 3.

459



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



\vrpwv, ttXXa real Swpa Trpo(re07]K KOI
3 eTfOLt^aaTO Kal %evov. dfjieiftofjievos ovv TIJV %
o Bat>5iO9 et9 rjv TWV dvvt^L^ovTWV TrpoOvfJiWS,
TOV &rj/.Lov iayvwv e^ijye Trpo? aTroorracnv. o &e
Ma/9/ceXXo? ave\elv [jiev av&pa

teal KeKOLvwvrjKora TWV



<j)i\av0pct)7T(i) Kal iriOavos wv ofjLi,\ia7rpo(rd-
yecrOai, <f)L\orifjLov r)(9o?, do-Traa-a/Aevov TTOTC TOV



CLVTOV



ird\ai /j,v ev et'Sa)?, dp%r)v Be Kal Trpoacriv ev-

4 revgews ty]TU)v. w? yap eiTre, "AevKios Bai^8io?,"
olov rjcrOels Kal 0av/j,d(Ta<; 6 Map/ceXXo?, " 9 H yap
efceivos,' (j)ij, "(TV BdvStos, ov vrXetcrTO? ev 'Pco/jiij
\6yos rwv V Y^dvvais dywvia-afjitvwv, GO? JJLOVOV
TIav\ov PJ,jJLi\iov TOV ap^ovTa n/r] 7rpo\i7r6vTO<; t
d\\d Ta Tr\el(TTa TWV eKeli'W fyepo/Jievwv /3e\wi>

5 VTro&TavTos TO) (TWfJiaTL Kal dvaSe^a/^evov;" (j)ij-

e TOV T$av8iov Kai TI Kal 7rapa(f)rivavTO<>
W TMV TpavfjidTwv, " Etra," e<prj, " Tr)\iKavTa
(frepayv T^? Trpb? rjfjids ^)iA('a? OVK
ev0v$ TrpoarjeLs; r) KUKOI aoi SOKOV/HCV dpeTrjv
<pi\a)v ot9 <TTI Ti/Arj Kal Trapd rot?
raOra (f)t\O(ppovrjdel<f Kal






L7T7TOV T6



Kal Spaxfiids dpyvplov

XI. 'E/t TOVTOV ySeySaiOTaro? fj,ev rjv M.apK\\a)



p,rj-

Kal KaTrjyopos TWV TavavTia fypovovvTwv
o Bai/S/o?. rjcrav &e 7ro\\oi, Kal BievoovvTO TWV



'Poyaaiwv 7T6^tovT(ov rot? TroXeyutot? avTol Btap-
2 Tracrat T9 aTTOCTKevds. Sib crvvTa^as 6 Ma/o-



460



MARCELLUS, x. 2 xi. 2

actually added gifts, and made him bis friend and
guest In return for this favour, then, Bantius was
one of those who eagerly favoured the cause of Han-
nibal, and was using his great influence to bring the
people to a revolt. Marcellus thought it wrong to
put to death a man so illustrious in his good fortune
who had taken part with the Romans in their greatest,
conflicts, and, besides his natural kindliness, he had
an address that was likely to win over a character
whose ambition was for honour. One dav, therefore.

d *

when Bantius saluted him, he asked him who he
was, not that he had not known him for some time,
but seeking occasion and excuse for conversation
with him. For when he said, " I am Lucius Ban-
tius," Marcellus, as if astonished and delighted, said :
" What ! are you that Bantius who is more talked
of in Rome than any of those who fought at Cannae,
as the only man who did not abandon Paulus Aemi-
lius the consul, but encountered and received in his
own body most of the missiles aimed at him .-> " And
when Bantius assented and showed him some of his
scars, "Why, then," said Marcellus, "when you bear
such marks of your friendship towards us, did you
not come to us at once ? Can it be that you think
us loath to requite valour in friends who are honoured
even among our enemies ? " These kindly greetings
he followed up by making him presents of a war
horse and five hundred drachmas in silver.

XI. After this Bantius was a most steadfast partisan
and ally of Marcellus, and a most formidable de-
nouncer and accuser of those who belonged to the
opposite party. 1 These were many, and they pur-
posed, when the Romans went out against the
enemy, to plunder their baggage. Marcellus there-

1 The story of Lucius Bantius is told by Livy also (xxiii
J5, 716, 1).

461



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

/eeXXo? rrjv ovva/jiiv eVro? irapa ra? TruXa? ec
rd (T/cevo(f)6pa, KOI TO?? NwXai'cn? Bid Kijpvy-
/zaro? arrelTre TT/OO? rd reu^rj TrpocrTreXd^eiv. rjv
ovv oTr\u)V ep^^ia KOI TQV 'A.vvi(Bav eTrea-TrdcraTO
dra/CTOTepov, co? rwv ev TTJ 7r6\et



TOUTCO 8e TV /ca^' avrov



o Ma/3/ceXXo? e^rf-



\aa-ev, e wv P e ^ eavrov rwv 'nnrorwv rou?



/cat TrpoaTrecrcov Kara
3 avvefyero rot? TroXe/uot?. yuer' 6\i<yov 8' ot

' eTepav 7rv\r)v e^aypovv /j^erd Spo/jiou KOI
' /cat 7T/)o? rouroi;? avOis av rov ' Kvvlfta
rrjv ^vva/jav fj Tpirrj TWV TTV\WV
dvewyvvro, KOL 81 avTr)<$ f.^eOeov ol \oi7rol teal



/ca KOLKWS /jLVvofJievoLS TOL>? ev
rjSrj Bid TOU? varepov 7ri<p6pOfj,evov<;.
fcdvravOa Trp&rov ol <rvv ' ' Kwiftq 'Pwyu-atoi? eW-
Scofcav, wOov/jievoi (f)6vq> TTO\\U) /cal Tpav/JLdGL
4 7T/909 TO a-TparoTreSov. \eyoi>rai yap virep nrevTa- 304
Kia"%i\iovs diroOaveiv, aTTOKTelvai Be 'Pco/jLaicov
ov ifkeiovas rj TrevTaKocrlovs, o Be Aij3io$ ovrw
/AW ov Biafieftaiovrai, <yevea6ai fjLe<yd\r]v rf
ovBe Treveiv ve/cpovs TocrouTOf? TMV
/cXeo? Be fjieya Map/ceXXco /cal 'Pw/Aatot? GK
Odpaos aTTo TT}? yaa^? eKeivr]^ vTrdpgai dav-
yu-acrTo^, ov% 0)9 TTyOo? djj,a%ov ovBe drf
aXXa TL KOI Tradeiv Bvvd/jLi>ov



XII. Ato /cal Oarepov TWV vttaT&v
462



MARCELLUS, xi. 2-xn. i

fore drew up his forces inside the city, stationed his
baggage-trains near the gates, and issued an edict
forbidding the men of Nola to come near the city
walls. Consequently there were no armed men to
be seen, and Hannibal was thus induced to lead up
his forces in some disorder, supposing the city to be
in a tumult. But at this juncture Marcellus ordered
the gate where he stood to be thrown open, and
marched out, having with him the flower of his
horsemen, and charging directly down upon the
enemy joined battle with them. After a little his
footmen also, by another gate, advanced to the attack
on the run and with shouts. And still again, while
Hannibal was dividing his forces to meet these, the
third gate was thrown open, and through it the rest
rushed forth and fell upon their enemies on every
side. These were dismayed by the unexpected onset,
and made a poor defence against those with whom
they were already engaged because of those who
charged upon them later. Here for the first time
the soldiers of Hannibal gave way before the Romans,
being beaten back to their camp with much slaughter
and many wounds. For it is said that more than five
thousand of them were slain, while they killed not
more than five hundred of the Romans. Livy, how-
ever, will not affirm 1 that the victory was so great
nor that so many of the enemy were slain, but says
that this battle brought great renown to Marcellus,
and to the Romans a wonderful courage after their
disasters. They felt that they were contending, not
against a resistless and unconquerable foe, but against
one who was liable, like themselves, to defeat.

XII. For this reason, on the deatli of one of the

1 Vix equidem ausim adfirmare, xxiii. 16, 15.

463



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

tcd\.ei M.dpKe\\ov 6 Bfj/jios errl rrjv
drrovra, teal ftlq rtov dp-%6vrwv vrrepeOero
Kardcrraaiv e<w? eKelvos rj\9ev drro rov arparo-
rreBov. teal rrdcrais fjiev drreSei^Orj rat? ^7;<o?
vrraroSt emftpovrijo'avros & rov Oeov KOI rwv
lepewv OVK alcriov TiQenkvwv TO (rr]^lov, C
Be Ku>\veiv Ofcvovvrayv KOL SeBiOTCov rov
2 at-ro? e^ayjjiocraro rr]V dp^v. ov fj^evrot rr]V
(rrpareiav efywycv, aXX' avQvrcaro^ dvayopevOels
l rrd\iv rrpos NcoXai^ rcave\6wv et? TO crrpa-
Karcws erroiei TOU? yprj/jLevovs rd rov
a)? Be o^elav err avrov Oe/uevos /3oij-
e/ceivos r/Ke, 7rpoKa\ov/j,ev<t) JLLCV K rrapa-



OVK



8e TO rr\el(Trov efi dprrayrjv rov arparov
/jLTjKeri rrpO(r>")(O[jiev(i) fjbd^rjv eire^rjX
So par a rwv vav/xd^wv /jieydXa Tot? rre^ols, Kal
rroppwOev avvrrfpoixn, rraieLV TOU? Ka/o-
p,ev OVK ovras, al^/jial^ Be
%etat9. Bib Kal SOKOVCTL
rore Bel^ai rd vwra 'Pcojjiaiois ocroi <rvve/3a\ov
drrpofydcriarov (fcvyelv, drroj3a\6vres
eavrwv veKpovs /JLCV <yevo pevovs rrevraKicr'%L\i-
, a^/u.aXcoTOf9 Be e^a/cocriou?, 1 Kal rwv e'Xe-
fydvrwv rearaapas fj,ev rreaovras, Bvo Be ^coou?
aXoi'Ta?. o 5* r]V /jLeyiarov, rj/jiepa rpurrj fierd
rr)v ^d / yr]v imreis *\[3ripu>v Kal No/zaoVoy yu-tya^e?
avrofjio\ovo'iv vrrep TOU? rpiaKocriovs, OVTTO) rrpo-
repov ' 'Avvifta rovro rra9ovros, aXX' CK TroiKi\wv

/3ap/3api-



Be eaKo<r(ovs added to the text by Sintenis
and Bekker, after Livy, xxiii. 46, 4.

464



MARCELLUS. xir. 1-3

consuls, 1 the people called Marcellus home to succeed
him, and, in spite of the magistrates, postponed the
election until his return from the army. He was
made consul by a unanimous vote, but there was a
peal of thunder at the time, and since the augurs
considered the omen unpropitious, but hesitated to
make open opposition for fear of the people, he re-
nounced the office of himself. He did not, however,
lay aside his military command, but having been
declared proconsul, he returned to his army at Nola
and proceeded to punish those who had espoused the
cause of the Carthaginian. And when Hannibal came
swiftly to their aid against him, and challenged him
to a pitched battle, Marcellus declined an engage-
ment ; but as soon as his adversary had set the greater
part of his army to plundering and was no longer
expecting a battle, he led his forces out against him.
He had distributed long spears used in naval combats
among his infantry, and taught them to watch their
opportunity and smite the Carthaginians at long
range ; these \vere not javelineers, but used short
spears in hand to hand fighting. This seems to have
been the reason why at that time all the Cartha-
ginians who were engaged turned their backs upon
the Romans and took to unhesitating flight, losing
five thousand of their number slain, and six hundred
prisoners ; four of their elephants also were killed,
and two taken alive. But what was most important,
on the third day after the battle, more than three
hundred horsemen, composed of Spaniards and Nu-
midians, deserted from them. Such a disaster had
not happened before this to Hannibal, but a barbarian
army made up of varied and dissimilar peoples had

1 Lucius Postumius, who was utterly defeated and slain
by the Gauls in 215 B.C. Cf. Livy, xxiii. 24.

465



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

KOV (TTpdrev/jia Tr\el(JTOv %povov ev
&ia<f)v\dj;avTos. OVTOL JAW ovv 7Tio~Tol
/9 CLTrav avrw re TW MapK\\w real TO??



avTov



XIII. 'O Be Ma/3/ceXXo9 c
TO TpiTov 6t? ^iKeXlav eiT\GV(jev. al yap ' Kvvl-

i TOV 7TO\fjLOV 6V

avOis avTi\.a^^dv.(jQaL TT}? vrj&ov,
\icrTa TeTapayfjievuiV T&V irepi Ta?
fjLGTa rr)V 'lepwvv/jiov TOV Tvpdvvov
Sto Kal 'PcojULdLwv rjv e/cei 7rpoa7recrra\fjLvrj Svva-

2 yut? fcai o"TyoaT7?70? "ATTTTio?. Tavrr)V
ftdvovri TU> Map/ceXXco Trpoa-TriTrTOvcri '

rv/ji(j)opa Ke%pr)/jLVOi roiavrrj
7rapara;a/j,evct}v TT/OO? 'Avviftav ol
<f>vyov, 01 & ^'cot'Te? r/Xaxray, TOCTOVTOV
a)? botcelv 'PwyLtatot? vTroXeXeityOcu ytt^^e TO?)?

3 Tel^rj SicKfrvXa^ovras. Tot? ^e apa roaovTO TOV

Kal fJLeya\o^v)(ia^ Treptrjv OXTTE TOU?

TOu? eVt fAifcpols \vTpOLS d
*A.vvi/3ov fjir) \afielv, aXX,'
Trepuo'eiv TOU? yLte/^ dvaipeOevTas, TOU? Se
Ta? e^o) TT}? 'iTaXta?, TW^ 8e <f)vyfj
TO



ea>9



'Avvifiav. OVTOL Sij TW M.apKeX\a> rrapa-
va) TTpoaTrecrovTes aOpboi, Kal y^a/mal
/3a\6vTes avTOvs, TJTOVV TCL^LV TUTL/JLOV
a TroXXr}? /5o7/9 Kal SaKpvwv, eTr
iv oY epycov aTv^la Tivl p,a\\ov rj St' avav- 30

466



MARCELLUS, xn. 3 -xm. 4

lor a very long time been kept by him in perfect
harmony. These deserters, then, remained entirely
faithful both to Marcellus himself, and to the generals
who succeeded him. 1

XIII. And now Marcellus, having been appointed
consul for the third time/ 2 sailed to Sicily. For
Hannibal's successes in the war had encouraged the
Carthaginians to attempt anew the conquest of the
island, especially now that Syracuse was in confusion
after the death of the tyrant Hieronymus. For this
reason the Romans also had previously sent a force
thither under the command of Appius. As Marcellus
took over this force, he was beset by many Romans
who were involved in a calamity now to be described.
Of those who had been drawn up against Hannibal
at Cannae, some had fled, and others had been taken
alive, and in such numbers that it was thought the
Romans had not even men enough left to defend
the walls of their city. And yet so much of their
high spirit and haughtiness remained that, although
Hannibal offered to restore his prisoners of war for
a slight ransom, they voted not to receive them, but
suffered some of them to be put to death and others
to be sold out of Italy ; and as for the multitude
who had saved themselves by flight, they sent them
to Sicily j ordering them not to set foot in Italy as
long as the war against Hannibal lasted. 3 These
were the men who, now that Marcellus was come,
beset him in throngs, and throwing themselves on
the greund before him, begged with many cries
and tears for an assignment to honourable military
service, promising to show by their actions that their



1 Cf. Livy, xxiii. 46, 1-7.

8 In 214 B.C. Fabius Maximus was his colleague.

a Cf. Livy, xxiii. 25, 7.



467



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

tipiav avTwv T^V rpoTrrjv etceivrjv
oiKTeipas ovv avTOV<$ 6 Map/ceXXo? eypatye 777369
rrjv o-vyK\r)Tov alrovfjievos CK TOVTWV del TT}?
5 crrpaTids TO eVtXetTroz/ av(nr\i)povv. \bywv Be
yevofj,eva>v eTTonjcraTO yvM/jnjv rj ftovKr)
t? 8r)jj.6(Tia TTpdy/jLara Selcrdai r P&)/xatou9
dv9p(t)TTU)V avav'&pww el Be /3ov\6Tai xpfjcrOai
uTOi? tcra)?, fjirjSevbs TWV eV dv^pelq
crr(f)dv(i)v Kal yepwv rv^elv VTT
rovro TO Soy/jia MdpK\\ov rjvi

/JL6TO, TOV V ^l/C\L(l 7r6\/jiOV

jBov\r)V, &)? dvrl 7ro\\w
\wv ov Traaaovaav avrw TO&OVTCOV



XIY. Tore 8' eV ^iK\ia irpunov p,ev a
virb 'IirTTOKparovs ^vpaKOvalwv err pariyy ov, o?
vLOis j^apL^ofjievo^ Kal rvpavvi&a KTW-
vTw 7roXXoL9 &ie<f)0ip 'Poy/jLaiaiv TTpbs
, ei\e l rrjv rwv AGOVTLVWV 7r6\iv Kara
Kpdro<f, Kal Keovrlvovs fj,ev OVK rjSiKrjcre, TWV Be



2 TOV 8' 'l7T7TO/CpaTOU9 TTp&TOV /JLV \OyOV t9 TCL<t



d7roa(f)dTTi Ma/3A:eXXo9, eireiTa Be
eimreaovTO^ Kal Trjv TroXti/ KaTa\af3bvTOs, apas
6 MayO/ceXXo9 TW GTpaTW TravTl 7rpo9 ra9 Sf/oa-
Kovaas e^wpei,. Kal KaTacrTpaTOTreBeva-as ?rXr/-
GIOV e/<7e7re/rv|re ^ev Trpeafteis irepl TWV ev AeovTt-
voi<$ BtBd^ovTas, a>9 Be ov&ev r)v 0^)6X09 ^ ireiOo-
/jivci)v 3<vpaKOV(ria)v (eKpaTovv yap ol irepl TOV
, 7T/30<Ty5oXa9 eTTOieiTo KaTa yfjv a/



with Reiske and Coraes : . . . Kal elxe, the lacuna to
be filled from Livy xxiv. 30, 1.

468



MARCELLUS, xm. 4-xiv. 3

former defeat had been due to some great misfortune
rather than to cowardice. Marcellus, therefore,
taking pity on them, wrote to the senate asking
permission to fill up the deficiencies in his army
from time to time with these men. But after much
discussion the senate declared its opinion that the
Roman commonwealth had no need of men who
were cowards ; if, however, as it appeared, Marcellus
wished to use them, they were to receive from their
commander none of the customary crowns or prizes
for valour. This decree vexed Marcellus, and when
he came back to Rome after the war in Sicily, he
upbraided the senate for not permitting him, in
return for his many great services, to redeem so
many citizens from misfortune.

XIV. But in Sicily, at the time of which I speak,
his first proceeding, after wrong had been done him by
Hippocrates, the commander of the Syracusans (who,
to gratify the Carthaginians and acquire the tyranny
for himself, had killed many Romans at Leontini),
was to take the city of Leontini by storm. He did
no harm, however, to its citizens, but all the de-
serters whom he took he ordered to be beaten with
rods and put to death. Hippocrates first sent a
report to Syracuse that Marcellus was putting all
the men of Leontini to the sword, and then, when
the city was in a tumult at the news, fell suddenly
upon it and made himself master of it. Upon this,
Marcellus set out with his whole army and came to
Syracuse. He encamped near by, and sent ambas-
sadors into the city to tell the people what had
really happened at Leontini ; but when this was of
no avail and the Syracusans would not listen to him,
the power being now in the hands of Hippocrates,
he proceeded to attack the city by land and sea,

469

VOL. V Q



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



KCL\ Kara 6d\arrav, 'A.-rrrriov f^ev rov rre^ov errd-
yovros arparov, avros oe rrevri'ipeis "%wv e^rjKovra
rravro&arrwv orrXeov Kal 0e\ojv 7rX?jpet9. urrep Se
fjieyd\ov ei/7/u.a,TO9 vewv OKTCD rrpbs aXXr^Xa? GVV-



apa<\ eeet 7rpo<? TO



ra> TT\r)0ei real rf}

Kal rfj &6j;r) rfj Trepl avrov TreTroiOcof *]<; apa

^0709 ot^et? 771^ *A/3^t/u^8ei vat rot?

4 fjirf^avriiJiaffLV. wv a)? /j,ev epyov a^iov
ovBw 6 avrjp 7rpov0To, jew/jierpia^ Be
eyeyovei Trdpepya TO. TrXelcna, irpoTepov <j)i\or/-

lepco^o? rov /itacrtXeaK Kal rreiaavros
i'iSij rpe^rai n TT}<? re^vrj^ drro rwv vorjrwv
errl rd (TayfjiariKa Kal rbv Xoyov a/xw? 76 TTCO? /.'
aldO^aew^ fxi^avra rat? ^petat? fU,<f>avea'Tpov
Karaarrjaai rot? TroXXot?.

5 Tr)*/ 70/9 d^arrwfjLei'rjv ravnjv Kal 7repi{3or)roi>
opyaviKrjv ijp^avro fjiev Kivelv ol rrepl Eu
'Ap^urai/, rroiKLXXovres rw y\a<pvpa)

Kal \oyiKrjs Kal ypa/jL/jLiKrjs drroSei^ea)^ OVK evrro-
povvra rrpof3\r)n,ara 81 alcr9t]rwv Kal opyaviKWv
Trapa&eiy/Jtdrwv urrepei&ovres, co? TO rrepl Suo /jue-
aa? dva \6yov rrp6/3\r)fjia Kal crroL^elov errl rro\-
Xa rcov ypa(f)O/jLVCt)i> dva^Kalov et? opyaviKas
e^rj'yov d^fyorepoi KaraaKevds, fjiecroypd^ovs nvds
drro Kafjircv\fy)v ypafifjiwv Kal r^tj^drayv fjiedapfjio-

6 WTe?' errel Se Tl\drcov rjyavdfcrrjGe Kal Sterei-
varo rrpos avrovs a>? a?roXXwTa? Kal
povras TO yew/Jierpias dyaflov, drro rwv d



1 See chapter xv. 3. According to Polybius (viii. 6).
Marcellus had eight quinqueremes in pairs, and on each
pair, lashed together, a "sanibuca" (or harp) had been

470



MARCELLUS, xiv. 3-6

Appius leading up the land forces, and he himself
having a fleet of sixty quinqueremes filled with all
sorts of arms and missiles. Moreover, he had
erected an engine of artillery on a huge platform
supported by eight galleys fastened together, 1 and
with this sailed up to the city wall, confidently rely-
ing on the extent and splendour of his equipment
and his own great fame. But all this proved to be
of no account in the eyes of Archimedes and in
comparison with the engines of Archimedes. To
these he had by no means devoted himself as work
worthy of his serious effort, but most of them were
mere accessories of a geometry practised for amuse-
ment, since in bygone days Hiero the king had
eagerly desired and at last persuaded him to turn
his art somewhat from abstract notions to material
things, and by applying his philosophy somehow to
the needs which make themselves felt, to render
it more evident to the common mind.

For the art of mechanics, now so celebrated and
admired, was first originated by Eudoxus and
Archytas, who embellished geometry with its subt-
leties, and gave to problems incapable of proof by
word and diagram, a support derived from mechani-
cal illustrations that were patent to the senses. For
instance, in solving the problem of finding two mean
proportional lines, a necessary requisite for many
geometrical figures, both mathematicians had re-
course to mechanical arrangements, adapting to
their purposes certain intermediate portions of
curved lines and sections. But Plato was incensed
at this, and inveighed against them as corrupters
and destroyers of the pure exctjM^nce of geometry,

constructed. This was a pent-house for raising armed men
on to the battlements of the besieged city.

471



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



KOI vor)Twv a7roipacrKOvcrr)s et ra
Kal TTpocrxpa)fjLvris avOis av GWfjLacn 7ro\\rj$ KOI
(fropriKrjs /3avavaovp<yt,a<; &eo/jLvois, ovrw SieKpiOr)
>yea)fjierpia<> eKtrecrovcra fjLrj-^aviKrj, Kal Trepiopco-
rro\vv %povov VTTO <f)i\ocro(f)ias fjiia rcov

wv T%vwv eyeyovei.
7 Kal /jLevTot, teal 'Ap^t^r^?, 'lepwvi, rw (3acri\el
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Svvd/jLi TO So0V ySapo? Kivrjaai Svvarov earr
l veavievadfjuevos, w? <>acri,



to?, e <yv e^ev erepav, e/civrjo'ev av



8 ravrrjv yueraySa? et? KeivY]v. Oav/jidcravTOs Be rov

/cal BerjQevros et? epyov e^ayayeiv TO
/cal el%ai TL TWV /j,eyd\(i)V
VTTO (TjjLLKpas Svvd/jLeo)?, 6\KaSa rpidpfievov
ftacriKiKwv TTOVM fjLeyd\(o KOI xeipl 7ro\\fj
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fjiera (nrov&fjs, a\Xa rjpefjia rf) ^eipl aeiwv dp%ijv
rtva TToXvcrTrdaTOV Trpoa'rjydyero Xet&>9 Kal djrrai,-

9 CTTO)? Kal wcnrep &ia da\drr / tj<; eTTideovaav. K-
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rrjv Svva/jiiv, eVetcre rov 'ApxifArjSrjv OTTCO? aurw



ra fjiev d/AWO/ieva), ra S' eru'xeipovvri

/ \ 't 1 ^ -v '

/j.ara Kara&Kevaarj TTyoo? rracrav toeav rro\LOpKias,



ot? auro? fiev OVK e^ptcraro, rov uov TO



arro\efj,ov Kal TravrjyvpiKov /rfoajcra?, TOTG S' VTr^
3<vpaKOV(TLOi<; et9 Beov rj TrapacrKeurj Kal
TrapacrKevfjs 6



472



MARCELLUS, xiv. 6

which thus turned her back upon the incorporeal
things of abstract thought and descended to the things
of sense, making use, moreover, of objects which re-
quired much mean and manual labour. For this reason
mechanics was made entirely distinct from geometry,
and being for a long time ignored by philosophers,



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