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came to be regarded as one of the military arts.

And yet even Archimedes, who was a kinsman
and friend of King Hiero, wrote to him that with
any given force it was possible to move any given
weight ; and emboldened, as we are told, by the
strength of his demonstration, he declared that, if
there were another world, and he could go to it, he
could move this. Hiero was astonished, and begged
him to put his proposition into execution, and show
him some great weight moved by a slight force.
Archimedes therefore fixed upon a three-masted
merchantman of the royal fleet, which had been
dragged ashore by the great labours of many men,
and after putting on board many passengers and the
customary freight, he seated himself at a distance
from her, and without any great effort, but quietly
setting in motion with his band a system of com-
pound pulleys, drew her towards him smoothly and
evenly, as though she were gliding through the
water. Amazed at this, then, and comprehending
the power of his art, the king persuaded Archimedes
to prepare for him offensive and defensive engines
to be used in every kind of siege warfare. These
he had never used himself, because he spent the
greater part of his life in freedom from war and
amid the festal rites of peace ; but at the present
time his apparatus stood the Syracusans in good
stead, and, with the apparatus, its fabricator. 1

1 Cf. Polybius, viii. 5, 3-5 ; 9, 2 ; Livy, xxiv. 34.

473



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

XV. r fi<? ovv rrpocre/3a\ov oi 'Pco/^aloi Si
rjv rwv ^vpaxovcriwv KCLI <ri<yrj Bia
ei' av dv6e%eLv TT/JO? (3Lav KCU Bvvapiv OL
roaavrrfv. a^dcravros 8e ra? fjirjxavas rov






rot? (Jiev vreoi? airvra roevfjiar re
iravroBaTra KOI \ldwv



teal raei /caracepof^ei'wv aTTtcrrco, teal



TO f3pWo$ crreyovros aOpbovs dvarpeTrovrcov



TOU? uTTOTTtTTTo^ra? Kol TO9



2 rat? Be vavfflv djrb TWV rei^Mis a<f)va> vTrepaiaypov-
fjievai Kepalai ra? pev VTTO (SpLOovs arrjpi
avwOev uiOovcrai KareSuov et? $v6bv, ra? Be
(Ti&rjpais rj aTOfjiaaiv eitcacr/uLevots yepdvcov ava-
crTrwcrai TrpwpaOev bpOas eirl Trpv/Jivav e^dirTi^ov,
f) Bi' dvrnovwv evBov 7ri(TTp(f)6/iievai teal irepiayo-
fj,evai rot? VTTO TO Tet^o? TrefyvrcoGi Kp?jfj,vot$ teal
(TKOTreXois Trpoarjpacrcrov, a/u-a <p06pa) TroXXw

3 eTriftaTwv (jvvTpi^o^vwv. TroXXa/ct? Be
e^apdelaa vavs dtrb TT}? @a\d(rcrr}<; Bevpo Ka

vovfjievTi KCU Kpefjid/jievr) Oea^a (frpifcwBes rjv,
ov TWV dvBpwv aTroppifyevTwv KOL Btacrtyev-



Kevrj TrpoaTreaoi Tot? rei^ecnv rj rrepi-



o\icr6oi TT<? \a(3rs dveicrrs. rv Be 6



avro rov ^eu7yuaTO? errrjye



Bi* o/jioiorrjrd riva cr^f^aro^ Trpo? TO
4 fjiov<JiKov opyavov, en Be arrwdev avrr/s rrpocr-
TT^O? TO Tet^o? ^ij\aro Xt^o? Betcard-



474



MARCBLLUS, xv. 1-4

XV. When, therefore, the Romans assaulted them
by sea and land, the Syracusans were stricken dumb
with terror ; they thought that nothing could with-
stand so furious an onset by such forces. But
Archimedes began to ply his engines, and shot
against the land forces of the assailants all sorts of
missiles and immense masses of stones, which came
down with incredible din and speed ; nothing what-
ever could ward off' their weight, but they knocked
down in heaps those who stood in their way, and
threw their ranks into confusion. At the same time
huge beams were suddenly projected over the ships
from the walls, which sank some of them with great
weights plunging down from on high ; others were
seized at the prow by iron claws, or beaks like the
beaks of cranes, drawn straight up into the air,, and
then plunged stern foremost into the depths, or
were turned round and round by means of enginery
within the city, and dashed upon the steep cliffs that
jutted out beneath the wall of the city, with great
destruction of the fighting men on board, who
perished in the wrecks. Frequently, too, a ship
would be lifted out of the water into mid-air, whirled
hither and thither as it hung there, a dreadful spec-
tacle, until its crew had been thrown out and hurled
in all directions, when it would fall empty upon the
walls, or slip away from the clutch that had held
it. As for the engine which Marcellus was bringing
up on the bridge of ships, and which was called
11 sambuca " from some resemblance it had to the
musical instrument of that name, 1 while it was still
some distance off in its approach to the wall, a stone
of ten talents' weight '-' was discharged at it, then a



1 See chapter xiv. 3.

2 A talent's weight was something over fifty pounds.



475



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

\avro<$ o\Kr)V, elra crepes eVt rovrw Kal rpiros,
wv ol fjiev avrrj 1 e^rrecrovre^ /jt,eyd\w KrvTrw KOI
K\vBwvi TT}? fjLr)%avfjs ri'/v re fidcriv avvif^orja av
teal TO y6fJi<f)w/Aa Biecreiaav Kal BieaTracrav rov
^evyfjiaros, ware 2 rov Mdp/ce\Xov cnropov^evov
avrov re rat? vavalv arcort\eiv Kara ra^o? Kal
rot? Tre^OA? dva%wprj(Tii> Trapeyyvrjaai,.

BouXefOyaei/eu? Se eBoj^ev avrois en vvrcros, av
i,, Trpocr/ji'i^ai rot? rec^ecrr TOU? 7a/) TO-
0*9 xprjaQai rov 'ApxijjLrjBrjv, pvprjv
vrreprrerels rroujcreaOat, ra? rwv (3e\a)v a
eyyvOev Be Kal reXew? drrpaKrovs eivat
rrjs 7T\r)<yri<; OVK e%ovcnjs. 6 S' rjv, a>? eoixev, eVl
ravra 7rd\at, Trapea-Kevacr/jbevos opydvcov re (rvpb/jie-
rpovs 7T/30? vraz^ Sidtfrrj/jLa Kivrjaeis Kal /3e\r)
/3/ja^ea, al Sta TO Tet^o? 3 o^ /u,e i yd\a)v, 7ro\\wv
Be Kal crvve^wv rp^fjidrwv ovrwv, 3 ol GKoprrioi
/3pa%vrovoi aev, eyyvQev Be TrXij^at Trapeffrrj/ceaav
doparoi, Tot? rco\efjLioL^.

XVI. c fl? ovv Trpo(TfjUJ;av oio/jLevoi \av6dveiv,
av fte\ecn TroXXot? evrvy%dvovres Kal 7r\rj-
Trerptov uev CK KetyaXrjs eV avrovs (frepo-
axTTrep TT/jo? KuOcrov, Tou Be Tet^of? ro^ev- 307
para rravra^odev dvajre/jLTrovros, dve^u>povv orri-
2 era). KavravOa rrd\iv avrwv ei<s /Lt7)/co? eKrera-
y/jievwv, /3e\Mv eKdeovrwv Kal Kara\afju/3av6vr(DV
dmovras eyivero TroXu? /j,ev avrwv <f>96po<$, TTO\V<J
Be rwv vewv avyKpova/jios, ovBev avriBpacrat TOI)?
7roX/u,tou9 Bvvafj,evo)v. rd yap 7r\elcrra rwv bp-

1 avrfi Bekker, after Coraes : OUTTJS (of the engine itself).

2 uffre before this word Sintenis 2 and Bekker assume a
lacuna in the text, comparing Polybius, viii. 7, fin.

8 T& T?XOS, OVTWV added to the text by Sintenis, who
compares Polybius viii. 7, 6.

476



MARCELLUS, xv. 4-xvi. 2

second and a third ; some of these, falling upon it
with great din and surge of wave, crushed the
foundation of the engine, shattered its frame-work,
and dislodged it from the platform, so that Marcellus,
in perplexity, ordered his ships to sail back as fast
as they could, and his land forces to retire.

Then, in a council of war, it was decided to come
up under the walls while it was still night, if they
could ; for the ropes which Archimedes used in his
engines, since they imparted great impetus to the
missiles cast, would, they thought, send them flying
over their heads, but would be ineffective at close
quarters, where there was no space for the cast.
Archimedes, however, as it seemed, had long before
prepared for such an emergency engines with a range
adapted to any interval and missiles of short flight,
and through many small and contiguous openings in
the wall short-range engines called scorpions could
be brought to bear on objects close at hand without
being seen by the enemy.

XVI. When, therefore, the Romans came up under
the walls, thinking themselves unnoticed, once more
they encountered a great storm of missiles ; huge
stones came tumbling down upon them almost per-
pendicularly, and the wall shot out arrows at them
from every point ; they therefore retired. And here
again, when they were some distance off, missiles
darted forth and fell upon them as they were going
away, and there was a great slaughter among them ;
many of their ships, too, were dashed together, and
they could not retaliate in any way upon their foes.
For Archimedes had built most of his engines close

477



PLUTARCH'S LIVES






yvcov I'Tro TO refc^CK fcrxevoTro^ro ray
i Oeo^a^ovcriv ewKeaav 01 'Pa>/u.aiO,



XVII. OL- fjLr]V dXX* o MdptceXXos diretyvyt re
Kal TOVS (Ti>v eavTtj) cr/ca)7rTa)t/ Te^fiTa? Kal fj,rj-
vs e\yev "Ou 7rat'cr6yu,e#a



TOVTOV

rals nev vavalv l rjfjiwv KvaOL^et, K rr}?
rrjv
{BXr
2 -roaavra



\otTrol

r^aav, t'j Be KLVOIKTCL



Trdvra >cal



rot? eicelvov



rare T^? TroXeco? ^pa)fjivr)<t *al Trpos a/jLVvav KOI

3 Trpo? dcr<j)d\6iav. reXo? ^6 TOU? 'Pa)/j,aiov$ ovra)

7Tpi,(f)6(3ovs yeyovoras opwv o Ma/j/eeXXo? wcrr', 6t'



rov



TOVTO e/ceivo, fjLrjyavrjv TLVCL
V avrovs 'Ap%tfj,tjSr) (Sowvras aTrorperrecrOaL Kal

KCLI



TO \017TOV CTTt TW 'XpOVW TT]V TTO\t,OpKlCLV Oe

v /jievroi <pp6vr)/jia
TOGOVTOV KKrrjro Bewprmd'rwv 7r\ovTOv

WCTT6, 6<^>' ol? OVO/JLCl KOI So^ttV OVK

ivris, d\\d bai/jioviov Tti/o? etr^e (rvveaew^,
4 prjOev eOeXijtrai avyypa^^a irepl TOVTWV diTo-
\i7reiv, d\\d rrjv irepi TO,
Kal Tracrav oXa>5



1 TO?S ^6i/ 'au(rli' . . . pairi<av an early anonymous correction
of the MSS. ras yUfi' vavs TI/JLUV KaOifav irpbs r^v
Traifav, adopted by Bekker. Cf, Polybius, viii. 8, 6.

478



MARCELLUS, xvi. 2-xvn. 4

behind the wall, and the Romans seemed to be
fighting against the gods, now that countless mis-
chiefs were poured out upon them from an invisible
source.

XVII. However, Marcellus made his escape, and
jesting with his own artificers and engineers, " Let
us stop," said he, " fighting against this geometrical
Briareus, who uses our ships like cups to ladle water
from the sea, and has whipped and driven off in dis-
grace our sambuca, and with the many missiles
which he shoots against us all at once, outdoes the
hundred-handed monsters of mythology." For in
reality all the rest of the Syracusans were but a
body for the designs of Archimedes, and his the one
soul moving and managing everything ; for all other
weapons lay idle, and his alone were then employed
by the city both in offence and defence. At last the
Romans became so fearful that, whenever they saw

* /

a bit of rope or a stick of timber projecting a little
over the wall, " There it is," they cried, " Archimedes
is training some engine upon us," and turned their
backs and fled. Seeing this, Marcellus desisted from
all fighting and assault, and thenceforth depended
on a long siege.

And yet Archimedes possessed such a lofty spirit,
so profound a soul, and such a wealth of scientific
theory, that although his inventions had won for
him a name and fame for superhuman sagacity, he
would not consent to leave behind him any treatise
on this subject, but regarding the work of an engi-
neer and every art that ministers to the needs of
life as ignoble and vulgar, he devoted his earnest

479



PLUTARCH'S LIVES






yevvr/ KOI vavcrov jyrjcrfjievos, ei? eKetva
KaraOeaOai /Jiova rrjv avTov (f)t\OTifM,av ot? TO
KaXov real rrepiTTov a/uye? TOV dvaytcauov Trpoa-
eaTLv, davyKpiTa aev ovra TO?? aXXot?, epiv Be
7rape%ovTa TT/JO? T^V v\r)v Trj aTro$ei%
TO /J,e<ye9o<; /cal TO Ka\\o$, T^? Be TTJV
5 KOL Trjv Svva/iuv i>7rep(f)vri 7rape%o/jt,evr]S' ov yap
ea-Tiv ev yeco/jLerpia ^aXeTrcoTe'yoa? /cal jSapvrepas
ev avrXoucrTe/ooi? \a{Belv /cal KaOapw-
ypa(j)o/jLva$. /cal TOV& ol fjiev
v<j)Via rov dvBpbs Trpoa-aTTTOva-iv, ol 8e V7rep/3o\f)

TLVl 7TOVOV VOfJ,l%OV(7lV CLTTOVW^ TTeTTOt^yUe^ft) Kal

pa&ta)? etcacTTOV eoi/to? yeyovevai. ^rjr&v /JLCV yap
OVK av Tf? evpoi Si avTov rrjv aTroSei^iv, a^a Be
rf) /^aO^crei. TrapicfTaTai So^a rov /cav avrov
evpelv ovro) \elav 6Bov ayei } /cal ra^eiav eVl TO
Bei/cvv/iievov. ou/covv ovBe aTTicnrjaai, Tot? Trepl
\eyo/jievoi$ ecrriv, &>? UTT' ol/ceias Brj TWOS
l avvoL/cov Oe\y6aevo<; del creiprjvos e\e\r)(TTO
KOL CTLTOV 2 teal OepaTreias crcoyaaTo? e^e\i7re, (Biq
Be TroXXa/a? eX/co/zei^o? erf aXei/jLfxa /cal \ovTpov,
ev Tat9 eV^a/oa/,? eypa^e cr^/jiara ra)v yewfj^Tpi-
KWV, /cal TOV cr(t)/jLaTOS d\r]\,L/jLaevou St-tjye ra>
BaKTV\(p ypa/jiads, VTTO ijBovr/s /j,eyd\rjs /caTO^o?
7 &v Kal ^oucroX^TTTO? aXr?^co?. vroXXw^ ^e Kal
Ka\(av evpeTrjs yeyovcios \eyeTai TCOV (friXwv Berj-
Br\vai Kal TWV (rvyyevwv OTTCO? avrov /jueTa Trjv
Te\evTrjv emcrTijcrwai TW Td<pw TOV
ovTa T?]V afyalpav eWo? Ki>\iv8pov, e
TOV \6yov TT}? vTrepo^rj^ TOV Trepie^ovTOS o~Tepeov
7T/509 TO Trepie^o/jievov.

1 &yfi Bekker. after Bryan : iiyeiv.

2 Kal trirov Bekker has ir6rov Kal ffirov (food and drink), a
suggestion of Coraes.

480



MARCELLUS, XVH. 4-7

efforts only to those studies the subtlety and charm
of which are not affected by the claims of necessity.
These studies, he thought, are not to be compared
with any others ; in them the subject matter vies
with the demonstration, the former supplying gran-
deur and beauty, the latter precision and surpassing
power. For it is not possible to find in geometry
more profound and difficult questions treated in
simpler and purer terms. Some attribute this suc-
cess to his natural endowments ; others think it due
to excessive labour that everything he did seemed
to have been performed without labour and with
ease. For no one could by his own efforts discover
the proof, and yet as soon as he learns it from him,
he thinks he might have discovered it himself; so
smooth and rapid is the path by which he leads one
to the desired conclusion. And therefore we may not
disbelieve the stories told about him, how, under the
lasting charm of some familiar and domestic Siren,
he forgot even his food and neglected the care of
his person ; and how, when he was dragged by main
force, as he often was, to the place for bathing and
anointing his body, he would trace geometrical
figures in the ashes, and draw lines with his finger
in the oil with which his body was anointed, being
possessed by a great delight, and in very truth a
captive of the Muses. And although he made many
excellent discoveries, he is said to have asked his
kinsmen and friends to place over the grave where
he should be buried a cylinder enclosing a sphere,
with an inscription giving the proportion by which
the containing solid exceeds the contained. 1

1 When Cicero was quaestor in Sicily (75 B.C.), he found
this tomb, which had been neglected and forgotten by the
Svracusans (Tusc. Disp. v. 04 A'. ).

481



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



XVIII. y Apxt,/j.r)Br)<; fjiev ovi>

atJTTr)Tov eavTov re /ecu rrjv TTO\IV, oaov e<'
avru), Bie(j)v\a^. T?;? Be TroXiopKias Bid jme
Map:eXXo9 el\e jjiev Meyapeas, TTO\LV ev

TWV *2<LKe\i(t)Ti$wv, el\e Se TO ITT- 308
7T/30? 'A/c/nXXat? crrparoTreSov,



parca

/ea! TroXet? aTrecrrrjcre

Tracra? TO 1/9 avTiTayBr]vai

Be irpolovri AdfjUTTTrov Tiva
etc ^vpafcovcrwv \a/3(t)v eA
, afyovvrwv eVl \vrpois
Kov(Tia)V KOfJLicracrOai. TOV av&pa, vroXXa/ct9 vvre/o
TOVTOV 8ia\ey6/jiei>o<; Kal crvvrtOefJievos Trvpyov
TIVCL Karea-Ke-^raro <f)V\aTTO/Aevov
av&pas Se bwdfjievov Beao-0ai Kpixfra, rov

3 eTTiftarov Trap* avrov 6Wo9 a>9 ow TO Te
eV TOI) 7roXXa/a9 Trpoaievai Kal SiaXeyea-ffai

rov Trvpyov eiKacrdr) /caXw9 ^al K\ifJLaKe$ 7rap-
crK6vd(r6r](Tav, eoprrjv 'AprefjLi&t, TOU? ^vpaKouai-
ou9 ayovras real Trpbs olvov ft)p/A?;yLte^oi'9 ^at ?rat-
Bidv 7rapa(j)v\d$;a<;, e\adev ov /Jiovov TOV Trvpyov
)v, a\Xd KOI KVK\<O TO T6t^o9 Trapefi-
OTT\WV Trplv rjfiepav yevecrQai, Kal rd

4 'E^aTTfXa SiaKo^lras. dp%o/jivwv Be KiveivQai
Kal rapdrTcr0ai TWV ^vpaKOvcriwv Trpos rrjv



KeXevaas (frvyrjv eTroirjae TroXkrjv Kal
ci)9 ov&evos yu-e/90L>9 dvaXcorov (jLevovios. e^eve Be
482



MARCELLUS, xvm. 1-4

XVIII. Such, then, was Archimedes, and, so far as
he himself was concerned, he maintained himself
and his city unconquered. But during the progress
of the siege Marcellus captured Megara, one of the
most ancient cities of Sicily ; he also captured the
camp of Hippocrates at Acrillae and killed more
than eight thousand men, having attacked them as
they were throwing up entrenchments ; furthermore,
he overran a great part of Sicily, brought cities over
from the Carthaginians, and was everywhere vic-
torious over those who ventured to oppose him.
Some time aftenvards he made a prisoner of a certain
Damippus, a Spartan who tried to sail away from
Syracuse. The Syracusans sought to ransom this
man back, and during the frequent meetings and
conferences which he held with them about the
matter, Marcellus noticed a certain tower that was
carelessly guarded, into which men could be secretly
introduced, since the wall near it was easy to sur-
mount. When, therefore, in his frequent approaches
to it for holding these conferences, the height of the
tower had been carefully estimated, and ladders had
been prepared, he seized his opportunity when the
Syracusans were celebrating a festival in honour of
Artemis and were given over to wine and sport, and
before they knew of his attempt not only got pos-
session of the tower, but also filled the wall round
about with armed men, before the break of day, and
cut his way through the Hexapyla. When the Syra-
cusans perceived this and began to run about con-
fusedly, he ordered the trumpets to sound on all
sides at once and thus put them to flight in great
terror, believing as they did that no part of the city
remained uncaptured. 1 There remained, however.

1 Cf. Polybius, viii. 37 ; Livy, xxv. 23 f.

483



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

TO KapTCpttiTaTOV KOi Ka\\L(TTOV KOI

rj Ka\eiTaC) &i,d TO TTL%io~0ai irpos

f \ \ "XT ' v

7)9 TO fiev Neav, TO



XIX. Kal TOVTWV e%o/jiev(t)v apa <j>dei Bid TWV
*}L%aTrv\wv o Ma/o/ceXXo? KCLT-yei,
VTTO TWV (/>' eavrov rjyefjiovwv.
\eyeTai KCITI&WV avwOev KOL
7roXea>? TO /jLeyeOo? real TO /raXXo? eVl TTO\V
Sarcpvaai TW /JL\\OVTL ^iveaQ
.vvor]<JCL<$ olov e^ o'lov <j^r]^a KOI
fjLGTa jAiKpov VTTO Tou crTpaTOTreSov o~ia(j)opn&i(Ta.
2 TWV jap Tjye/jLovcov ouSels /jiev rjv 6 TO\IJLWV evav-
TO?? aTpaTicoTais alrovf^evoL^ %>i dp-
r^at, TroXXol Se KOI TrvpTro\.lv KOI
fce\evov. d\\d TOVTOV fjuev ovoe
TrpocrrjKaTO TOV \6yov 6 Ma/j/ceXXo?, /xaXa
8e CLKWV (BiaaOeis eSa)KV diro ^prjf^aTwv /cat

eXeiaOaL, TWV 8e eXevOepwv aw-
direiTrev atyacrdai, /cal SieKeXevaaTO jArjTe
Tiva /z^Te ala-^vvat /J,TJT dvSpaTro-



3 Ov fjirjv d\\d Kaiirep oi'nw fjieTpidcrai,
olfCTpd Trd(T%eiv rjyeiTo Trjv TroKiv, real TO
TraOovv KOL TO o~vva\yovv o/ico? ev TOCTOVTO)
%apds TI tyvyri 8i(f)aivv opwvTos ev

XX?}? KOI \ct[jL7rpds dfyaviO'iJLOV evbai-
ias. \ejTaL <ydp OVK eXaTTOva TOVTOV rj TOV
O-TTO Ka/9^^5o^o? &La<$)Opri9evTa TT\OVTOV

KOI <ydp Trjv d\\iiv TTO\IV ov
484



MARCELLUS, xvm. 4-xix. 3

the strongest, most beautiful, and largest part (called
Achradina), because it had been fortified on the side
towards the outer city, one part of which they call
Neapolis, and another Tyche.

XIX. When these parts also were in his possession,
at break of day Marcellus went down into the city
through the Hexapyla, congratulated by the officers
under him. He himself, however, as he looked
down from the heights and surveyed the great and
beautiful city, is said to have wept much in com-
miseration of its impending fate, bearing in mind
how greatly its form and appearance would change
in a little while, after his army had sacked it. For
among his officers there was not a man who had the
courage to oppose the soldiers' demand for a harvest
of plunder, nay, many of them actually urged that
the city should be burned and razed to the ground.
This proposal, however, Marcellus would not tolerate
at all, but much against his will, and under com-
pulsion, he permitted booty to be made of property
and slaves, although he forbade his men to lay
hands on the free citizens, and strictly ordered
them neither to kill nor outrage nor enslave any
Syracusan.

However, although he seems to have acted with
such moderation, he thought that the city suffered a
lamentable fate, and amidst the great rejoicing of
his followers his spirit nevertheless evinced its
sympathy and commiseration when he saw a great
and glorious prosperity vanishing in a brief time.
For it is said that no less wealth was carried away
from Syracuse now than at a later time from Car-
thage ; for not long afterwards 1 the rest of the city

1 In 212 B.C., the siege having lasted nearly three years.
Cf. Livv, xxv. 24-31.

/ '

485



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

%povov a\ov<rav etc 7rpoBocria<? e

7T\rjv TWV /3acri\i/ca)v
ravra Be elf TO By/Jbocriov e^ypedij.
-1 MaA,O"Ta Be TO ' A.p%ijj,'ij8ov<; Trddos

Mdp/ce\\ov. eri>^e fJiev yap auro? TL Ka9* eavrbv

dvacncoTrwv eVl Siaypd/jL/JLaros' KOI rfj Oewpia

SeScoKO)? a/.ia Ti]v re Sidvoiav KOI rrjv

ov 7rporj(T0TO TI^V KaraSpojuLrjv TWV '

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avro) (TTpariayrov KOL /ce\i>ovTO<; dicoXovOeiv

7T/00? M.dptC\\OV OVK {3oi>\TO 7T p\V f) T\(Tai

TO TrpoftX-rj/jia teal KaTa&Trjcrai, TT/^O? rrjv CLTTO-

5 &iiv. 6 Be opyicr&els /cal cnraadfjievo^ TO
dvei\V avTov. erepoi /JLEV ovv T^eyovatv e

/jii> ev0v<$ co? aTTOKTevovvTa i(f)rjpr) TOV

, eteelvov 8* ISovTa $el(r6ai KOI OVTI- 309
fto\iv dva/jieivai /3pa%vv ^pbvov, co? ^rj Kaia-
\i7rr) TO ^Tov/Jievov aTeXe? KOL dOewprjTov, TOV Be

6 ov fypovTiaavTO, Bia^pricraaOai. KOI TyOtVo?



CO? KOJ,OVTl 7T}09 KOV CLVTU)



opydvcov aKLoOrfpa teal crfftaipas /cal
ywvias, als evap^oTTei, TO TOV i}\iov /ue^e^o?
Trfv otyiv, (TTpaTiwTai TrepiTW^ovTes /cal
eV TO) Tv%i B6%avT6<; (frepeiv dire/CTeivav. OTI
/jiVTOi Ma/o/ceXXo? ijXyrjcre Kal TOV avTo^eipa
TOV dvSpbs aTrecTTpd^rj tcaOaTrep evayf), TOL>? $
OiKeiovs dvevpoov eTi/uLijcrev, 6/jio\oyLTai.

XX. Twv Be r Pa)/jiaiu>v Tot9 e/
&ii>a)i> jiev elvai



<j)O/3epwv et9 %et/^a9 e\delv vo/jit^o/jievwv, evyvw-
486



MARCELLUS, xix. 3-xx. i

was betrayed and taken and subjected to pillage,
excepting the royal treasure ; this was converted
into the public treasury.

But what most of all afflicted Marcellus was the
death of Archimedes. For it chanced that he was
by himself, working out some problem with the aid
of a diagram, and having fixed his thoughts and his
eyes as well upon the matter of his study, he was
not aware of the incursion of the Romans or of the
capture of the city. Suddenly a soldier came upon
him and ordered him to go with him to Marcellus.
This Archimedes refused to do until he had worked
out his problem and established his demonstration,
whereupon the soldier flew into a passion, drew his
sword, and dispatched him. Others, however, say
that the Roman came upon him with drawn sword
threatening to kill him at once, and that Archimedes,
when he saw him, earnestly besought him to wait a
little while, that he might not leave the result that
he was seeking incomplete and without demon-
stration ; but the soldier paid no heed to him and
made an end of him. There is also a third story,
that as Archimedes was carrying to Marcellus some
of his mathematical instruments, such as sun-dials
and spheres and quadrants, by means of which he
made the magnitude of the sun appreciable to the
eye, some soldiers fell in with him, and thinking
that he was carrying gold in the box, slew him.
However, it is generally agreed that Marcellus was
afflicted at his death, and turned away from his
slayer as from a polluted person, and sought out the
kindred of Archimedes and paid them honour.

XX. The Romans were considered by foreign
peoples to be skilful in carrying on war and for-
midable fighters; but of gentleness and humanity

487



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Be Kal fyiXavOpwTrias Kal oXw?
TToBeiy/jiaTa p,rj BeBwKorcov, TT/OWTO?
rore Map/eeXXo9 viroBel^ai rot? f/ EXX?7<T BiKaio-

2 T6/30U? 'Pw/uLCtLOVS. OVTM ydp C^pTJTO TOt?

/3d\\ov(Ti teal roaavra KCLI 7roXei9
evepyerrjcrev wcrre, et rt ire pi "ILvvav rj
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avrois, TOVTO rwv TTTTOv9oTWV atria /maXXov
TCOV TreTTOirjKorayv SoKeiv ryeyovevai.
Be ez^o? CLTTO 7ro\\a)i'. TroXi? eVrl

ov fjLeyaXrf, ap^aia 8e TTCLVV real &ia Oewv

V^o^o?, 9 Ka\ov(n, yaare/oa?.
\eyerai KP^TCO^ yeveaOai TO lepov Kal
Tim? 6eiKVV<Tav teal /cpdvr) %a\Ka, ra JJLEV e
Mrjpiovov, TO, Be Qv\iov, Tourecrriv '
7Tiypa(f)ds, avaTedeiKorwv rat? Oeals. ravrrjv
7TpoOvfj.6raTa Kap^Bovi^ovcrav Nf/aa?, dvrjp



ava<bav$ov ev rat? KK\r)(TicCi<s Trap-

/cal Ka/co)$ (ppovovvra
4 TGI/? vTrevavTLOvs. ol Be fyo(3ovfj,voi rijv

avrov Kal rrjv B6%av eftov\vo-avTo o-vvapirdcrai
l TrapaBovvai rot? <&oivliv. ala9op.ei>o^ ovv o
Kal 7rapacj)v\arr6/jLevov a8?;Xa)? eavrov,
ev fyavepw \6yovs Trepl TWV
dvTTiTr)Beiov<i, Kal TroXXa Trpo? rrjv
7Ti(j)dviav Kal Bo^av co? tvnicTMV Kal
vwv eTrparrev, t'jBo/jLevGov TWV e-^Opwv OTL rrjv



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