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put them in array among the dead bodies of the

* xxvii. 2.

503

VOL. V R 2



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

teal TrpovfcaXeLTO Biaya)Vio~a(T0ai rrepl TT}?
6 TOV ' Avviftav. dva^ev^avTOS Be exeivov cncvkev-
cra? TOI;? TroXe/uoi/? vercpovs KOI Od^ra^ TOI"?
eBiwrcev avOw KO\ TroXXa? //.ey u<pevTOS
ov^e^jLia TrepiTre&cov eV Se Traai rot? a/cpo-

7T\6LOV )(WV 6 (IV fJid^eT O . SlO Kdl TO)V

Treiyovrcov eBo^e iff /3ov\fi /zaXXoi>
eV St:6Xta? rot' e-repov aTrdyeiv VTrarov /'} Ma^o-
K\\ov 'Avvifta (TwripTrj^evov Kivelv, \6ovra &
/ce\evev elireiv BiKrdropa Koivrov t&ovX
'O yap SiKTdrwp OVK eanv VTTO TOV
ov$e TT}? yQoL>X^9 a/pero?, aXXa TWI^ VTrdrcov ri? 77
crrpaT'rjytoV Trpoe\6u>v eh TOV Srj/Aov ov avTW
\eyet StKrdropa. KOL Bid TOVTO SiKTaTayp 6
KaXelrar TO yap \eyeiv BLcepe 'Pwfjiaiot,
evioi & TOV SiKTaTopa TW fjirj rrpoTi-
Oevai ^lrrj(f)ov rj %et,pOTOvtav, aXX' d<f)' avTOV ra
S6t;avTa TrpocTTdTTeiv KOL \eyeiv o{/ra>? w^o/ua-
aO at' real ydp TO, Biaypd/jL/jLara TWV dp^ovrcov
r/ EXX?7^69 fjiev SiaTay/jiaTa, 'PojyLtatot ce eSircTa
rrpoaayopevova-LV.

XXV. 'Evret Be e\@a)v drrb T% St/ceXta? 6 TOV
Ma/o/eeXXoi; crvvdpywv erepov e'/So^Xero \a(3elv l
, real ftiacrOrfvaL rrapd yvtofj/rjv /u.^ /3oi;Xo-
e'^eVXefcre VVKTOS eh ^tK\iav, OI/TW? o JJLGV
wvo/Jiacre BiKTaTopa KOIVTOV ^ov\^iov y 77
' eypa^re Ma/o/ceXXw Ke\i>ovcra TOVTOV
eliretv, 6 Se TceicrOels dveirre /cal avverreKvpwcre
TOV Btf/jiov Trjv yvw/Arjv, auro? Be Trd\iv dv

1 Aa3eIV Bekker has \yeii>, after Corals.
54



MARCELLUS, xxiv. 5~xxv. i

slain, and challenged Hannibal to fight it out with
him for the victory. And when Hannibal withdrew
his forces, Marcellus stripped the dead bodies of
the enemy, buried those of his own men, and
pursued him again. And though his adversary
laid many ambushes for him, he escaped them all,
and by getting the advantage of him in all the
skirmishes, won admiration for himself. For this
reason, too, when the consular elections drew near,
the senate decided that it was better to recall the
other consul from Sicily than to disturb Marcellus in
his grappling with Hannibal, and when he was come,
it bade him declare Quintus Fulvius dictator.

For a dictator cannot be chosen either by the
people or by the senate, but one of the consuls or
praetors comes before the assembled people and
names as dictator the one whom he himself decides
upon. And for this reason the one so named is
called " dictator," from the Latin " dicere," to name
or declare. Some, however, say that the dictator is
so named because he puts no question to vote or
show of hands, but ordains and declares of his own
authority that which seems good to him ; for the
orders of magistrates, which the Greeks call " dia-
tagmata," the Romans call "edicta."

XXV. But the colleague of Marcellus, who had
come back from Sicily, wished to appoint another
man as dictator, and being unwilling to have his
opinion overborne by force, sailed off by night to
Sicily. Under these circumstances the people named
Quintus Fulvius as dictator, and the senate wrote to
Marcellus bidding him confirm the nomination. He
consented, proclaimed Quintus Fulvius dictator, and
so confirmed the will of the people ; he himself was



505



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



2 et? rovTTiov direBei^dij. avvOe/jievos Be rrrpbs
<&d/3iov Md^ifiov OTTO)? e/ceivos /xev eTri^eipfj Ta- 313
pavruvois, avros Be crvpTrXeKo/jievos Kai 7repie\ica)V
' 'Avviftav e/jLTToBtoV y rov fiorjOeiv TT/JO? etcelvov,



/tat



, reXo? 8' i&pvvOevra

TO4? dKpO/3o\t,<T/jLol$.

Be^d/jLevos VTTO VVKTOS Bte\vOr}' KOI
OiS ev rot? OTrXot? eaypdro rov crrparbv
TrapaTeray/jievov, ware rbv ' 'Avvifiav Trepi-
a\yrj yevofjitvov TOU? Kap%r)BovLOvs dOpolcrai KOI
BeijQfjvai rrjv ^d^rjv e/ceivrjv VTrep TTCLCT&V d^wvi-
cracrOai TMV e/jLTrpocrOev. " 'Opare yap" elirev,
" a>? ouSe dvcnrvevGai fierd VIK.CLS rocravTas ovBe
dyeiv Kparovaiv r^fjuv ea"Tiv, el pr] TOVTOV
a rov avOpwrrov"



rovrov cruyu/^aXo^re? e/JLa^ovro. /cdl Botcel
Trapd TO epyov aKaipw crrparrjyij/jiari ^/jwyuez'o?
o Map/teXXo? <r$)a\rivai. rov yap Be^iov TTO-
vovvros K\V(TV ev r&v rayfjLarwv 4? rov/u.-
TrpoaOev 7rpoe\6elv' rj Be i^eraKivrjaL^ avrr\ rapd-
%acra rou? /za%o/^e^ou? irapeBw/ce rb vifcrj/jia rot?



5 Trecrovrwv. dva^wp/jaa^ Be 6 Ma/?AreXXo? et?
^dpa/ca KOI avvayaywv rbv crrparbv, bpdv
'Pci)/bLaia)v ovrXa TroXXa /cat crco/jbara, 'Pw/Aatov Be
fjwjBeva bpav. alrov^evwv Be avyyv(f)/j,r]v ov/c etyrj
BiBovat, vevt/crjuevois, edv Be viK/jcraicri, Bwaeiv



506



MARCELLUS, xxv. 2-5

appointed proconsul again for the ensuing year. 1 He
then made an agreement with Fabius Maximus that,
while Fabius should make an attempt upon Taren-
tum, he himself, by diverting Hannibal and engaging
with him, should prevent him from coming to the
relief of that place. He came up with Hannibal at
Canusium, and as his adversary often shifted his
camp and declined battle, he threatened him con-
tinually, and at last, by harassing him with his
skirmishers, drew him out of his entrenchments.
But though battle was offered and accepted, night
parted the combatants, and next day Marcellus ap-
peared again with his army drawn up in battle array ;
so that Hannibal, in distress, called his Carthaginians
together and besought them to make their fighting
that day surpass all their previous struggles. " For
you see," he said, "that we cannot even take breath
after all our victories, nor have respite though we
are in the mastery, unless we drive this man
away."

After this they joined battle and fought. And it
would seem that Marcellus made an unseasonable
movement during the action, and so met with
disaster. For when his right wing was hard pressed,
he ordered one of his legions to move up to the
front. This change of position threw his army into
confusion and gave the victory to the enemy, who
slew twentv-seven hundred of the Romans. Mar-

*/

cellus then withdrew to his camp, called his army
together, and told them that he saw before him
many Roman arms and Roman bodies, but not a
single Roman. And when they asked for his pardon,
he refused to give it while they were vanquished,
but promised to do so if they should win a victory,

1 209 TVC.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



aupLOV Be /jt,a%Lcrdai 7rd\iv, OTTW^ oi TroXtrcu TTJV
6 viK.r]v irpoTepov r) rrjv (frvyrjv aKOvcrayat. Bia\6%-
i? Be TavTa, Trpocfera^e rat? r}rrr] /sevens cnreL-
avrl rrvpwv Kpi0d<? /Aerp^crat. Si a



CLTTO r9 za?9 eTri/eivBvvws KCU



ovBeva (fraaiv bv ol Mapfte\\ov \OJOL TWV rpav-
/JLCITCOV ou^l fjia\\ov ij\jvi>av.

XXVI. f/ Ayita Be rj/^epa Trpovfceno pev o (froivi-
tcovs XITWV, ft)? elwOe, /^a^Ty? eVo/iezn;? (rv/A/3o\ov,
at Be r)Tifia(T^ivaL ajrelpai, Tr]v Trpcor^p avral

Be a



ol



6



" ri xpijcreTai, rt? dr6 pwirw /J,IJT Trjv j(ipova
TV^V fjLrjre TTJV fteXriova (pepeiv elBori ; /JLOVOS
yap OUTO? ovre VLKWV BiBwaiv avdiravaiv ovre
\a/.i/3dvei viKoofjievo^, a\X' del yita^croyue^a Trpo?

2 TOVTOV, a)? eoi/cev, a> rov roX/ndv del KOI TO
Oappelv evTv^ovvri, real ox^aXXo/zei'ft) TO ai&elcrOai
Trpofyaais eVrty." etc TOVTOV avvrjecrav al Bvvd-
fj,ei<>' Kal TWV dvBpwv i&a (f)6po/jLi>Q)V eK\everv

9 ra Orjpia KdTacrTrjO'ai'Tas et?
errdyeiv rot? oVXoi? TMV *P(Ofj.al(ov.
v Be jjLeyd\ov Kal rapa^/;? evOvs ev rot9 TT/XW-
rot? yevo/JLevri^y el? TCOV yjKidpywv ovopa ^XayS^o?
dvapirdcras arnLaiav VTr^vria^e Kal TO> crTvpaici

3 TQV rrpwrov e\e<j)ai'Ta TVTTTWV dTceaTpefyev. o Be
e/jL/3a\cov et? TOV orricra) o~vveTapaj;6 Kal TOVTOV

KOI T0t? TTi(f)epO/J,eVOV<$. KaTlBu>V B TOVTO

/ceXXo? etceKevcre rot"? /TTTret? e\avveiv dvd

508



MARCELLUS, xxv. 5-xxvi. 3

assuring them that on the morrow they should fight
again, in order that their countrymen might hear of
their victory sooner than of their flight. At the
close of his speech, moreover, he gave orders that
rations of barley instead of wheat should be given to
the cohorts that had been worsted. Therefore,
though many were in a wretched and dangerous
plight after the battle, there was not a man of
them, they say, to whom the words of Marcellus did
not give more pain than his wounds. 1

XXVI. At daybreak the scarlet tunic, the usual
signal of impending battle, was displayed, the co-
horts under disgrace begged and obtained for them-
selves the foremost position in the line, and the
tribunes led forth the rest of the army and put them
in array. On hearing of this Hannibal said : " O
Hercules ! what can be done with a man who knows
not how to bear either his worse or his better
fortune ? For he is the only man who neither gives
a respite when he is victorious, nor takes it when he
is vanquished, but we shall always be fighting with
him, as it seems, since both his courage in success
and his shame in defeat are made reasons for bold
undertaking". Then the forces engaged ; and since
the men fought with equal success, Hannibal ordered
his elephants to be stationed in the van, and to be
driven against the ranks of the Romans. A great
press and much confusion at once arose among their
foremost lines, but one of the tribunes, Flavius by
name, snatched up a standard, confronted the
elephants, smote the leader with the iron spike of
the standard, and made him wheel about. The
beast dashed into the one behind him and threw
the whole onset into confusion. Observing this,
Marcellus ordered his cavalry to charge at full speed

1 Cf. Liw, xxvii. 12 and 13

509



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

7T/90? TO @OpV/3oV[AVOV KCU TTOICIV Tl fJLOL\\OV

avrols rrepirrerels TOU? TroXefiiou?. ovroi re Brj
Xa/ATrpw? /jL/3a\6vr$ dvetcorrrov a%pi rov arpa-
roTreBov TGI"? K.ap')(rj&oi'Lovs, KOI rwv 6r)piwv ra

KrLVO/jiVa KOI TH/TTTOl'Ta TOV 7r\t(TTOV CIVTWV

<>6i'ov aTreipyd^TO. \eyovrai yap virep o/cra-
KKT^iXiovs a7ro6ave.lv' 'Payaaitov Be veicpol uev
eyevovro r/OKT^tXtot, TpavfAariai Be o\Lyov Belv
a7ra/'T9. fcal TOVTO Trapea'^ev 'Avvifta Ka0 y
r)crv)(iav dvacrravTi VVKTOS dpai TroppcoraTa) rov
Ma/)A;eAAoi>. BIWKCIV yap OVK r]V Bvvaros VTTO
erpwuevwv, d\\a Kara a")^o\r)V e/'?
dve^ev^e, /cat TO 6epo<$ ev Zivoecrarj
Bifjyev dvciXanftdvwv TOU? crrpariairas.

XXV T II. 'O Be 'A^^t/3a? &><? drceppr)%ev eavrov
rov Ma/j/ceXXoy, ^pu>^evo<^ w&rrep \\u/jLei>a) ru>
(Trparev/jLart, rracrav dBews ev KVK\U> rrepiiwv
e(f)\y rrjv '\ra\iav real KaKws rjKov&ev ev 'Pwuy
MayO/teXXo?. ol Be e\6pol HovftXirciov IftifiXov,
eva rcov rip,dp')((t)v, dveanjcrav ercl rrfv tcar^-
yopiav avrov, Beivov eirrelv avBpa /cal ftiaiov

2 69 7roA,Xa/a<? <rvvayayct)v rov B?)/jiov erreiOev aXX<w
TrapaBovvai a-rparTjyw rrjv Bvva/jiiv, " ercel Map-

(f>rj, ft iiiKpa rw 7roXe/xw Trpoayeyv/jt,-
axrrrep K 7ra\aio~rpas eVi Oepfxa Xovrpa
eavrov rerparrrai" ravra rcvvOa-
6 Ma^/ceXXo? erri fJLev rov crrparorreoov
TOU? rrpea'^evra^ drce\nrev, auro? Be rrpos ras
BiaftoXas dTToXoyrjaopevos et? 'Pto/jujv erravrj\0ev.

3 etc Be rwv Biafto\wv etceivajv Bi/cr)v evpe rrapeaKev-
aa-fjievriv e^>* avrov. rj/jiepas ovv opiaOeicrris /cal
rov BIJ/JLOV o~vve\06vros ei? TOI^ ^Xa^ivtov ITTTTO-



MARCKLLUS, xxvi. 3-xxvn. 3

upon the disordered mass and throw the enemy still
more into confusion. The horsemen made a brilliant
charge and cut the Carthaginians down as far as to
their camp, and the greatest slaughter among them
was caused by their killed and wounded elephants. 1
For more than eight thousand are said to have been
slain ; and on the Roman side three thousand were
killed, and almost all were wounded. This gave
Hannibal opportunity to break camp quietly in the
night and move to a great distance from Marcellus.

i

For Marcellus was unable to pursue him, owing to
the multitude of his wounded, but withdrew by easy
marches into Campania, and spent the summer at
Sinuessa recuperating his soldiers.

XXVII. But Hannibal, now that he had torn him-
self away from Marcellus, made free use of his army,
and going fearlessly round about, wasted all Italy
with fire. Meantime, at Rome, Marcellus was in ill
repute, and his enemies incited Publicius Bibulus,
one of the tribunes of the people, a powerful speaker
and a man of violence, to bring a denunciation
against him. This man held frequent assemblies of
the people and tried to persuade them to put the
forces of Marcellus in charge of another general,
"since Marcellus," as he said, "after giving himself
a little exercise in the war, has withdrawn from it as
from a palaestra, and betaken himself to warm baths
for refreshment." On learning of this, Marcellus left
his legates in charge of his army, while he himself
went up to Rome to make answer to the accusations
against him. There he found an impeachment
prepared against him which was drawn from these
accusations. Accordingly, on a day set for the trial,
when the people had come together in the Flaminian

1 Five were killed, according to Livy, xxvii. 14.

5"



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

, 6 fiev Bi/3\o? dvaftds Karyyoprjcrev, 6 Se
aTreXoyelTO, /Spa^ea /JLV teal dir\a Si
eavTou, TroXXrjv e Kal \a/j.7rpdv 01 SoKi/jLWTaToi
Kal t 7rpo)TOL TWV TTO\ITWV Trapprjcriav rjyov, irapa-
fir] %e'pova<$ ruv TroXe/ztof KpiTas
Seihiav Maprce\\ou



bv fjLOi'OV (evei TMV iyefjiovwv eet^o? K a



TOVTM fJLri fji^eaaL crrpaTrjywv, 009 rot?
4 fjia^ecrdai. ptjOevroov 8e TWV \6ywv TOVTWV rocr-
ovrov r) TT}? 8i/cr)s e'XTrl? \lfeuaaro rbv /carrf-
yopov wa"T6 /mi] /JLOVOV d<f>60fjvai TMV aiTtwv TOV
z', d\\a KOI TO Tre/ATrrov VTTCLTOV CITTO-



XXVIII. T]apa\a/3a)v &e TTJV
fj.ev ev TvpprjvLa /j,eya KivrjfJia TT^O?
eVaucre /cat KaT7rpdvi>ev 7re\0cov ra?
ejreira vaov e/c TMV 2<iK6\iKu>v \a(f)vpcov w
H,kv<>v LTT' avrov AO^T;? teal 'Aperfjs
/3ov\6fjivos, KOL Ku>\v9e\<s viro TMV lepewv OVK
d^iovvrwv evl vaw Bvo Oeovs Trepie^ecrBai, Trd\iv
Ijpgaro 'jrpocroiKo^ofjielv erepov, ov pa&iws (frepwv
r^v yeyevrj^evr^v avrifcpovaiv, dXX? &<j7rep olco-

2 vi^6/jLi>os. fcdl yap a\\a 7ro\\d arj^ela Bierd-
pa-rrev avrov, iep&v nvcov Kepavvaxreis KCU /j,ve<f
TOV ev Aio? xpvcrov Bia(f)ay6vT^' e\e^dtj Be Ka\
ftovv dvdpcoTTOu <xovT]v dfaivai Kal Trai&iov e^ov
Ke(j)a\r]i> eXe^az/ro? yeve&flai' KCU Trepi ra? erc-
Ovaeis Kal aTrorpoTra? SvcrtepovvTes ol /j,dvTi<;
KaTel^ov avTov ev 'PM/JLTJ (nrapywvTa Kal </>Xeyo-
fievov. ov&els yap epwTa TOCTOVTOV r}[email protected]) irpdy-
yLtaro? ovo'ei'bs ocrov ouro? o dvrjp TOV

3 Kpiflfjvdi TT/)O? 'Kvviftav. TOVTO Kal



MARCELLUS, xxvii. 3-xxvin. 3

circus, Bibulus rose up and denounced him. Then
Marcellus spoke briefly and simply in his own de-
fence, and the leading and most reputable citizens,
with great boldness of speech and in glowing terms,
exhorted the people not to show themselves worse
judges than the enemy by convicting Marcellus of
cowardice, whom alone of their leaders Hannibal
avoided, and continually contrived not to fight with
him, that he might fight with the rest. When these
speeches were ended, the accuser was so far dis-
appointed in his hope of obtaining the verdict that
Marcellus was not only acquitted of the charges
against him, but actually appointed consul for the
fifth time. 1

XXVIII. After assuming his office, he first quelled
a great agitation for revolt in Etruria, and visited
and pacified the cities there ; next, he desired to
dedicate to Honour and Virtue a temple that he had
built out of his Sicilian spoils, but was prevented by
the priests, who would not consent that two deities
should occupy one temple ; he therefore began to
build another temple adjoining the first, although
he resented the priests' opposition and regarded it
as ominous. And indeed many other portents dis-
turbed him : sundry temples were struck by light-
ning, and in that of Jupiter, mice had gnawed the
gold ; it was reported also that an ox had uttered
human speech, and that a boy had been born with
an elephant's head ; moreover, in their expiatory
rites and sacrifices, the seers received bad omens,
and therefore detained him at Rome, though he was
all on fire and impatient to be gone. 2 For no man
ever had such a passion for any thing as he had for
fighting a decisive battle with Hannibal. This was

1 For 208 B.C. Cf. Livy, xxvii. 20.

2 Cf. Livy, xxvii. 11 ; 25.

5<3



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

oveipov r]v avrw Kal Lierd <bi\wv Kal
ev $ov\ev/j,a Kal /jla TT/OO? Oeovs (fx^vtj, iraparar-
roaevov 'AvvlfBav \af3elv. ijBia-ra B' av LLOL BoKel
rer^ou? e^o? ij nvos %dpaKO<$ d[Ji$>orepoL<; rot?
a-rparevfjiacri TrepireOevros Biaywvicracrdai, Kal el

^ "\^^ \)/C^ \<^ C^'<* \

fJLT} 7TOA,A,r^9 fJLeV 1]OT) yLt<TT09 l/TT/^/OVe OOrrjS, 7TO\\r>V

Be irelpav 7rap<r%)JKi rov Trap ovrivovv rwv
arparrfywv e/ji/3pt0r]<; yeyovevai, Kal (frpovifjios,
eiTrov dv on {leipaKtwSes avrw TrpocrTreTrrwKei,
Kal <pi\ori/j,6rpov TrdOos r) Kara Trpea-ftvrrjv
roaovrov. vTrep yap egrJKOvra yeyovdx; errj TO
TrejjLTrrov VTrarevev.

XXIX. (Jv ^iijv aXXa Ovaiwv KOI KaOapfJiwv
wv vtrriyopevov ol udvret? yevofjievwv e^ij\0e fj.era
rvvdoxpvros e-n-l rov iroXe/jiov, Kal TroXXa,

* ^ ~r\ t / v

v rJazma? TroXea)? Kai oevvaia^ KaO^/jievov
rov 'Avviftav. 6 Be et? ^d^rjv aev ov
Karefiaivev, alcrQofjLevos Be TrefiTroaevrjv VTT' avr&v
<rr par Lav 7rl AoKpovs TOJ)? ^^Tri^efyvpiovs, Kara
rov Trepl Herr)\iav \6(f)ov L(/>et? eveopas Trevra-
2 Kocrlovs Kal ^o-^tXtou? direKreive. rovro Map- 315
K\\OV el-<f>pe rw QV^M TT^OO? rrjv /^d^v, Kal
Trpoafjyev dpa<$ lyyvrepw r>]v Bvva/jLiv.

Hz/ Be nerat; v r&v arparoTreSwv Xocio? eTriet-

" ^ > / rt rv \

^e Kal o-KOTrds 7repiK\ivcLS eV d/n(f)6repa,
u va/j,arwv vjrefyaivovro Trrjyal Karappeovrwv.
e0avpa&v ovv oi 'Pwpaioi 'Avvifiav on TT/OWTO?

ov Karecryei', r/XX' dire-



MARCELLUS, xxvm. 3 -xxix. 2

his dream at night, his one subject for deliberation
with friends and colleagues, his one appeal to the
gods, namely, that he might find Hannibal drawn up
to meet him. And I think he would have been
most pleased to have the struggle decided with both
armies enclosed by a single wall or rampart ; and if
he had not been full already of abundant honour,
and if he had not given abundant proof that he
could be compared with any general whomsoever in
solidity of judgement, I should have said that he
had fallen a victim to a youthful ambition that ill
became such a great age as his. For he had passed
his sixtieth year when he entered upon his fifth
consulship. 1

XXIX. However, after the ceremonies of sacrifice
and purification which the seers prescribed had been
performed, he set out with his colleague for the war,
and gave much annoyance to Hannibal in his en-
campment between Bantia and Venusia. Hannibal
would not give battle, but having been made aware
that the Romans had sent some troops against Locri
Epizephyrii, he set an ambush for them at the hill
of Petelia, and slew twenty-five hundred of them.
This filled Marcellus with mad desire for the battle,
and breaking camp, he brought his forces nearer to
the enemy.

Between the camps was a hill which could be
made tolerably secure, and was full of all sorts of
woody growth ; it had also lookout-places that sloped
in either direction, and streams of water showed
themselves running down its sides. The Romans
therefore wondered that Hannibal, who had come
first to a place of natural advantages, had not oc-
cupied it, but left it in this way for his enemies.

1 In 208 B.C.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

3 \i7re Tot9 TToXe/uo*?. TO) Be dpa K.a\ov fjiev ev-
<TTpaT07reSev(rai TO ^wpiov e^aivero, TTO\V Be

KpeiTTOV VeBpV(Tai,' KOI 7T/9O9 TOVTO fJ,d\\OV

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teal T9 KOt,\dBas CLKOI'TICTTWV re TroXXwz^ tcai
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MARCELLUS, xxix. 3-6

Now, to Hannibal the place did seem good for an
encampment, but far better for an ambuscade, and
to this use he preferred to put it. He therefore
filled its woods and hollows with a large force of
javelineers and spearmen, convinced that the place
of itself would attract the Romans by reason of its
natural advantages. Nor w r as he deceived in his
expectations ; for straightway there was much talk
in the Roman camp about the necessity of occupying
the place, and they enumerated all the strategic ad-
vantages which they would gain over their enemies,
particularly by encamping there, but if not that, by
fortifying the hill. Marcellus accordingly decided
to ride up to it with a few horsemen and inspect it.
So he summoned his diviner and offered sacrifice,
and when the first victim had been slain, the diviner
showed him that the liver had no head. But on his
sacrificing for the second time, the head of the liver
was of extraordinary size and the other tokens ap-
peared to be w r onderfully propitious, and the fear
which the first had inspired seemed to be dissipated.
But the diviners declared that thev were all the

j

more afraid of these and troubled bv them ; for

/

when very propitious omens succeeded those which
were most inauspicious and threatening, the strange-
ness of the change was ground for suspicion. But
since, as Pindar says, 1

"Allotted fate not fire, not wall of iron, will
check,"

Marcellus set out, taking with him his colleague
Crispinus, his son, who was a military tribune, and
two hundred and twenty horsemen all told. Of
these, not one was a Roman, but they were all
Etruscans, except forty men of Fregellae, who had
1 Fragment 232 (Bergk).



PLUTARCH'S LIVES






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MARCELLUS. xxix. 6-xxx. i

given Marcellus constant proof of their valour and
fidelity. Now, the crest of the hill was covered with
woods, and on its summit a man had been stationed
by the enemy to keep a lookout ; he could not be
seen himself, but kept the Roman camp in full view.
This man, then, told those who lav in ambush what

' ' J

was going on, and they, after permitting Marcellus
to ride close up to them, rose up on a sudden, and
encompassing him on all sides, hurled their javelins,
smote with their spears, pursued the fugitives, and
grappled with those who made resistance. These
were the forty men of Fregellae, who, though the



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