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Etruscans at the very outset took to flight, banded
themselves together and fought in defence of the
consuls, until Crispinus, smitten with two javelins,
turned his horse and fled, and Marcellus was run
through the side with a broad spear (the Latin name
for which is " lancea "). Then the surviving men
of Fregellae, few all told, left him where he lav
dead, snatched up his son who was wounded, and
fled to their camp. Hardly more than forty were
slain, but five lictors were taken prisoners, and
eighteen horsemen. 1 Crispinus also died of his
wounds not many days after. Such a disaster as
this had never happened to the Romans before :
both their consuls were killed in a single action.

XXX. Hannibal made very little account of the
rest, but when he learned that Marcellus had fallen,
he ran out to the place himself, and after standing
by the dead body and surveying for a long time its
strength and mien, he uttered no boastful speech,
1 Cf. Livy, xxvii. 26 and 27.



vTrepifyavoi', ovre air o-v/rew? TO
009 av T? epycoStj rro\efJLLOv teal fiapvv d

2 e^effrrjvev, aXX' eV^auyuacra? TO rrapd\oyov T?}?

Toy yu-e^ SaKTv\iov d(j)ei\ero, TO Se crwfjia 316

rrperrovri, Kocr^w /cal irepia'TeiXas evrl-
e/cavcre' /cal ra \ei\lfava (jvvOels et? rcdXiriv
dpyvpdv, /cal ^pvcrovv e/jL/3a\a)v crrtyavov, cnre-
crTeiXe 7T/90? rov viov. rwv Be NoyUa^a)^ rives Trept-
TV^ovres TO?? KO^I^OVCTW wpfwicrav afyaipeiaQai
TO TeO^o?, dvTi\a/jL/3avo/jieva)v 5' eKelvwv cicftia^o-

3 fjievoi /cal fJLa-^ofjievoi Bieppi^rav ra ocrrd. irv9o-
yu-e^o? Se 'Ai/i///3a?, at TT^IO? TOU? irapovra^ elirtov,
" Qv$ev dpa Svvarov yeveaOai CLKOVTOS Oeov,"
Tot? fjiev No/j.d(Tiv 7re07]Ke SiKrjv, ovKeri Se

i} cru\\oj^ rwv \ei-tydv(i)v ecppowria-ev, co? &rj /card

Oeov Tiva /cal TT)? TeXevrrjs xal TT}? a,Ta0/a? Trapa-
4 Xo7ft>? oi^TO) TO) MayO/eeXXro <yvo/j,vrj<>. ravra p,ev
ovv ol irepl Kopv/jXiov NeTrcoTa /tat QvaXepiov
Md^i/jiov LdTOprjKaai' At/3fo? 8e /cal Kaio-ap 6
^6/3a<rTO? K0fjiicr0f)j>ai TIJV vbpiav TTyoo? TO^ f/ov
elprjka&t, /cal ra(f)f)vai Xa/iTrpw?.

y Se dvaO^fjia Map/ce\\ov Bi^a TWV ev 'PcofA
ev K.ardvrj

/au TTLvaKes TMV e/c ^vpaKovcrwv ev re

aicr) irapd TO?? Oeols, ovs Ka/3eipovs tovo
5 /cal rrepl ALV&OV ev T<W tepw rrj<f 'A^?;^a?. e/cei Be
avrov TO) dvbpidvTi TOL/T' 771^ eTrvyeypa^/Aevov, a>5

"i, TO

Qvros 101 'PooyLtr;? o /A^a?, ^ei/e, TraT/otSo? dcrrrjp,
Ma/)/ceXXo? K\eiv&v K.\avSios etc rrarepwv,

1 Of which he afterwards made fraudulent use ( Livy,
xxvii. 28).


MARCELLUS, xxx. 1-5

nor did he manifest his joy at the sight, as one
might have done who had slain a bitter and trouble-
some foe ; but after wondering at the unexpected-
ness of his end, he took off his signet-ring, indeed, 1
but ordered the body to be honourably robed, suit-
ably adorned, and burned. Then he collected the

< *

remains in a silver urn, placed a golden wreath upon
it, and sent it back to his son. But some of the
Numidians fell in with those who were carrying the
urn and attempted to take it away from them, and
when they resisted, fought with them, and in the
fierce struggle scattered the bones far and wide.
When Hannibal learned of this, he said to the by-
standers : "You see that nothing can be done against
the will of God." Then he punished the Numidians,
but took no further care to collect and send back
the remains, feeling that it was at some divine
behest that Marcellus had died and been deprived
of burial in this strange manner. Such, then, is
the account given by Cornelius Nepos and Valerius
Maximus ; but Livy 2 and Augustus Caesar state
that the urn was brought to his son and buried with
splendid rites.

Besides the dedications which Marcellus made in
Rome, there was a gymnasium at Catana in Sicily,
and statues and paintings from the treasures of Syra-
cuse both at Samothrace, in the temple of the gods
called Cabeiri, and at Lindus in the temple of Athena.
There, too, there was a statue of him, according to
Poseidonius, bearing this inscription :

" This, O stranger, was the great star of his country,
Rome, Claudius Marcellus of illustrious line,

a According to Livy, xxvii. 28, Hannibal buried Marcellus
on the hill where he was killed. Livy found many discordant
accounts of the death of Marcellus (xxvii. 27 fin.}.


VOL. V 9


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Ma/o/ceXXou yeyoi'tos, dyopavo/jiwv >e 'Pw^aUov
T6\VTr)cre vvfjifyios, Katcra/309 Ovyarpl ^povov ov
TTO\VV avvoi Ki'-aas. et? Se TLV avrov Kal

Katcra/o ^ dearpov


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who seven times held tlie consular power in
time of war, and poured much slaughter on
his foes."

For the author of the inscription has added his two
proconsulates to his five consulates. And his line
maintained its splendour down to Marcellus the
nephew of Augustus Caesar, who was a son of
Caesar's sister Octavia by Caius Marcellus, and who
died during his aedileship at Rome, having recently
married a daughter of Caesar. In his honour and to
his memory Octavia his mother dedicated the library,
and Caesar the theatre, which bear his name.


I. THIS is what I have thought worthy of record
in what historians say about Marcellus and Pelopidas.
In their natures and dispositions they were almost
exactly alike, since both were valiant, laborious, pas-
sionate, and magnanimous ; and there would seem
to have been this difference only between them, that
Marcellus committed slaughter in many cities which
he reduced, while Epaminondas and Pelopidas never
put any one to death after their victories, nor did
they sell cities into slavery. And we are told that,
had they been present, the Thebans would not have
treated the Orchomenians as thev did.


As for their achievements, those of Marcellus
against the Gauls were great and astonishing, since




TCH? Trepl avrov 'nnrevcfiv, o paBioi? vfi erepou
arparriyov ytynvos ov% iaroprjrat, real rov dp-

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fcaT(L>p0CL>/jLevrjv irpa^iv OVK e^ofjiev rov MaprceXXov

ol? IleXoTrtSa? Trepl rrjv CK (pvyrj?
KOI dvaipecriv rwv ei> @7^/9ai? Tvpdvvwv
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Tveiv TWV VTTO aKOTW Kal Bi aTraTT;? y&yGvr)fJVcov

4 TO epyov* 'A^w/5a? <^o/6epo? p,ev Kal Seivos eve-
KCLTO 'Pw/xatof?, 1 wcTTrep dfjie\ei

Tore rij3aiots, ev&ovvai Be TOUTOV? /jiev
Kal irepl Teyvpas Kal Trepl AevKrpa fteftaiov eanv, 317
'A^za/Sai^ Be MdpKe\\os, cos" UGV ol Trepl Tlo\v{3iov
\eyovcriv, ovBe arra^ eviKr/crev, aXV diJTTrjros 6

5 avrjp BoKel Biayeveadai yue^pt S/c^Trtco^o? 1
Be Af/3t&), Kalaapt Kal NeTrwrt Kal Ta)i> 'E
KMV rw ftacn\i 'Io/9a TuaTevo/jiev, ^rra?

Kal T/307ra? VTTO IMrt^/ceXXof ro)i> crvv *A.vvl(Sq yeve-
o-0ar fjieyd\r)v Be av-rai po'irrjv ovBe/Aiav eTroi^aav,
a\\' eoiKe ^evBoTTTay/^d n yevevOai Trepl TOV

6 \iftvv eV rat? crfyHTrXo/cat? eKeivats. o B>) Kara
\oyov Kal rrpo(rr)Kovr(o<s eOav^daO^, p.era roaav-
ra? r/oovra? crrparoTreBwv Kal (f)6vovs (rrparr)ya)v
Kal crvy^ycnv 0X^9 O/JLOV rfjs '

o 'Pui/j-aiots Coraes and Bekker, after an early
anonymous critic :



lie routed such a multitude of horse and foot
with the few horsemen in his following (an action
not easily found recorded of any other general),
and slew the enemies' chieftain ; whereas in this
regard Pelopidas failed, for he set out to do the
same thing, but suffered what he meant to inflict,
and was slain first by the tyrant. However, with
these exploits of Marcellus one may compare the
battles of Leuctra and Tegyra, greatest and most
illustrious of actions; and we have no exploit of
Marcellus accomplished by stealth and ambuscade
which we can compare with what Pelopidas did in
coming back from exile and slaying the tyrants in
Thebes, nay, that seems to rank far higher than
any other achievement of secrecy and cunning.
Hannibal was, it is true, a most formidable enemy
for the Romans, but so, assuredly, were the Lacedae-
monians in the time of Pelopidas for the Thebans,
and that they were defeated by Pelopidas at Tegyra
and Leuctra is an established fact ; whereas Han-
nibal, according to Polybius, 1 was not even once de-
feated by Marcellus, but continued to be invincible
until Scipio came. However, I believe, with Livy,
Caesar, and Nepos, and, among Greek writers, with
King Juba, that sundry defeats and routs were in-
flicted by Marcellus upon the troops of Hannibal,
although these had no great influence upon the war ;
indeed, the Carthaginian would seem to have prac-
tised some ruse in these engagements. But that
which reasonably and fittingly called for admiration
was the fact that the Romans, after the rout of so
many armies, the slaughter of so many generals, and
the utter confusion of the whole empire, stUl had

1 Cf xv. 11, 7, where Hannibal makes this claim, in a
speech to his men just befuiu the battle of Zama (202 B. <.'.).



et? dvTLTraXa T&> Oappelv /caQiaTa/mei'dyv 6 yap etc
TroXXot) TOV Trd\at, TrepiBeovs KOI Kara7re7r\rjy6ro^
avOis jj,/3a\a)v TW crrparevfjiari, rj\.ov /cal tj>i\o-

7 VeiKidV 7T/909 TOU? TTOXe/UOU?, KOI TOVTO Brj TO fJLT)

pq&iws T?}? viKris u<f)iefJLVOV, a\\a /cat afjifyiffftr}-
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dyaTrav, e&iBa^ev aia%vve<T0ai a
rJTT?;?, alBelcrBai 8e Trapa fjiiKpov evbovras, d\yelv
Be /jLT) /cparijcravTas.

II. 'ETrel roLvvv IleXoTTt^a? fiev ovBe/jiiav rj

wv, Map/teXXo? 8e TrXetVra?
CLVTOV 'Pw/zata)^ evi/ctja-e, So^eiev av icrw? rw

7T/90? TO ar]TTr)TOV V7TO 7T\rj00V$ TCOV

eTraviaovcrBai. KOI ^v OUTO? [lev
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7T/DWT09 TjyejjLCbV TOV TO\/J,dv KaTeCfTt].

III. Trjv TOIVVV TeXevTTjv 7raiv& [lev ovoeTepov


the courage to face their foes. For there was one
man who tilled his army again with ardour and am-
bition to contend with the enemy, instead of the
great fear and consternation which had long op-
pressed them, inspiring and encouraging them not
only to yield the victory reluctantly, but also to
dispute it with all eagerness, and this man was
Marcellus. For when their calamities had accus-
tomed them to be satisfied whenever they escaped
Hannibal by flight, he taught them to be ashamed

/ O C 1

to survive defeat, to be chagrined if they came
within a little of yielding, and to be distressed if
they did not win the day.

II. Since, then, Pelopidas was never defeated in
a battle where he was in command, and Marcellus
won more victories than any Roman of his day, it
would seem, perhaps, that the multitude of his suc-
cesses made the difficulty of conquering the one
equal to the invincibility of the other. Marcellus,
it is true, took Syracuse, while Pelopidas failed to
take Sparta. But I think that to have reached Sparta,
and to have been the first of men to cross the Eu-
rotas in war, was a greater achievement than the
conquest of Sicily ; unless, indeed, it should be said
that this exploit belongs rather to Epaminondas than
to Pelopidas, as well as the victory at Leuctra, while
Marcellus shared with no one the glory of his achieve-
ments. For he took Syracuse all alone, and routed
the Gauls without his colleague, and when no one
would undertake the struggle against Hannibal, but
all declined it, he took the field against him, changed
the aspect of the war, and was the first leader to
show daring.

HI. I cannot, indeed, applaud the death of either



dv&pwv, dX)C dviMfiai Kal dyavaKTW T<5
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ev /Aa%at9 Tocravrais ocra9 djrofcd/jioi TIS av tcar-
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l TOV ev TTJ TLaiSeia ^pvadvTav, 09

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rj (rdXmy^ dvaK\r)TiKov, d<j)el$ TOV ci

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i Kal No/Jidcnv V7rof3d\(i)v.
avTovs e/ceLvovs eavTois TOV KaTopOco-

Et Se Oavtiv de/mts, w8e dave'tv

fts aperriv KaraXvcrajiifvovs ftiov

(Nauck, Trag. Graec. Fraij*^. 679). Cf. Plutarch, Morals,
p. 24 d.



of them, nay, I am distressed and indignant at their
unreasonableness in the final disaster. And I admire
Hannibal because, in battles so numerous that one
would weary of counting them, he was not even
wounded. I am delighted, too, with Chrysantes, in
the " Cyropaedeia," l who, though his blade was lifted
on high and he was about to smite an enemy, when
the trumpet sounded a retreat, let his man go, and
retired with all gentleness and decorum. Pelopidas,
however, was somewhat excusable, because, excited
as he always was by an opportunity for battle, he
was now carried away by a generous anger to seek
revenge. For the best thing is that a general should
be victorious and keep his life, " but if he must die,"
he should "conclude his life with valour," as Euri-
pides says ; for then he does not suffer death, but
rather achieves it. And besides his anger, Pelopidas
saw that the consummation of his victory would be
the death of the tyrant, and this not altogether
unreasonably invited his effort ; for it would have
been hard to find another deed of prowess with so
fair and glorious a promise. But Marcellus, when
no great need was pressing, and when he felt none
of that ardour which in times of peril unseats the
judgment, plunged heedlessly into danger, and died
the death, not of a general, but of a mere skirmisher
or scout, having cast his five consulates, his three
triumphs, and the spoils and trophies which he had
taken from kings, under the feet of Iberians and
Numidians who had sold their lives to the Cartha-
ginians. And so it came to pass that these very
men were loath to accept their own success, when

1 Xenophon, Cyrop. iv. 1, 3.

5 2 9


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a Roman who excelled all others in valour, and
had the greatest influence and the most splendid
tame, was uselessly sacrificed among the scouts of

This, however, must not be thought a denunciation
of the men, but rather an indignant and outspoken
protest in their own behalf against themselves and
their valour, to which they uselessly sacrificed their
other virtues, in that they were unsparing of then
lives ; as if their death affected themselves alone,
and not rather their countries, friends, and allies.

After his death, Pelopidas received burial from his
allies, in whose behalf he fell ; Marcellus from his
enemies, by whose hands he fell. An enviable and
happy lot was the former, it is true ; but better and
greater than the goodwill which makes grateful re-
turn for favours done, is the hatred which admires
a valour that was harassing. For in this case it is
worth alone which receives honour ; whereas in the
other, personal interests and needs are more regarded
than excellence.



Achillas, 317-325, one of the guar-
dians of Ptolemy XII. (Dionysus),
and commander of his troops
when Caesar came to Egypt.
According to Bell. Alex, iv., he
was put to death by his sister

Achradina, 485, the first extension
on the mainland of the island city
of Syracuse, stretching from the
Great Harbour northwards to
the sea.

Actium, 175, a promontory of Acar-
nania in northern Greece, at the
entrance to the Ambraciot gulf.

Aesop, 429, a Greek writer of fables,
who flourished in the first half of
the sixth century B.C. Fables
bearing his name were popular at
Athens in the time of Aristo-

Afranius, 205, 211, 217, 229, 287,
291, Lucius A., a warm partisan
of Pompey, and one of his legates
in Spain during the war with
Sertorius, as well as in Asia
during the Mithridatic war. He
was consul in 60 B.C. In 55 B.C.
he was sent by Pompey with
Petreius to hold Spain for him.
He was killed after the battle
of Thapsus (46 B.C.).

Amanus, 217, a range of mountains
branching off from the Taurus in
Cilicia, and extending eastwards
to Syria and the Euphrates.

Amisus, 213, 223, a city of Pontus,
in Asia Minor, on the southern
shore of the Euxine Sea.

A.mphipolis, 309, an important town


in S.E. Macedonia, on the river
Strymon, about three miles from
the sea.

Androcydes of Cyzicus, 401, a cele-
brated painter, who flourished
from 400 to 377 B.C. See
Plutarch. Morals, p. 668 c.
Andros, 345, the most northerly
island of the Cyclades group,
S. E. of Euboea.

Antalcidas, 63, 73, 87, 417, an able
Spartan politician, and com-
mander of the Spartan fleet in
388 B.C. The famous peace
between Persia and the Greeks,
concluded in 387 B.C., was called
after him.

Antigonus, 341, 343, the general of
Alexander who was afterwards
king of Asia, surnamed the One-

Antioch, 219, the capital of the
Greek kings of Syria, on the river
Orontes, founded by Seleucus in
300 B.C.

Antipater, 41, regent of Macedonia
and Greece during Alexander's
absence in the East, and also
a.'ter Alexander's death, until
319 B.C.
Apollophanes of Cyzicus, 33, known

only in this connection.
Appius, 467, 471, Appius Claudius
Pulcher, military tribune at
Cannae (216 B.C.), praetor in
Sicily 215 B.C., and legate of Mar-
cellus there in 214. He was
consul in 212, and died in the
following year.

Arbela, 211, a town in Babylonia,
near which Alexander inflicted
final defeat upon Dareius.



Archimedes, 471-477, the most
famous of ancient mathemati-
cians, lived 287-212 B.C.

Archytas, 471, a Greek of Taren-
tum, philosopher, mathemati-
cian, general and statesman,
flourished about 400 B.C.

Ariminum, 273, 443, a city of Um-
bria, on the Adriatic, command-
ing the eastern coast of Italy and
an entrance into Cisalpine Gaul.

Arsaces, 315, Arsaces XIV. (or
Orontes I.), king of Parthia
55-38 B.C.

Arsis, 131, an error for Aesis, a
river flowing between Umbria
and Picenum. in N.E. Italy.

Asculum, 123 f., a city in the in-
terior of Picenum, taken by
Strabo during the Marsic war
(89 B.C.) and burnt.

Athamania, 287, a district in
northern Greece, between Thes-
saly and Epirus.

Aulis, 15, a town on the Boeotian
side of the straits of Euripus,
reputed to have been the rendez-
vous for the Greek chieftains
under Agamemnon.

Auximum, 129, a city of Picenum,
in N.E. Italy, just south of

Bantia, 515, a small town in Apulia,
about thirteen miles south-east of

Beroea, 281, a town in Macedonia,
west of the Thermaiic gulf (Bay
of Saloniki).

Bibulus (1), 237-241, 259, Lucius
Calpurnius B., aedile in 65,
praetor in 62, and consul in 59 B.C.,
in each case a colleague of Julius
Caesar. He was an aristocrat of
moderate abilities. He died in
48 B.C.

Bibulus (2), 511, 513, Publicius B.,
not otherwise known.

Bosporus, 215, the territory on both
sides of the strait between the
Euxine Sea and the Maeotic Lake
(Sea of Azov), and including the
modern Crimea. The strait (p.
207) bears the same name.


Briareus, 479, a monster of myth-
ology, having a hundred arms
and lifty heads, called by men
Aegaeon (Iliad, i. 403 f.).

Brundisium, 183 f., 279, 285, an
important city on the eastern
coast of Italy (Calabria), with a
fine harbour. It was the natural
point of departure from Italy to
the East, and was the chief naval
station of the Romans in the

Brutus, 129, 153, 155, Marcus
Junius B., father of the conspira-
tor, tribune of the people in 83,
and, in 77 B.C., general under

Caenum, 213, the fortress men-
tioned without name in the pre-
ceding chapter. It was in Pontus.
on the river Lycus, S.E. of

Caepio, 239, Servilius C., a sup-
porter of Caesar against his col-
league Bibulus in 59 B.C. (Sueto-
nius, Div. Jul. 21). Cf. the
Caesar, xiv. 4.

Calauria, 175, a small island off the
S.E. coast of Argolis in Pelopon-
nesus. Its temple was the final
refuge of Demosthenes.

Callicratidas, 343, the Spartan ad-
miral who succeeded Lysander
in 406 B.C., and lost his life in the
battle of Arginusae. Cf. the
Lysander, chapters v.-vii.

Callipides, 59, cf. the Atcibiades,
xxxii. 2.

Callisthenes, 97, 381, of Olynthus, a
philosopher and historian, who
accompanied Alexander the Great
on his expedition in the East
until put to death by him in
328 B.C. Besides an account of
Alexander's expedition, he wrote
a history of Greece from 387 to
357 B.C.

Calvinus, 295, see Domitius (3).

Canusium, 457, 507, an ancient city
of Apulia, about fifteen miles
from the sea.

Capitolinus, 439, Caius Scantilius
C., colleague of Marcellus in the
aedileship about 226 B.C.


Carbo, 127-131, 137 f., Gnaeus
Papirius C., a leader of the Marian
party, consular colleague of
Ciuna in 85 and 84 B.C., put to
death by Pompey in 82 B.C.

Carinas (or Carrinas), 129, Caius C.,
was defeated by Sulla in the
following year (82 B.C.), captured
and put to death.

Catana, 521, an ancient city on the
eastern coast of Sicily, about mid-
way between Syracuse and Tau-
romenium, directly at the foot of

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