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T?}? EXXaSo?," <>r), " TOCTOVTOVS dvSpas aTroXw-
Xe/vtaa? L'^)' auT)j$, oaoi ^w^re? e&vvavro VLKUV
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vrrf) KOI KCLKQVVTWV

TO ffrprev/uLa, TrevraKOGiois iTTTrevaiv
Ke\evaas crvi> avTU) KOI Tp^dfj,vo^ ecrrrja-e rpo-
iraiov VTTO rw NapffctKLM. ical TTJV vi/crjv vTrepij-
yaTrrjcrev etceivrjv, on crfo-T^rra/ie^o? (TTITIKOV avrbs



01



avrov TOUTM fjiovw TGI)? f.ieyia'TOis



XVII. 'E^raO^a At^pt^a? ol'KoOev e^o/oo? M
dTnjvrrio'ev avrw Ke~\.eva)V evQvs e^[Ba\elv et?
Boiwrta^. o oe, KdiTrep aTTo fjLei^ovos Trapacr/eei'/}?
ixrrepov rovro Troirjcrai, oiavoov/jievos, ovoev wero
celv aTTftfletv rot? dp^ov(TLi>, aXXa rot? re yue^'
eavrov TrpoeLTrev 771)9 eivai Trjv rj/Aepav efi i}v d
'Acrta? iJKOvaL, KOL Svo yLtopa? yu,6Te7re/n/raTo
2 Trept KopivOov arpciTevo/jLevcov. ol o eV T^
NaKe^aifJioviot TifJLWvres avrov Kijpvav
vect)v urroypd^eardai rbv (Sov\o[JLvov TOO



1 &v5pas . . . Kal rejected by Sintenis and Bekker, and
questioned by Coraes, after Schaefer ; the words are wanting
in Apophth. Lacon. 4a (Morals, p. 211 e).

44



AGESILAUS, xvi. j-xvn. 2

encamp about Larissa and lav siege to it. But he
declared that the capture of all Thessaly would not
compensate him for the loss of either one of his men,
and made terms with the enemy in order to get them
back. And perhaps we need not wonder at such
conduct in Agesilaiis, since when he learned that a
great battle had been fought near Corinth, 1 and that
men of the highest repute had suddenly been taken
off, and that although few Spartans altogether had
been killed, the loss of their enemies was very heavv.
he was not seen to be rejoiced or elated, but fetched
a deep groan and said : " Alas for Hellas, which has
by her own hands destroyed so many brave men !
Had they lived, they could have conquered in battle
all the Barbarians in the world." However, when
the Pharsalians annoyed him and harassed his army,
he ordered five hundred horsemen which he led in
person to attack them, routed them, and set up a
trophy at the foot of mount Narthacium. This
victory gave him special pleasure, because with
horsemen of his own mustering and training, and
with no other force, he had conquered those whose
chief pride was placed in their cavalry. 2

XVII. Here Diphridas, an ephor from Sparta, met
him, with orders to invade Boeotia immediately.
Therefore, although he was purposing to do this
later with a larger armament, he thought it did not
behoove him to disobey the magistrates, but said to

>

those who were with him that the day was near for
which they had come from Asia. He also sent for
two divisions of the army at Corinth. Then the
Lacedaemonians at home, wishing to do him honour,
made proclamation that any young man who wished



1 394 B.C. Cf. Xenophon, Hilt. iv. 2, JS-3, 1 f.

2 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. iv. 3, 9.



45



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



iravrwv



o p^ovTes Trevritcovra rou? /c/LiaiOTarovs tea
pa)/jLa\(i)rdrov<; e'/cXe^ayre? dTreareiXav.

f O Be 'AyrjcriXaos eiaw Ylv\wv rrapeX-OcDp Kal
BioBeixras TTJV t&toKiBa ^i\r)v ovaav, eVel
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/careo'TpaTOTre&evo'ev, ci^a {lev TOI> ij\iov e'/
TTOVTO, Kal <yivbfjLevov /jLyvoeibi) rcarelSev, a/jia Be
rj/covcre reOvtivai Tleicrav'&pov ^TTTHLZVOV
Trepi KviBov VTTO Qapvaftd^ov Kal
3 rjy0e<T0y /nv ovv, co? eitcos, eirl TOVTOIS /cal Sia

\ >> 5. \o-\\ r^. ft c>\ v

TOP avopa KCLI eta r^v TTQ\LV, OTTWS be firj rot?



eVl



</)o/!?09 e/mirecrrj, rdvamia \eyeiv eKe\evore TOU?
a?ro ^aXaTT^? iJKOVTas, on VIKWGI vf) vavfjia^ia'
Kal 7rpoe\6a)v auro? ecrTefyavw/Jievos eOvcrev evaj-
ye\ta Kal SieTre/jLTre yue/otSa? rot? ^>tXoi? diro



XVIII. 'ETret Be irpolcov Kal
}_opwveia KarelBe TOU? TroXe/ztou? Kal
Traperd^aTO Bovs 'Qp^o/jieviois TO CVOOVV/AOV Ke
at'TO? ^e TO Bt^ibv 7rf)<yev. oi Be i"i(3aloi TO
Be^top el%ov avToi, TO Be evwvvfjiov 'Apyeioi.
Xeyet Be rrjv fjid^iv o 'Eevofywv e/ceivrjv oiav OVK
d\\tjv TWV TTGOTTOTe <y.vkaQ di' Kal Tcap^v auTO?
TOJ 'Ayrj&iXda) crvi>aya)i>i%6/j,i>os, ei; 'Affi'a? Biaffe-



2 viKcos. r) nev ovv TrpwTrj avppa^L^ OVK,
ovSe dywva TTO\VV, c'tXXa Oi T



1 August, 394 B.C.

2 The soldiers of Agesilaiis were consequently victorious in
a skirmish with the enemy, according to Xenophon (Hell.
iv. 3, 14).

46



ACKSIL.U'S. XVH. 2 -xvin. 2

might, enlist in aid of the king. All enlisted eagcrlv.
and the magistrates chose out the most mature and
vigorous of them to the number of fifty, and sent
them off.

Agesilaiis now marched through the pass of
Thermopylae, traversed Phocis, which was friendly
to Sparta, entered Boeotia, and encamped near
Chaeroneia. Here a partial eclipse of the sun oc-
curred, and at the same time 1 news came to him ot
the death of Peisander, w r ho was defeated in a naval
battle off Cnidus by Pharnabazus and Conon. Agesi-
laiis was naturally much distressed at these tidings,
both because of the man thus lost, and of the city
which had lost him ; but nevertheless, that his
soldiers might not be visited with dejection and fear
as they were going into battle, he ordered the
messengers from the sea to reverse their tidings
and say that the Spartans were victorious in the
naval battle. He himself also came forth publicly
with a garland on his head, offered sacrifices for glad
tidings, and sent portions of the sacrificial victims to
his friends. 2

XVIII. After advancing as far as Coroneia and
coming within sight of the enemy, he drew up his
army in battle array, giving the left wing to the
Orchomenians, while he himself led forward the right.
On the other side, the Thebans held the right wing
themselves, and the Argives the left. Xenophon
says that this battle was unlike any ever fought, 3
and he was present himself and fought on the side
of Afresilaiis, having crossed over with him from

O ' O

Asia. 4 The first impact, it is true, did not meet with
much resistance, nor was it long contested, but the



' Jfelfem'ca, iv. 3, 16.

4 Cf. Xenophon'a Anabasis, v. 3, 6.



47



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



7019 p^o/j-evLOvs eiperavro /cat roi/9
'Apyeiovs 6 'Ayrjcri\aos' eVet Se drou<ra^Te?
ra evwvv/uLa irie^crOai KOI mevyeiv
, evravOa TT}? vi/cr)s CLKLV^VVOV irap-
et T?^9 Kara crro/za fjia^rj^ vfyecrOai TOLS
r)$e\r)(T KCU iraleiv eirofjievos 7rapa\\d-
VTTO Ovfjiov KOL $>i\oveiKias e



Tot9 avcriv, Mcraa-ai Kara



o e 01^ I^TTOV

Si 6\ov JLCV lo-va TOV






a^vporr^ e /car etcevov CLVTOV
ev rot? TrevTij/covra Teraypevov, &v e/9 rcaipov
eoiKev /; <j)i\OTifJiia rw ^acn\el <[email protected] KCU
<T(i)T)jpios. dya)vt%6/j.evoi yap eK0yjj,o)<; Kai Trpo-



CLVTOV OVK



TO crwyaa 7rX^Y9 Bopaai KCU ^itpeai, /j,6\ts dvrjp-
Traaav t^wvra, Kai avutypd^avTes irpo avTov
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Be aeya epyov r\v Maaadai TrpOTpOTrd&rjv 701)9
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elra



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e/c TT\ayiwv eiraLOv. ov firjv erpe-
ye, a\X' aTre^copT/crar ol Sr]/3aioi
E,\LKwva, fjieya rfj ^d-^rj (fcpovovvres, a>9
avrovs ycyovores.



48



AGKSILAUS, xviii. 2-4

Thebans speedily routed the Orchomenians, as Agesi-
laiis did the Arrives. Both parties, however, on
hearing that their left wings were overwhelmed and
in flight, turned back. Then, although the victory
might have been his without peril if he had been
willing to refrain from attacking the Thebans in front
and to smite them in the rear after tiiey had passed
by, Agesilaiis was carried away by passion and the
ardour of battle and advanced directly upon them,
wishing to bear them down by sheer force. But they
received him with a vigour that matched his own,
and a battle ensued which was fierce at all points
in the line, but fiercest where the king himself
stood surrounded by his fifty volunteers, 1 whose
opportune and emulous valour seems to have saved
his life. For they fought with the utmost fury and
exposed their lives in his behalf, and though they
were not able to keep him from being wounded, but
many blows of spears and swords pierced his armour
and reached his person, they did succeed in dragging
him off alive, and standing in close array in front of

r CJ

him, they slew many foes, while many of their own
number fell. But since it proved too hard a task to
break the Theban front, they were forced to do what
at the outset they were loth to do. They opened
their ranks and let the enemy pass through, and then,
when these had got clear, and were already marching
in looser array, the Spartans followed on the run and
smote them on the flanks. They could not, however,
put them to rout, but the Thebans withdrew to
Mount Helicon, 2 greatly elated over the battle, in
which, as they reasoned, their own contingent had
been undefeated.

1 Cf. chapter xvii. 2. They are not mentioned by Xenophon.

2 From the slopes of which they had advanced to the 1> it lie.



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

XIX. 'A7?;<nXao9 Be, Kairrep VTTO rpav/jLarcov 600
TroXXcoy KaKO)<f TO (jco/za &iaKei[Jievos, ov Trporepov
7rl crrcrjvr]!' a7rrj\0V rj (popd&rjv eve^0rji>ai Trpo?
rrjv (f)d\ayya KCU TOU? vexpovs ISeiv eWo9 TU>V
07r\a)v (TvyKeKO/jiicr/uievovs. oaoi /JLEVTOI TMV TroXe-
IJLLWV et? TO lepov Kare<pv<yov, Travra^ eiceXevcrev
2 a(f)0f)vai. TT\r)crLov yap 6 z^eco? ecmv o TT}?
'iTco^ta? 'AQiivcis, KOL Trpb aurov TpoTraiov ecrrv]-
Kev, o TTaXai BotwTOt ^Trdprwvos ar partly OVVTOS
evravOa viKi](ravTe<$ ' AOrivaiovq KOI T
earyjcrav. a/jia S' rj/jiepa
TOJ)? ^/3atof? o 'A<yi](T\aos, e
i, arecfxivova'dai, fjiev eKe\ey&e TOU?
, avXeiv Be TOI)? av\ijrd<f, I

rpo7raioi> a>?

ol 7ro\/Jiiot vetcpoiv avaipecriv airovvres,
KOI rrjv VIK.T]V OUTOJ?



, [email protected])v dyo/nevwi', KOL

re TTO^TT^ ejrereXei TO> ^ew /cat T^I/ SeKarrjv
airedve TWV e/c T?}9 'Acr/a9 \a<f)vpa)v etcarbv
TakdvTWV yevop.evriv.
4 'ETrel Se dTrevocmicrev ol'tcaBe, TrpocrcfriXrjs fiev

0VS TO?9 7TO)UT6U9 al 7rept/9Xe7TT09 CiTTO TO?)

Aral T7}9 SiaLTijS' ov yap, wcnrep OL TrXetcrTOi
crrpaT^ywv, KCLLVOS 7ravr}\9ev inro Trj

KCU KeKlVl]/jLVOS V7T aXXoT plWV 0MV, KOL

\alvwv 777309 rd OLKOL teal %vyo/j.a%(Ji)V, aXXa
Oyu,o/a>9 Tot9 /mr]SeTTa>7roT rbi> }Lvpwrav 8ia(3e-
/3/;/cocrt Ta irapovra Tifjiwv KOL arepywv ov



1 In 447 B.C.; cf. the Pericles, xviii. 2 f.
a Cf the Nicias, vi. 5.

5



AGESILAUS, xix. i-^

XIX. But Agesilaiis, although he was weakened
by many wounds, would not retire to his tent until
he had first been carried to his troops and seen that
the dead were eolleeted within the encampment.
Moreover, he ordered that all of the enemy who
had taken refuge in the sanctuary should be dis-
missed. For the temple of Athena Itonia was near
at hand, and a trophy stood in front of it, which
the Boeotians had long ago erected, when, under
the command of Sparto, they had defeated the
Athenians there and slain Tolmides their general. 1
Early next morning, Agesilaiis, wishing to try the
Thebans and see whether they would give him
battle, ordered his soldiers to wreath their heads
and his pipers to play their pipes, while a trophy was
set up and adorned in token of their victory. And
when the enemy sent to him and asked permission
to take up their dead, he made a truce with them,
and having thus assured to himself the victory,- pro-
ceeded to Delphi, 3 where the Pythian games were
in progress. There he celebrated the customary
procession in honour of the god, and offered up the
tenth of the spoils which he had brought from Asia,
amounting to a hundred talents.

Then he went back home, where his life and
conduct brought him at once the affection and ad-
miration of his fellow-citizens. For, unlike most of
their generals, he came back from foreign parts un-
changed and unaffected by alien customs ; he showed
no dislike towards home fashions, nor was he restive
under them, but honoured and loved what he found
there just as much as those did who had never
crossed the Eurotas ; he made no change in his

3 Leaving the army in command of <i\lis the poleiiMi<li
(Xenophon, flelt. iv. o, '21).

5'



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

5 r]\\aev, ov \ovrpov, ov Otpcnreiav yvvai/cos, ov
OTT\WV Kodfjiov, OVK oitcias Karao'Kevrjv, d\\a Kal
ra? Ovpas dfyrjtcev oi/rco? ovcras a<p6Bpa TraXam?,
a>9 BOKCLV eivai, raura? 6/eeivas a? eireO
<TT6$T)fj,os. KOI TO KCLVvaQ pov r)<Jiv 6 H
ovSev 7i aefjivorepov eivai T/}? eiceivov Ovya-
r/309 rj TWV a\\(i)v. KavvaOpa Se KCL\OV<JIV el

KOI



6 ra? Traia? ev rat? 7ro/.i7ras. 6 /.lev ovv E



ovo/na T/}? 'Ay^o-iXdov Bvyarpos ov yeypa^e, teal o
AiKaiapxos eTnyyai'dtCTrjcrev a>? yu./;re rrjv '
\dov duyarepa ^re rtjv ETrayUi^coz^ou

i]fjiyv' T^^et? Be evpofjiev ev
avaypafyals 6vo/j.afy>/jiev)iv
'Ajr}(Ti\dov KXeopav, fluyarepas Be Eu
real Tlpoavyav. 1 eari Be real ^oy^jv IBelv avrou
]V (i)(pi vvv ev AaKeBai/jiovi, /jLTjBev TWI>
Bicufiepovcrav.

XX. Ov /jirjv d\\a op&v eviovs rwv 7ro\LT<t)v
SoKOvvTds elvdl Tiva^ KOL fieya 2
, eTretcre rrjv a$eK<pr)V KvviGKav dp/ia



V$ei%acrO at rot? "l&XXrja'tv co? ovBe/jiids Icriv
dpeTris, d\\a TT\OVTOV KCU BaTrdvi]? rj viicr).
2 ZZevotfiwvra Be rov (To<pov ^X (OV /^[email protected]* eavrov
a"7rovBa6/jL6vov Ke\ev rou? iraiBas ev Aarce-
Baifjiovi rpetyetv /j-eTaTre/ji-^fd/^ev
fj,evovs rwv p,aOrjjjidrwv TO Ka\\L(nov ) a
KOI ap^eLV. rov Be AvadvBpov
evpwv eraipeuav iroXXrjv cruveGTwcrav, rjv ei



1 np6avyai> a reading mentioned by Stephanas, and now
found in S : TlpoKv-rav.

2 /nfja Cobet, vjin Herwerden, with F* : fj.fyd\a.

52



AGESILAl S. xix. 5-xx. 2

table, or his baths, or the attendance on his wife, or
the decoration of his armour, or the furniture of his
house, nay, he actually let its doors remain although
they were very old, one might say they were the
very doors which Aristodemus l had set up. His
daughter's " kannathron," as Xenophon * tells us,
was no more elaborate than that of any other maid
("kannathra," is the name they give to the wooden
figures of griffins or goat-stags in which their young
girls are carried at the sacred processions). 2 Xeno-
phon, it is true, has not recorded the name of the
daughter of Agesilaiis, and Dicaearchus expressed
great indignation that neither her name nor that of
the mother of Eparainondas was known to us ; but
we have found in the Lacedaemonian records that
the wife of Agesilaiis was named Cleora, and his
daughters Eupolia and Proauga. And one can see
his spear also, which is still preserved at Sparta, and
which is not at all different from that of other men.

XX. However, on seeing that some of the citizens
esteemed themselves highly and were greatly lifted
up because they bred racing horses, he persuaded
his sister Cynisca to enter a chariot in the contests
at Olympia, wishing to shew the Greeks that the
victory there was not a mark of any great excellence,
but simply of wealth and lavish outlay. Also, having
Xenophon the philosopher in his following, and
making much of him, he ordered him to send for his
sons and rear them at Sparta, that they might learn
that fairest of all lessons, how to obey and how to

t/

command. Again, finding after Lysander's death
that a large society was in existence, which that

1 The great-great-grandson of Heracles; cf. Xenophon,
t^Uafis, viii. 7.

2 These figures of animals were on wheels, and served as
carriages (cf. Athenaeus, p. 139 f. ).

53

VOL. V C



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

e7rav\0a)V airo TT)? 'Atria? avv^aT^fjev ejrl
TOV y A.yr]cri\aov, MpfJirjcrev avTov 6^e\6y^eiv olos

3 TJV %0)V TToXlTT??' Kal \OJOV dvajl'OVS V /3l/3\i(i)



OV jpa^6 fJLV KXe&)^ O



ava\a/3a>v 6 Avcrav-



ev TU> ^i]fjiw Trepl Trpay^arwv KCUVWV KOI



TOV TroXnevfjiaro^, r]0e\r)crev a?
e%eve<yKelv. eirel Be rt? TWV <yepovrwv TOV
\oryov avayvovs real (po/3^0el^ T^V SeivoTrjTa (rvve-
/3ov\vcre fiif TOV AvcravSpov dvopvTTeiv, a\\a
TOV \6yov fjia\\ov avT&> o-wy/caTOpvTTeLV, eTreicrQij
4 /cal fcad^au^a^e. TOL'? 8e vTrevavTiovfievovs avTu>
fjiev OVK e/3A,a7rre, SiaTrpaTTo/jievos Se



Tivas ael crTaT^ou? KOI



% CIVTMV, 7TSei/cvve yevo/uievovs ev rat? e%ovaiaL$ 607



KOL



av /Bojjdayv KOI crvvaycovi^ojjievos, oltceiov? e/c

8lCL(f)6pa)V TTO161TO KOI ^QldTT] TTyOO? UVTOV, OHTT6

/JiTjOeva avTiira\ov elvai.

5 'O yap ere/jo? jSaaiXevs y Ay^crLTro\is, are
fjiev wv (fruydSos, rj\iKLa $e Triv
, (j>va-'< Be irpao? fcal KOCT/JLIOS, ov
TWV TTO\LTIKWV cTTpaTTCV. ov ^jLrjv aXXa /cat,



TOVTOV eiroieiTO ^eipotjOrj. GVGGITOIXJI yap ol
et? TO avTo ^otrco^re? (^LOLTLOV, OTOV



ovv evoyov vTa ro9 epa)-
TOV 'A7?7cri7roXiz>, wcnrep r)V ainos, del



1 Cf. the Lysander, chapter xxx.
54



AGESILAUS, xx. 2-6

commander, immediately after returning from Asia,
had formed against him, Agesilaiis set out to prove
what manner of citizen Lysander had been while
alive. So, after reading a speech which Lysander
had left behind him in book form, a speech which
Cleon of Halicarnassus had composed, but which
Lysander had intended to adopt and pronounce
before the people in advocacy of a revolution and
change in the form of government, Agesilaiis
wished to publish it. But one of the senators, who
had read the speech and feared its ability and power,
advised the king not to dig Lysander up again, but
rather to bury the speech with him, to which advice
Agesilaiis listened and held his peace. 1 And as for
those who were in opposition to him, he would do
them no open injury, but would exert himself to send
some of them away from time to time as generals and
commanders, and would shew them up if they proved
base and grasping in their exercise of authority ;
then, contrariwise, when they were brought to trial,
he would come to their aid and exert himself in their
behalf, and so would make them friends instead of
enemies, and bring them over to his side, so that no
one was left to oppose him.

For Agesipolis, the other king, since he was the
son of an exile, 2 in years a mere stripling, and by
nature gentle and quiet, took little part in affairs of
state. And yet he too was brought under the sway
of Agesilaiis. For the Spartan kings eat together in
the same "phiditium," or public mess, 3 whenever
they are at home. Accordingly, knowing that Agesi-
polis was prone to love affairs, just as he was himself,

2 Pausanias, who was impeached in 395 B.C., went into
voluntary exile, and was condemned to death.

3 Of. the Lycurguit, xii. 1 .

55



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

\6yOU TTCpl TWV V WpO,' KOi TTpO^ffi TOV

veavicrKov et? TCLVTO real (rvvtjpa KOI a-vveTrparre,
AaKwviKwv epaiTwv ovBev alo"%pov, alBw Be
Kal (f>i,\OTifjLiav KOI %i]\ov a/oeT^? e%oz^-
TWV, to? ev rot? Trepl AvKOvpyov yeypctTrrai.

XXI. Meyicrrov ovv Swafjievos ev rfj iroKei Bia-
Trpdrrerai. TeXevriav TOV op-o^rptov a^e\^>ov eirl
TOV vavTLKOv <yei'cr0at. KOL a-Tpareva-dfjievo^ et?
K6pii>0ov ai)ro? /Jiev ypei Kara yijv ra /.tatcpa
f, Tat? & vavalv o TeXef rta? l ..... 'Ap-
Be rrjv KopivOov G^OVTMV rore /cat ra



cipri TO) 6ew TeOvKoras, rrjv Trapa-

2 arK6V)]V arraaav aTro\i7r6vTa<$' eVet Be TWV Kopiv-
0icov oa- oi (frvyd&es TW%OV irapovres eSe>'j0r)(rav
avrov rbv aywva BtaOeivat, TOVTO pev OVK e
aev, avTMV Be etceivwv BiaTidevTcov real

TCOV Trape/jLetve Kal Trapecr^ev d(T<f)d\iav. vaTepov
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TO, "\a9fJLia, Kal Tives /JLCV evircrjcrav 7rd\LV, eiffl Be
01 veviKrjKoTes rrpoTepov, ijTTrj/jievoi Be v&Tepov,

3 dve<ypd<pr](Tav. errl TOVTM Be iroXX.rjv aTrecfrrjve
BeiXiav /caT^yopelv eavTwv TOU? 'Apyelovs 6
*A7^crtXao?, el a-e/jivov OVTCO Kal /j.eya Ttjv

1 The lacuna after this name may be filled from the words
Kara 6d\arrav TOJ vavs Kal ra vsJapia. ypyice, in Xenophon,
Hdl. iv. 4, 19.

1 Chapters xvii. 1 ; xviii. 4.
56



AGKSILAUS, xx. 6-xxi. 3

Agesilaiis would always introduce some discourse
about the boys who were of an age to love. He-
would even lead the young king's fancy toward tin-
object of his own affections, and share with him in
wooing and loving, these Spartan loves having nothing
shameful in them, but being attended rather with
great modesty, high ambition, and an ardent desire
for excellence, as I have written in my life of
Lycurgus. 1

XXI. Having thus obtained very great influence
in the city, he effected the appointment of Teleutias,
his half-brother on his mother's side, as admiral.
Then he led an army to Corinth, and himself, by
land, captured the long walls, while Teleutias, with
his fleet, seized the enemy's ships and dockyards.
Then coining suddenly upon the Argives,' 2 who at
that time held Corinth, and were celebrating the
Isthmian games, he drove them away just as they
had sacrificed to the god, and made them abandon
all their equipment for the festival. At this, the
exiles from Corinth who were in his army begged
him to hold the games. This, however, he would
not do, but remained at hand while they held the
games from beginning to end, and afforded them
security. Afterwards, when he had departed, the
Isthmian games were held afresh by the Argives, and
some contestants won their victories a second time,
while some were entered in the lists as victors in the
first contests, but as vanquished in the second. In
this matter Agesilaiis declared that the Argives had
brought down upon themselves the charge of great
cowardice, since they regarded the conduct of the

'* Plutarch confuses the expedition of 393 B.C. (Xenophon,
Hill. iv. 4. 19) with that of 390 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. iv.
5, 1 ff.).

57



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

dywvoOecriav rjyovfjLevoi fJid^ecrOai rrepl avrfj?
OVK eToXyu,?;crai>. auro? Be Trpos ravra iravra,

A , ' ft . W \ \ \ 5/

/jLTpia)<t wero ceiv e^eiv, KCLI TOV$ fiev OIKOL
Kal dy&vas eTreKoa/jueL KOI (rv/ATraprjv del
XoTf/x/a? Kal crTrovSr/s /zecrro? wv Kal ovre ira
ovre TrapOevcov d/jLi\\y^ aTroXetTro/xei^o?, a Se rou?
aXXoi;? ewpa davjjid^ovra^ e&oKei p^rjBe yivuxTKeiv.

4 /cat 7TOT6 KaAXtTTTnS?;? o rwi' rpayw^iMv VTTO-
Kpirr)?, ovofjia Kal So^av e^wv ev roi? r/ EXXr;cri
/cal (TTrov&a^ofjievos VTTO Trdvrwv, Trpwrov /j,ev
d7nji>Tr)crei> ainw Kal Trpoaelirev, eTreira croftapMS

TOU? crv/jLTrepiTraTOVVTas fjL/3a\u>v eavrbv
vofjii^wv eKelvov ap^eiv TWO? (pi\o-
, reXo? Be elirev " OUK e7n,yiv(t)aKL$ ne,
a) /3a(Ti\ev; ' KaKelvos aTro/SXe'^ra? Trpo? avrov
eiTrev "'AXXa ov crvye eVert Ka\\i7nri&as 6
BeiKrj\iKTas ;" OIJ-TCO ^e AaKeBai/jiovioi TQVS

5 Ka\ovai. TrapaKaXov/nevos Be ird\iv
rov TTfV drjBova /ju/jiovuevov, TrapyTrjcraro
" A^ra? a/cou/ca." rou Se larpov

wv ev TKTIV ajreyvwcr p,evais OepaiTeL-
Zeu? eTTK\^6tj, (fropriKw? ravry
TrpoacovvfJiia Kal Brj Kal Trpo? eKelvov e
ro\/jir](TavTos oi/Tft)?' " MeveKpaTrjs Zeu? /3a<ri\ei
xaipeiv," avreypa^re' " BacrtXeu?
M.eveKpdrei vyiaiveiv."

XXII. AiarpiftovTOS Be Trepl rrjv Kopivtfiwv
Kal TO 'Rpaiov et\7;^)OTO? Kal ra
TOU? ffTparicoTas a'/ovras Kal






58



AGESILAUS, xxi. 3- -xxn. i

games as so great and august a privilege, and yet
had not the courage to fight for it. He himself
thought that moderation ought to be observed in all
these matters, and sought to improve the local choirs
and games. These he always attended, full of
ambitious ardour, and was absent from no contest in
which either boys or girls competed. Those things,
however, for which he saw the rest of the world
filled with admiration, he appeared not even to
recognize. Once upon a time Callipides the tragic
actor, who had a name and fame among the Greeks and
was eagerly courted by all, first met him and addressed
him, then pompously thrust himself into his company
of attendants, showing plainly that he expected the
king to make him some friendly overtures, and finally
said : " Dost thou not recognize me, O King? " The
king fixed his eyes upon him and said : ' ' Yea, art thou
not Callipides the buffoon ? ' For this is how the
Lacedaemonians describe actors. And again, when
he was invited to hear the man who imitated the
nightingale, he declined, saying : " I have heard the
bird herself." 1 Again, Menecrates the physician,
who, for his success in certain desperate cases, had
received the surname of Zeus, and had the bad taste
to employ the appellation, actually dared to write the
king a letter beginning thus : ' Menecrates Zeus, to
King Agesilaiis, greeting. ' ' To this Agesilaiis replied :
King Agesilaiis, to Menecrates, health and sanity."
XXII. While he was lingering in the territory of
Corinth, he seized the Heraeum, 2 and as he wa-
watching his soldiers carry off the prisoners and



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