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booty, messengers came from Thebes to treat for

1 Cf. the Lycurgus, xx. 5.

2 The refugees in the Heraeum eaniu out and surrendered
of their own accord (Xenophon, ffelf. iv. 5, 5).

59



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Tore KOI



6 Se fJLiawv /Av del rrjv TTO\LV, olo t

)jjL(f)epeiv vv/3piaai,
opav avrovs /A?;T aKOveiv
2 eTraOe & Trpdyfia veuecrrjTov OUTTCO yap d7T7]\\ay-

i ~ /r\ /~t ' rr > t~i -\



rwv
avry rrjv fjiopav VTTO



Kal TrdOos TOVTO /Jieya Sid TTO\\OV ^povov avvz-
Trecrev CLVTOLS' TToXXoi/? yap avBpas d
fta\ov KparrjOevTas VTTO re TreXracrTw^ o
Kal fjit(r8o(f)6pa)v AaKeSai/uoviovs.

3 'AveTTij&'Tjcre p.ev ovv evOvs o 'A7?;<TtXao9 ft')? 608
ftot)6ri(7wv' tVel e eyvw SicnreTrpay/jievovs, av0i<$
ei? TO 'Hpaiov rjice, Kal TOV<$ Botcoroi'? Tore Trpocr-
e\.0elv



eieetvoi TT}? /zei^ elprjvrjs ov/c

Se rfeiovv et? }L6piv6ov, opyt,(T0tls o



ISeiv /jieya typovovvras e$> ot? eurv^ovcrtv,
4 avpiov acr^aXw? L'/uy TOWTO inrdptei* KOI Trapa-

T^ varepaiq rtfv T %u>pav

K07TT6 Kal TTyOO? T^ 7TO\IV a

7rpo<Tr)\6ev. ovra) Be TOVS KopivOiovs e'

X^vra^, dfifJKe Trjv
TOU? Tre/^XeXet/z/Aeyof? aVSpa? e/c
papas dva\aft<i)v djrfjyev et? Aa/ce$ai/jLOva, irpo






Ta? KardXvcreis, OTTCO? ot /juaovvres
A/)/ca8a)j; ^T) eTTi^ai



60



AGESILAUS, xxn. 1-4

peace. But he had always hated that eity, and
thinking this an advantageous time also for insulting
it, pretended neither to see nor hear its ambassadors
when they presented themselves. But his pride
soon had a fall ; for the Thebans had not yet de-
parted when messengers came to him with tidings
that the Spartan division had been cut to pieces by
Iphicrates. 1 This was the greatest disaster that
had happened to the Spartans in a long time ; for
they lost many brave men, and those men were over-
whelmed by targeteers and mercenaries, though they
were men-at-arms and Lacedaemonians.

At once, then, Agesilaiis sprang up to go to their
assistance, but when he learned that it was all over
with them, 2 he came back again to the Heraeum, and
ordering the Boeotians then to come before him.

O

gave them an audience. But they returned his
insolence by making no mention of peace, but simply
asking safe conduct into Corinth. Agesilaiis was
wroth at this, and said : " If you wish to see your
friends when they are elated at their successes, you
can do so to-morrow in all safety." And taking them
along with him on the next day, he ravaged the
territory of the Corinthians, and advanced to the
very gates of the city. After he had thus proved
that the Corinthians did not dare to resist him, he
dismissed the embassy. Then he himself, picking up
the survivors of the division that had been cut to
pieces, led them back to Sparta, always breaking
camp before it was day, and pitching the next camp
after it was dark, in order that the hateful and
malicious Arcadians might not exult over them.

1 At Lechaeum, the port of Corinth on the Corinthian
unilf, in 390 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. iv. 5, 11-18).

2 He had marched till he was "well within the plateau of
Lechaeum" (Xenophon, Hell. iv. o, 8).

61



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



5 'E/e rovrov %api%6fj.6vo<? rot? '

et? ' 'AKapvaviav arpaTLa yuer' avrCov, Kal 7ro\\rjv
fj,v rf\d(raro \elav, fJid^rj Se TOU? ' 'A/capvavas
Seofievcov 3e TWV 'A^atwi> OTTCO? roz^
TrapafjLeivas a^eX^rat roz> cnropov TMV

7TO\/jLLCt)V, TOVVOVTIOV (f)7) TTOlrfcreiV [jiaX\OV jap

(f>o/3ii0ijo-cr0aL TOV TroXe/iOf aurou?, eay ecrTrap-
/jLi>rjv Trjv yijv et? w/?a? e^uxriv o KOL
7rapa<y<y\Xo/ji,evr)s jap avdis eir avrovs



XXIII. '

ySacriXea)? vavriKW OaXaTTOKparovvres eiropOovv
TO, TrapdXia r^9 AaKayvitcfjs, erei^iaOr] Se /cat TO
acrru TWV ' " AO^vaiwv <&apva(Bd^ov ^p^ara Bovros,
eSo^e Tot? AafceSai/jLOViois elprjvrjv TrotelcrOai TT/JO?
/3aai\ea' KOI 7re/j,7rova-iv ' ALvraX/ciSav 77730?
fta^ov, aia"^iara /cal Trapavo/jLtoTara rou?
'A.&iav KCLTOIKOVVTCLS "EXX^m?, u?re/3 aJi^ eVoXe-
2 fnijcrev ^AjrjaiXao^, /3acrtXet TrapaSiSovres. o6ev
crvvefiij TT;? Ka/coSo^ia^ raur?;? 'Ayrja-iXdtt)
6 <ydp 'A^raX/ctSa? e'^po? 77^ avrw,
/cal Trjv elprjvrjv ej; airavro^ eirpaTTev a>9 ToO
'AyrjGiXaov av^ovros Kal TTOIOVVTOS
Kal fieyicrrov. ov /j,r)v aXXa



6 'A<y?;o-tXao5 aTreKpivaro fjLa\\ov roi)?
3 \aKwvL^eiv . rot? 8e /AT; /SofXo/^e^Of?

r^ elpyjvrjv direCkwv Kal KarayyeXXayv 7ro\efj,ov
rjvdyfcacrev epfteveiv airavTas oZ? o



rou?



1 In 390-389 B.C. (Xenophon, ^e. iv. 6, 3-7, 1).

2 in 393 B.C. (Xenophon, TTetf. iv. 8, 10).

3 The Great King's satrap in Western Asia.



62



AGESILAUS, XXM. 5 xxm. 3

After this, to gratify the Achaeans, he crossed
over with them on an expedition into Acarnania, 1
where he drove away much booty and conquered the
Acarnanians in battle. But when the Achaeans
asked him to spend the winter there in order to
prevent the enemy from sowing their fields, he said
he would do the opposite of this ; for the enemy
would dread the war more if their land was sown
when summer came. And this proved true ; for
when a second expedition against them was an-
nounced,, they came to terms with the Achaeans.

XXIII. When Conon and Pharnabazus with the
Great King's fleet were masters of the sea and were
ravaging the coasts of Laconia, and after the walls of
Athens had been rebuilt with the money which
Pharnabazus furnished,' 2 the Lacedaemonians decided
to make peace with the king of Persia. To that end,
they sent Antalcidas to Tiribazus, 3 and in the most
shameful and lawless fashion handed over to the King
the Greeks resident in Asia, in whose behalf Agesilaiis
had waged war. Agesilaiis, therefore, could have had
no part at all in this infamy. For Antalcidas was his
enemy, and put forth all his efforts to make the peace
because he saw that the war enhanced to the utmost
the reputation and power of Agesilaiis. Notwith-
standing this, to one who remarked that the Lace-
daemonians were favouring the Medes, Agesilaiis
replied that the Medes were the rather favouring
the Lacedaemonians. Moreover, by threatening with
war the Greeks who were unwilling to accept the
peace, he forced them all to abide by the terms
which the Persian dictated, 4 more especially on
account of the Thebans, his object being to make



4 The peace of Antalcidas was ratified by all the
states except Thebes in 387 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. v. 1, 29 ff. ).

63



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



Ti]v \$oiwTiav dfyei
i. Srjkov Be TOVTO rot? vcrTepov eVot?
yap ^QfyStSas epyov elpydaaTo oewoy. ev

Kal eipt'ivr) TI-JV Ka
Kal TrdvTes p^ev rjyavaKTOVV ol

4 Be efyepov ol ^rrapTLarai, Kal ^a'Xicrra ol
Polevoi T(O 'Ay/crtXaa) /.ter' opyrjs ercvvOdvovTO
TOV QoifliSov rtVo9 TavTa KeXeycr'ayTOS ei

et? zxeivov T^V vrrovoiav TperrovTes, OVK
ra> Qoifti&a /Boijtfoov \eyeiv dvafyav&ov OTL Bel T^V
TTpa^iv avTip', el TL ^prjcriaov e^efe, crKorceiv' ra
'yap crvu.d>povTa Trj AaKeBai/uovi Ka\ws eveiv

i I III 4* /V

5 avTO/jLaTi^ecrOai, Kav jjiifiels KeXevcry. KaLTOt rw
\6yy TravTa^ov TTJV BiKaiO(rvi]v airecfraive rrpw-
TeveLV TWV dpeTcov dvBpeLas jjilv yap ovBev o^eXo?
elvai, /jirj Trapovaris BtKaioarvvrjs, el Be BiKaioi
TTrtfTe? yivoiVTO, /j,i}Bev dvBpeias BerjcreaOaL.

Be TOV$ \eyovras ort Tavra BoKel rw ^

rp/^1i~ 1 >>? ( f,.

\.i o K6t,vo$ efjiov, eiTre, fjiei^
Kal BiKaioTepos;' 6p6o)<? Kal /vaXa>? otoyLtez^o?
Belv TW BiKaiw KaOdrrep fj..Tpw fiacriXiKw /j.Tpel-

6 (jQai TIJV vTrepo^rfV TOV yuet^byo?. r)y oe rr)?

r /e^oue^77? eTreLL^lrev avT(o Trepl fcevias Kal 609

II It t / 9

,ta9 e7ri(TTo\r)i> 6 fiaaiXevs, OVK e\aBev, eiTrcav

TTjV KOLV^V ^>L\iaV, KO\ {JLlfiev tSl'a?



. ev



ovKTL ravr^v &Lafyv\dTT(i)v Tqp Bo^av, aXXa rfj

<j)i\OTLfjiLa /cal rfj (fyi\oveLKia TroXXa^oi) GVV&K-

7 <j)pojieypSi KOI fj-dXicrra rrj TT/JO? T/^atpi/y, ov

IJLOVOV caaxje TOV QoiftiBav, aXXa Kal T^U rr6\iv

64



AGESILAUS, xxiii. 3-7

them weaker bv leaving Coeotia independent of
Thebes. This he made clear by his subsequent
behaviour. For when Phoebidas committed the foul
deed of seizing the Cadmeia 1 in a time of perfect
peace, and all the Greeks were indignant and the
Spartans displeased at the act, and when especially
those who were at variance with Agesilaiis angrily
asked Phoebidas by whose command he had done
this thing, thereby turning suspicion upon Agesilaiis,
he did not scruple to come to the help of Phoebida^,
and to say openly that they must consider whether
the act itself was serviceable or not ; for that which
was advantageous to Sparta might well be done in-
dependently, even if no one ordered it. And yet in
his discourse he was always declaring that justice
was the first of the virtues ; for valour was of no use
unless justice attended it, and if all men should be
just, there would be no need of valour. And to
those who said, " This is the pleasure of the Great
King," he would say, "How is he greater than I
unless he is also more just?", rightly and nobly
thinking that justice must be the royal measure
wherewith relative greatness is measured. And
when, after the peace was concluded, the Great King
sent him a letter proposing guest-friendship, he
would not accept it, saying that the public friendship
was enough, and that while that lasted there would

O *

be no need of a private one. Yet in his acts he no
longer observed these opinions, but was often carried
away by ambition and contentiousness, and par-
ticularly in his treatment of the Thebans. For he
not only rescued Phoebidas from punishment, but



1 The citadel of Thebes. It was seized by Phoebidas in
;* B.C. (Xenophon, Hdl. v. 2, 26 tf.).



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

eireicrev et? avT-t]v uva&e^acrOai TO dBitcrffAa xal

/ \ T r ' ' f " \

fcare^etv rrjv Kao/u-etai> Oi eavrrjs, TWV be Trpay-
/j.dTwv KOL TTJS TToXtreia? 'Ap^tav teal AeovTiBav

Kvpiovs, Si wv o ^oi^iSa^ elcrijX&e KOI

TTJV aKpo7ro\ii>.

A^A.-T^7 'LJ v * '/)^' ' * '

XXIV. tiv pets ovv evuvs e/c TOVTWV VTTOVOICI

/lev epyov eivai, (BovXev/jLa Be '
\dov TO TreTrpay/jLevov al Be varepov

eiroLrjcrav rrjv alriav. a>? <yap
ol @7/yQatot r^v (frpovpav
rj\ev6epwcrav, ey/ca\wv aurot? on, TOP
KOI TOV AeovTiBav curetcTovecrav, epyw fjiev TV-
pdvvovs, \6j(o Be TroXeyua^oy? 6Vra?,

2 TroXe/zoz/ TT/OO? O.VTOVS. real KXeo^/3/5oro?
fta(Ti\ev(i)v 'A<yr)cmr6\tBos TeOvi^KOTO<=;, et?
Tiav eTre^6r] /uera ^vvdfjiew^' o yap *

a>? eTtf Tea-crapaKovTa 7670^609 a^)' r//3?;5
)^ dfyeaiv VTCO TWV VO/JLCOV, (pvj
eKeivrjv, ala^yvo^vo^ el <S>\iacriois
ep.Tfpoo'Oev vjrep (pwyd&wv
av0i<; 6(f)0)jcreTat T^^atou? Katcws TTOIMV Bid
Tvpdvvovs.

3 *Hi/ Be ri? Adtcwv %(})oBpia<; etc rr}? V
crracrea)? TW 'AyyaiX.do) TeTay/nevos ev
dp/jLO(TTrjs, OVK aroXyiio? /xei' ouS' a^iXor^yLto? dvijp
del B' e\7riBo)V yuaXXot* ^ <f>pevwv dyaflwv

OVTOS e7ri0vp,a)v o^oyuaro? /jLeyd\ov, KOI TOV

/SiBav vofjii^wv evSo];ov yeyovevai, teal

dwo rov Trepl @7//3a9 roX/z,7;yLiaT09, e

fcd\\ioi> eivai, fcal \afJLTrpoTepov el TOV Tleipaid

KaTa\dj3oi Bi* eavTov ical TWV ' Adrjvaiwv d(pe-

1 ffTpa,7t]yiav with Steplianus, Coraes, and S :
66



AGESILAUS, xxiii. y-xxiv. 3

actually persuaded Sparta to assume responsibility
for his iniquity and occupy the Cadmeia on its own
account, besides putting the administration of Thebes
into the hands of Archias and Leontidas, by whose
aid Phoebidas had entered and seized the acropolis.

XXIV. Of course this gave rise at once to a
suspicion that while Phoebidas had done the deed,
Agesilaiis had counselled it ; and his subsequent acts
brought the charge into general belief. For when
the Thebans expelled the Spartan garrison and
liberated their city, 1 he charged them with the
murder of Archias and Leontidas, who were really
tyrants, though polemarchs in name, and levied war
upon them. And Cleombrotus, who was king now
that Agesipolis was dead, was sent into Boeotia with
an army ; for Agesilaus, who had now borne arms for
forty years, and was therefore exempt by law from
military service, declined this command. He was
ashamed, after having recently made war upon the
Phliasians in behalf of their exiles, 2 to be seen now
harrying the Thebans in the interests of their
tyrants. 3

Now, there was a certain Lacedaemonian named
Sphodrias, of the party opposed to Agesilaus, who
had been appointed harmost at Thespiae. He lacked
neither boldness nor ambition, but always abounded
in hopes rather than in good judgement. This man,
coveting a great name, and considering that Phoe-
bidas had made himself famous far and near by his
bold deed at Thebes, was persuaded that it would
be a far more honourable and brilliant exploit for him
to seize the Peiraeus on his own account and rob the

1 In 379 B.C., with the help of the Athenians (Xenophon.
Hdl v. 4, 2-1'J). Cf. the Pelopiilas, ix.-xiii.
8 In 380-379 B.C. (Xenophon, Hell. v. 3, 13-25).
8 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. v. 4, 13.

6?



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



\oiro rtjv Qd\aaoav, etc 7?}? d
4 7re\0Gov. \eyovcri $6 TOVTO

TWV Ttepl TleXoTriBav real MeXowd



yp vpayrrovs aKwvetv Trpocr-
o'l rov ^(poBpiav eTrcuvovvres KOI
to? epyov rrjXiKOVTOv JJLOVOV a^iov,
eTrijpav KOI TraptMp/jLrjaev dv\e(T0ai Trpa^iv abixov
/jiev o/uotco? Kii>r) Kal Trapdvo/Jiov, ToX/z^? Be real

/ ,r>^ / f/ \ >\i

5 Tf^? evoea yevoj^ev^i'. ^/Jiepa yap avrov ev rro

ifp /careXafte Kal /caT\a/j,^ev \-
TCL VVK.TOS Trpotjjjii^ei.v ry Tleipatel' Kal ^>w?
IV<JOV 'E>\ev(Jivci9ev Ibovras \eyova-i
Kal Trepi^o/Sof? yeveaOau TOU? aTpaTicora^.
auro? 5e rov Opdaovs e^errecrev, w? ovKert \aOeli>
f]i>, Kai Tiva ^pa^elav dpiray^v Oe^evo^ atV^pw?

6 dvewrjo-e Kal aSo&><? et9 ra? QecrTTia?. etc Be






TOVTOV Kan'jyopOL p,v tTre^OriGav et? ^Trdprrjv



*K0'rjvS)V, evpov Be Karrjyopias 1 prjBev eVl TOI^
'ZffroBpiav Beo/jievovs rovs apxovras, d\\d Oavdrov
Kpicriv avrw Trpoeip^KOTas, rfv tVet^o?

TJJV opyrjv TWV



TOV? mioi;? Ka



crvvaBiKeicrOai BoKelv, 'iva /Jirj

XXV. El^ep ovv vlov o ^(poBpias K\c0vv/jLOv,
ov TraiSo? 6Vro? ert real Ka\ov T^V o^iv ^
S o 'Ayqcri\dov rov ySacriXeco? vfo? i)pa.



Tore crvvrjywvia fj,zv co? et/co? avry 2 K



f with S :
2 u>s ei/fbs avTt? with S ; other MSS. is (iicbs ^v : av-r$.

68



AGESILAUS, xxiv. s-x



Athenians of access to the sea, attacking them un-
expectedly by land. It is said, too, that the scheme
was devised by Pelopidas and Melo, chief magistrates
at Thebes. 1 They privily sent men to him who
pretended to be Spartan sympathizerSj and they, by
praising and exalting Sphodrias as the only man
worthy to undertake so great a task, urged and
incited him into an act which was no less lawless and
unjust than the seizure of the Cadmeia, though it
was essayed without courage or good fortune. For
full daylight overtook him while he was yet in the
Thriasian plain, although he had hoped to attack the
Peiraeus by night. It is said also that his soldiers
saw a liffht streaming from certain sanctuaries at

~ 4

Eleusis, and were filled with shuddering fear. Their
commander himself lost all his courage, since con-
cealment was no longer possible, and after ravaging
the country a little, retired disgracefully and in-
gloriously to Thespiae. Hereupon men were sent
from Athens to Sparta to denounce Sphodrias. They
found, however, that the magistrates there had no
need of their denunciation, but had already indicted
Sphodrias on a capital charge. This charge he de-
termined not to meet, fearing the wrath of his
countrymen, who were ashamed in the presence of
the Athenians, and wished to be thought wronged
with them, that they might not be thought wrong-
doers with Sphodrias.

XXV. Now Sphodrias had a son, Cleonymus, who
was still a boy and fair to look upon, and of whom
Archidamus, the son of King Agesilaiis, was en-
amoured. In this crisis Archidamus naturally sym-
pathized with his favourite because of the peril in

1 Their object was to embroil Athens and Sparta (Xeno-
phon, If ell. v. 4, 20-24).

69



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

Trepl TOV Trarpos, o~VfJL7rpaTTeiv Be tyavepw KOI
(3ot]0elv OVK ei^ev rjv yap 6 ^(froBpias e'/c TWV

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"%?7> yu,aXt<rra 'yap eicelvov aurot? (fioftepbv elvai,
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TI rore xprjGTOv rj (f)i\dv0 pcorrov eXTTtcrai
TW TraiBi, <TK,fyea6ai, Be </>?;<ra9 o rt
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6 TO Trpoaievai rw KXew^i^yLta),
7roXXa/a9 TOVTO T^9 rj/^epas iroieiv
irpoTepov. etc Be TOVTOV tcaKelvoi TO, /caTa TOV

aireyvwcrav, ci^pi ov T<OV
ETVyuo/tX^? ev TLVL /coivo\oyia
717)69 avTovs dTreyv/jLvwae TTJV yvw/Arjv TOV



\dov TO /AW yap epyov a>9 evi
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qyelcrOai Kal Tr)V TroKuv opdv TOLOVTWV o~Tpa-
5 TIWTMV Beo/Aevrfv. TOVTOVS yap o 'Ayr)(ri\ao<;
e/cdcTTOTe rot'9 Xo7Of9 eiroieiTo irepl T^ Birc^s, rw
TraiBi ^api^eo-Oai /3ouXoyu,eyo9, WCTTC Kal TOV
K\<t>vvfj,ov ev0v$ aladdvecrOai TTJV o-TrovBrjv TOV



TOU9 TOV .

Be



o 'A7'^<rtXao9 BiafapovTO)?' Kal Trepl CKeivov TO
70



AGESILAUS, xxv. 1-5

which his father stood, but he was unable to aid and
assist him openly, since Sphodrias was one of the
opponents of Agesilaiis. But when Cleonymus came
to him in tears and begged him to mollify Agesilaiis,
from whom he and his father had most to fear,
for three or four days he was restrained by awe and
fear from saying anything to Agesilaiis as he followed
him about ; but finally, when the trial was near at
hand, he plucked up courage to tell him that Cleony-
mus had begged him to intercede for his father.
Now Agesilaiis, although he knew of the love of
Archidamus, had not put a stop to it, since Cleonymus,
from his early boyhood, had given special promise
of becoming an earnest and worthy man. At this
time, however, he did not permit his son to expect
any advantage or kindness in ans\ver to his prayer ;
he merely said, as he went away, that he would
consider what was the honourable and fitting course
in the matter. Archidamus was therefore mortified,
and ceased to visit Cleonymus, although before this
he had done so many times a day. As a consequence,
the friends of Sphodrias also were more in despair of
his case, until Etymocles, one of the friends ot
Affesilaus, conferred with them and disclosed the

O *

mind of the king, namely, that he blamed to the
utmost what Sphodrias had done, but yet thought
him a brave man, and saw that the city needed just
such soldiers. For this was the way in which Agesi-
laiis always spoke about the trial, in his desire to
gratify his son, so that Cleonymus was at once aware
of the zealous efforts of Archidamus in his behalf,
and the friends of Sphodrias had courage at last
to come to his help. It is a fact also that Agesilaiis
was excessively fond of his children, and a story is
told of his joining in their childish play. Once,

71



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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AGESILAUS, xxv. 5 xxvi. 3

when they were very small, he bestrode a stick, and
was playing horse with them in the house, and when
he was spied doing this by one of his friends, he
entreated him not to tell any one, until he himself
should be a father of children.

XXVI. But after Sphodrias was acquitted, 1 and the
Athenians, on learning of it, were inclined to go to war.
Agesilaiis was very harshly criticized. It was thought
that, to gratify an absurd and childish desire, he had
opposed the course of justice in a trial, and made the
city accessory to great crimes against the Greeks.
Besides, when he saw that his colleague Cleombrotus
was little inclined to make war upon the Thebans,
he waived the exemption by law which he had
formerly claimed in the matter of the expedition,
and presently led an incursion into Boeotia himself, 2
where he inflicted damage upon the Thebans, and in
his turn met with reverses, so that one day when he
was wounded, Antalcidas said to him : " Indeed, this
is a fine tuition-fee which thou art getting from the
Thebans, for teaching them how to fight when they
did not wish to do it, and did not even know how."
For the Thebans are said to have been really more war-
like at this time than ever before, owing to the many
expeditions which the Lacedaemonians made against
them, by which they were virtually schooled in arms.

/ / *

And Lycurgus of old, in one of his three so-called
" rhetras," forbade his people to make frequent
expeditions against the same foes, in order that those
foes might not learn how to make war. 3

Moreover, the allies of the Lacedaemonians were

1 Of. Xenophon, Hell. v. 4, 24-34.

2 According to Xenophon (Hell. v. 4, 35), lie was asked to
do so by the Lacedaemonians, who preferred him to Cleom-
In'otus as a leader. This was in 378 B.C.

3 Cf. the Lycitryus, xiii. l>.

73



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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1 Cf. the LycuryuSy xxiv. 2.
74



AGESILAUS, xxvi. 3-xxvn. 2

offended at Agesilaiis, because, as they said, it was
not upon any public ground of complaint, but by
reason of some passionate resentment of his own,
that he sought to destroy the Thebans. Accordingly,
they said they had no wish to be dragged hither and
thither to destruction every year, they themselves so
many, and the Lacedaemonians, with whom they
followed, so few. It was at this time, we are told,
that Agesilaiis, wishing to refute their argument from
numbers, devised the folloAving scheme. He ordered
all the allies to sit down by themselves promiscuously,
and the Lacedaemonians apart by themselves. Then
his herald called upon the potters to stand up first,
and after them the smiths, next, the carpenters in
their turn, and the builders, and so on through all the



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