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ra TraXai SeBojf^ei'a irpdriovaiv
irapd TWV 7ro\ep,io)v TTpoaiT6pi<yevea0ai.

-*r -IT -\r TTT rii " V * ' t C f/ '

XXXII 1. IOVTO fJLev ovv OVK otoa OTTW? ijyvo-
oi d\\oi, fJLovos &e eoTro/^TTOs- ijadero. rov
Be crroQfjvaL TT/V ^-rrdpTrfv Tore 7TVT65 atrtov
6/j.o\oyov(TL yeve&dai, rov



with S :
90



ACKSILAUS, xxxi, . 5 xxxin. .

md put them to death in the night. He was also in-
formed of another and a larger conspiracy of Spartans,
who met secretly in a house and there plotted
revolution. It was impracticable either to bring
these men to trial in a time of so much confusion, or
to overlook their plots. Accordingly, Agesilaiis con-

_ t' ' ^j

terred with the ephors, and then put these men also
to death without process of law, although no Spartan
had ever before met with such a death. At this
time, also, many of the provincials and Helots who
had been enrolled in the army ran away from the
city and joined the enemy, and this caused very
deep discouragement. Agesilaiis therefore instructed
his servants to go every morning before it was light
to the barracks and take the arms of the deserters
and hide them, that their numbers might not be
known.

As for the reason why the Thebans withdrew from
Laconia, most writers say that it was because winter
storms came on and the Arcadians began to melt
away and disband ; others, because they had remained
there three entire mouths and thoroughly ravaged

Cj J ^^

most of the country ; ] but Theopompus says that
when the Theban chief magistrates had already de-
termined to take their army back, Phrixus, a
Spartan, came to them, bringing ten talents from
Agesilaiis to pay for their withdrawal, so that thev
were only doing what they had long ago decided to
do, and had their expenses paid by their enemies
besides.

XXXIII. This story may be true, although I know
not how all other writers could be ignorant of it,

t 1 7

while Theopompus alone heard it; but, at any rate,
all agree that the salvation of Sparta at this time was

1 A\\ three reasons are given by Xenophon (Hell. vi. 5. f>u).



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



fJwJ>VTtoV avTW TraO&v, (f)i\oveiKLas KOI
a7rocrTa9, exprjcraro rot? Trpdy/jLacriv V</>aXco9.
2 ov /J,VTOI TTJV ye Bvva/jiiv KOI TTjV Bo^ctv eBvjnjdrj
r? 7roXe&)9 ava\n(Belv eK TOV Trraicr/jLaTOS, aXX'
crw/taro? vyieivov, \lav Be dfcpi/Bei KCU
rjfjLevr) Ke^prffjiivov Siairy rrapa Trdvra TOV
, d/j,apTia pia KOI poirr) TIJV Trdcrav eK\ivev
rrjs TroXew?' OVK 61X070)9. TT/OO? yap



epivrjv fcal dperrjv KOI ofJLovoiav apiara crvv-



Trpoa-ayayovres

KOI Su^acTTeta? (Biaiovs, &v ovSevos ijyeiro
TTO\.LV ev&aijAovws ftiwao/Jievriv o Av/covpyos, <r<pd-



3 AOro? fjiv ovv o 'A7?7crtXao9 ^77 TT/DO? ra?
<TT/3a,Teta? aTreiprjfcei Bid TO yrjpas, 'Ap^t'Sa/xo? 8e -
o f/09 avTOU, Trjv etc Sf/teX/a? ij/covcrav rrapd TOV
TVpdvvov (SorjOeiav e%cov t eviKrfcrev 'Ayo/raSa? T^V
\eyofjievr)V dfta/cpw /^d^rjv ovSels ydp errecre TWV

avTov, cru^^ot'9 Se TWV evapricov dvel\cv.
fjid\L(JTa T^V daOeveiav r]\6y$;V rj vitcri TI^

4 7roXe&)9. rrpoTepov JJL&V ydp OVTCO avvi]6e^ fiyovvTo
Kol TrpocrrjKov epyov CIVTOIS elrat, TO vi/cdv TOU9 TTO-
Xe/xtoL'9, wcrre yu^re (Jveiv

pvova viKV)Tr)pLOV ev TT

TOi/9 dycovicra/jievovs, /HIJTG VTrep^aipeiv TOVS rrvv-

, aXXa Kal TTJ^ ev MavTtveia
, rjv tyouKvoiSvis yeypa(j)e, TW
rrjv VLKTJV ol dpxovTes e/c fyibiTiov Kpeas 615

5 erre/JL^av evayyeXiov, aXXo Be ouBev TOTB Be r?)9

TOV s Ap^iSdfJLOV Trpocr-



i



Dionysius the Elder.
2 In 368 B.C. (Xenophon, HdL vii. 1, 28-32).



92



AGESILAUS, xxxin. 1-5

due to Agebilaiis, because he renounced his inherent
passions of contentiousness and ambition, and adopted
a policy of safety. He could not, however, restore
the power and reputation of his city after its fall, for
it was like a human body that is sound, indeed, but
has followed all the while too strict and severe a
regimen ; a single error turned the scale and
brought down the entire prosperity of the city. Nor
was this strange. For to a civil polity best arranged
for peace and virtue and unanimity they had attached
empires and sovereignties won by force, not one of
which Lycurgus thought needful for a city that was
to live in happiness ; and therefore they fell.

Agesilaiis himself now declined military service on
account of his years, but Archidamus his son, with
assistance which came from the tyrant of Sicily, 1
conquered the Arcadians in the so-called "tearless
battle," where not one of his own men fell, and he
slew great numbers of the enemy. 2 This victory,
more than anything else, showed the weakness of

tf

the city. For up to this time they were wont to
think the conquest of their enemies so customary and
natural a thing for them to achieve, that no sacrifice
for victory was offered in the city to the gods, beyond
that of a cock, neither did the winners of the contest
exult, nor those who heard of their victory show
great joy. Nay, even after the battle at Mantinea, 3
which Thucydides has described, the one who first
announced the victory had no other reward for his
glad tidings than a piece of meat sent by the magis-
trates from the public mess. But now, at the news
of the Arcadian victory and at the approach of

3 In 418 B.C., when the Lacedaemonians defeated an allied
force of Mantineans, Argives, and Athenians (Thucydides,
v. 64-75).

93



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

ovBels efcapTeprja'ev, d\\d TT/OWTO? o
Trarrjp aTrijvra BaKpvwv VTTO %apa^ KOL
eKelvov ra ap^eta, TO)V Be TrpecrftvTepaiv Kal
yvvaiK&v TO 7rXr?$o? eVt TOV Trora/Jibv /carrjei, ra?
re ^ei/oa? opeyovTwv KOI 6eoK\vrovvTU>v, w
ajrewcr fjievrjs ra Trap' a^iav oveiftr) rijs ^
teal \ctfjL7rpbv av9i<$ et; a/3%^}? TO </>w? opuxrrjs' eirel
Trporepov <ye fyacriv ovSe rat? yvvat^lv di>Ti$\e7Tiv
TOLI? avSpas ala")(yvoiJLevov$ efi ol? eTnaia-av.

XXXIV. OlKL^Ofjt>4v7^ ^e M.ecrcrrjvr)s VTTO rwv
rcepl TOV ^TTafjieivu>v&av, /ecu TWV ap^aiwv ?roXt-
T0)v TravT a^od ev e/5 avTrjv crv/j,7ropvo/jLei>wv,
fidyecrOai' p,ev OVK eTo\/AO)v ovSe K(o\veiv
VCLVTO, ^aXeTTW? Se teal /Sapew? Trpo? TOV '
\aov el^ov, QTI %a)pai> OUTC 7r\i^OeL
\aTTOva KOL TrpcoTevovcrav aperf)

%OVTe$ Kal Kap7TOVfJLVOl %pOVOV TOCTOVTOV 7TL

2 TJ)? efccivov ^atr^Xeta? aTroXwXe/cacri. Sib real



VTTO TWV rj/3aia)v Ti]V epivrjv



OVK e'Se^aro. /ir; /5oLXo/ie^o? Be TOJ
TrpoeaQai rot? py<p fcpctTovai TTJV ^
aXXa (f)i\oviKwv, e/ceivijv fjiev OVK dire\a/3e,
pov Be TTJV ^TrdpTrjv 7rpocr(nT/3a\e
3 TrfyrfOei^. ejrel yap ol MavTiveis avOi?

TWV tytjfiaiwv Kal fieTeirefJiTrovTO TOL/? Aa/ce-
alado/jievos o Ei7rafj,eiva)vBa<; TOV
egecrTpaTev/Aevov yu-era T^? Bvvdfj,ea)<>
l TrpocriovTa, \[email protected](6v TOU? Mtti/Tife??
VVKTOS K Teyeas aywv eV avTrjV TTJV

TO (TTpaTevpa, Kal /^tKpbv eBerjcre 7rapa\-



94



AGESILAUSj \\xin. 5 \.\\iv. 3

Archidamus, no one could restrain himself, but first
his father went to meet him, weeping for joy, and
after him the chief magistrates, while the elderly
men and the women went down in a throng to the
river, lifting their hands to heaven and blessing the
gods, as if Sparta had wiped away her unmerited
disgraces and now saw the light shine bright again
as of old ; for before this, we are told, her men could
not so much as look their wives in the face, out of
shame at their disasters.

XXXIV. But when Messene was built by Epami-
nondas, and its former citizens flocked into it from
all quarters, 1 the Spartans had not the courage to
contest the issue nor the ability to hinder it, but
cherished the deepest resentment against Agesilaiis,
because a country which was not of less extent than
their own, which stood first among Hellenic lands
for its fertility, the possession and fruits of which
they had enjoyed for so long a time, had been lost
by them during his reign. For this reason, too,
Agesilaiis would not accept the peace which was
proffered by the Thebans. He was not willing to
give up to them formally the country which was
actually in their power, and persisted in his oppo-
sition. As a consequence, he not only did not re-
cover Messenia, but almost lost Sparta besides, after
being outgeneralled. For when the Mantineans
changed their allegiance, 2 revolted from Thebes,
and called in the Lacedaemonians to help them,
Epaminondas, learning that Agesilaiis had marched
out from Sparta with his forces and was approach-
ing, set out by night from Tegea, without the know-
ledge of the Mantineans, and led his army against
Sparta itself. He passed by Agesilaiis, and came

1 In 3139 B.C. - In 30'J B.C.

95



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



rov t Ayr]criXaov epij/jiov l^atyvrj*} Kara-

4 \aj3elv rrjv rrb\iv. RvOvvov Be C*)e0'7nea)9, a>9
Ka\\ia0evrjs (firjO'LV, GO? Be "B<evo(f)wv, Kp^ro?

, e^ajyeiXavrof ry 'Ay^aiXdw, ra%v rrpo-

irrrrea rot? ev rfj troXei (frpdcTovra,
ov TTO\V Kal auro? 7rapr)\0v t? rr/i^
0X170) &e vcrrepov ol r}(3aioi Bieftcuvov rov Eu-
pwrav teal 7rpocre/3a\\ov TTJ Tro\eL, /zaXa eppw-
lievws TOV 'AyrjaiXtdov Kal Trap* jfXiKia

5 VOVTO?. ov 7/3, w? irpbrepov, acrciaXeta?
TOI^ /caipov ovra KOI <f)v\atct}s, aXXa
airovolas real TO\[JL^, ol? roz^ a\\oi>
ovBeTrore Tria'Tevaas ovSe ^p^crdfj.evo^, rore
aTrewcraTo rov KivBvvov, e/c TWV %eipwv rov 'E?ra-
fieivcovBov ri]V rro\iv e^apjrdcras, Kal crnjcras
rporraiov, Kal rot? iraifrl Kal rat? ryvvaij-iv GTTI-
BeL^as ra /caXXtcrra rpofyela rfj rrarpi&i rov$

6 AaKeBai/AOviov? drco&L&ovras, ev Be Trpwroi? rov

v V7repr)<pdv(0s ry re
rf) Kov^or^rt rov crd)/j,aro$,
ra 0\i/36ueva ri/9 /^%^9 Bi.aOeovra
Bia rwv arevunrwv Kai rravra^ov ^uer' oXiycav

> /5> -v > >r /^ (v \ <> ~

avrepeioovra rot9 TroXe/^toi?' icnoav oe OOKW,
rov <&oi/3iBov v'tov, ov roi9 rro\irai<$ uovov, aXXa
al Tot9 7roXeyu,iot? Oeafia fiavfjvai Katvov 1 Kal

7 d<yao~rov. rjv fj^ev yap eKTrpeir^ ro elco9
TO fueyeOos rov aa)uaro$, wpav Be ev fj ro
arov avOovGiv avOpwrcoi rrapiovres el<$ avBpas
K TrauBayv ei%e, yvfjivo^ Be Kal orr\wv rwv crKerrov-

1 Kaiv))v with Amyot and S : /caAbr (noble).
96



AGESILAUS, xxxiv. 3-7

within a little of suddenly seizing the city in a de
fenceless state. 1 But Euthynus, a Thespian, as
Callisthenes says, or, according to Xenophon, 2 a
certain Cretan, brought word to Agesilaiis, who
quickly sent on a horseman to warn the people in
Sparta, and not long after he himself also entered
the city. Soon after his arrival the Thebans were
crossing the Eurotas and attacking the city, while
Agesilaiis defended it right vigorously and in a
manner not to be expected of his years. For he
did not think, as on a former occasion, that the crisis
demanded safe and cautious measures, but rather
deeds of desperate daring. In these he had never
put confidence before, nor had he employed them,
but then it was only by their aid that he repelled
the danger, snatching the city out of the grasp of
Epaminondas, erecting a trophy of victory, and
showing their wives and children that the Lacedae-

O

monians were making the fairest of all returns to
their country for its rearing of them. Archidamus,
too, fought among the foremost, conspicuous for his
impetuous courage and for his agility, running swiftly
through the narrow streets to the endangered points
in the battle, and everywhere pressing hard upon the
enemy with his few followers. 3 But I think that
Isidas,the son of Phoebidas, must have been a strange
and marvellous sii^ht, not only to his fellow-citizens.

o /

but also to his enemies. He was of conspicuous
beauty and stature, and at an age when the human
flower has the greatest charm, as the boy merges into
the man. Naked as he was, without either defensive

1 " Like a nest of young birds utterly bereft of its natural
defenders" (Xenophon, Hell. vii. 5, 10).

2 Loc. cit. Cf. also Diodorus, xv, S'J. 0.
s Cf. Xenophon, Hell vii. 5, 12-11.

97



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

l ijLaTL(Dv, \iTra pKJa^e.vo^ TO trw/xa, KCLI



T ?7
TT? ot'/a'a?, /eal ^a* i^kcrwv TMV fia^o^evuiv aicrd-



/jLVO<S V TOi? TTO/Ve/UOt? dv(TTp<j)6TO, TTCllWV TOV

8 Trpocrrv^ovra KOI Kcna[3d\\wv. erpwOrf Be VTT



perrjv ^fXaTTO^ro? avrov,



IT jLLOV Ti



vavrlpis. eVt TOUTW 5e \eyerat, TOU? efyo



avrov etra



XXXV. 'OXt7<xt9 8e vcrrepov rj/^epais irepl rrjv
M.ai>TLViav efjia^ecravro, KOI TOV 'EsTra/jLewcovSav
r)&>1 Kparovvra rwv Trpcorcov, en Be eyrcei/jLevov 616
l KaraaTrevBovra T^V Bicofyv, '
fcwv U7TOCTT9 eTraiae Bopan [lev, ft)?

iaToprjKe, AaKeBai/jiovioi Be
i/w TOU? diroryovovs TOV 'AvrifcpaTOVS KO\OV-
2 aiv, oj? fJLay^alpa Trard^avTO^. ovrco yap eOav-



/cal vTreprjydTrrjcrav avrov (ocp TOV



*WZ/TO?, wcrre rt/za?
l Bwpeds tyiifao-aaOai, yevei, B' dreXeiav, rjv eri
?;yu,f7? e^ei KaXXt/c/jar?;?, et? rwi* 'Azm-



Mera Se rrf idv Kal TOV OavaTOv l TOV



yevouevijs clprfwrj*; rot?
vTOvSt aTTrjXavvov 01 Trepl TOV 'A
TOV opKov TOVS Me(r<rr)VLOVs, <w? TTO\LV ovrc e
3 ra?. evrel Be 01 \onrol TrdvTes eBe^ovTo Kal TOV

1 TUV Qavarov with IS : fla
9 8



AGESILAUS, xxxiv. y-xxxv. 3

armour or clothing, for he had just anointed his
body with oil, he took a spear in one hand, and a
sword in the other, leaped forth from his house, and
after pushing his way through the midst of the com-
batants, ranged up and down among the enemy,
smiting and laying low all who encountered him.
And no man gave him a w r ound, whether it was that
a god shielded him on account of his valour, or that
the enemy thought him taller and mightier than a
mere man could be. For this exploit it is said that
the ephors put a garland on his head, and then fined
him a thousand drachmas, because he had dared to
hazard his life in battle without armour.

XXXV. A few days afterwards a battle was fought
near Mantinea, in which Epaminoridas had already
routed the van of the Lacedaemonians, and was still
eagerly pressing on in pursuit of them, 1 when Anti-
crates, a Spartan, faced him and smote him with a
spear, as Dioscorides tells the story ; but the Lace-
daemonians to this day call the descendants of Anti-
crates " machaeriones," or swordsmen, because he used
a sword for the blow. For the Lacedaemonians were
filled with such admiring love for him because of the
fear in which they held Epaminondas while living,
that they voted honours and gifts to Anticrates him-
self, and to his posterity exemption from taxes, an
immunity which in my own day also is enjoyed by
Gallic-rates, one of the descendants of Anticrates.

After the battle and the death of Epaminondas,
when the Greeks concluded peace among them-
selves, Agesilaiis and his partisans tried to exclude
the Messenians from the oath of ratification, on the
ground that they had no city. And when all the

O * 7

rest admitted the Messenians and accepted their
1 Cf. Xenophon, Hell. vii. 5, !>_' -_'4.

99



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

eXdpftavov Trap 1 avrwv, a7rea"rr)crav 01
Kal /novois aurot? TroXe/^o? rjv



ovv ebofcei Kal aTevr)S Kal 7ro\e/j,a>v
o J Ayr)<7i\ao<; eivai, ra? ^\v KOIVCLS
Trdvra rpOTrov vTropvrrcov Kal dvaftd\\ayi> ) ird\Lv



VTTO



\elv rot? Kara TTO\IV 0t\oi9 Kal SaveL&crdai Kal
4 avvepavi^ecrOai, Seov dTrrjXXd^at KaKO)v et? rovro
r nepir]KovTi TW Kaipq*, Kal JJLT) rrjv aTracrav dp")(i]v
ToaavTijv yevofjLevrjv d^eiKora Kal TroXet? leal yfjv
Kal Odkarrav, vvrep TWV ev Mecrcr^z/?? KTrj/jLarcov
Kal Trpo&oScov crtyaBd^eiv.

XXXVI. "Ert Be paXX-ov ^So^cre Ta^w rw
AlyvTTTia) (rTpaTtiyov TTI&OV<> eavrov, ov yap
rj^iovv avSpa TT;? 'EXXaSo? apicrrov KKpifjivov
Kal So^? efjLire7T\^KOTa jrjv oiKOVfJievriv, diro-
/3acrfXea)9, dv6p(7T(p ftapftdpw, ^pijcrai TO
KOI Tovvofjia KOI Trjv B6%av aTro&oadai
p,d'Twv, epya fjucrdofyopov Kal ^evajov
2 TofJievov. Kel ydp vjrep oySoiJKOvra yeyov^ eri)



Kal TTOLV VTTO Tpav/j,dr(i)v TO aw/jLa KaraKKO/ji-



av9 is d

rjye/jioviav vTrep TT<? TWV
e\ev6epia<$, ov TrdfiTrav a/j-e/jLTrrov elvai TI-JV (f)i\o-
Ti/uav rov yap Ka\ov Kaipbv OLKelov elvai Kal



wpav, ^a\\ov 5e oXtw? rd



3 fierpifi) btatpepeir. ov firjv itypovri^e TOVTWV c



J Cf. Diodorus, xv. 89, 1 f.
IOO



AGESILAUS, xxxv. 3-xxxvi. 3

oaths, the Lacedaemonians held aloof from the peace,
and they alone remained at war in the hope of re-
covering Messenia. 1 Agesilaiis was therefore deemed
a headstrong and stubborn man, and insatiable of
war, since he did all in his power to undermine and
postpone the general peace, and again since his lack
of resources compelled him to lay burdens on his
friends in the city and to take loans and contribu-
tions from them. And yet it was his duty to put an
end to their evils, now that opportunity offered, and
not, after having lost Sparta's whole empire, vast as
it was, with its cities and its supremacy on land and
sea, then to carry on a petty struggle for the goods
and revenues of Messene.

XXXVI. He lost still more reputation by offering
to take a command under Tachos the Egyptian. For
it was thought unworthy that a man who had been
judged noblest and best in Hellas, and who had filled
the world with his fame, should furnish a rebel
against the Great King, a mere Barbarian, with his
person, his name, and his fame, and take money for
him, rendering the service of a hired captain of
mercenaries. 1 For even if, now that he was past
eighty years of age and his whole body was dis-
figured with wounds, he had taken up again his
noble and conspicuous leadership in behalf of the
freedom of the Hellenes, his ambition would not
have been altogether blameless, as men thought.
For honourable action has its fitting time and season ;
nay, rather, it is the observance of due bounds that
constitutes an utter difference between honourable
and base actions. Agesilaiis, however, paid no heed

1 Xenophon (Agesilaiis, ii. 28-31) has Agesilaiis take this
step in order to punish the Great King and liberate again
the Greeks of Asia.

101



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

ovBe wero Trap' d^lav elvai Xet-
Tovpyij/Jia Btj/jioo'LOV ovBei', d\\,d jjid\\ov
eavrov TO V}y drrpaKrov ev rfj TroXet KOI
rrepifJievovra rov Odvarov. oOev d



wv o



, Kal 7T\ola TrX^puxra^, dvtfxQr), rpidtcovra



TTporepov.

4 'E?rel Se KareirXevo-ev et? rrjv AiyvTrrov,
ol TrpMTOi ro)V f3a<Ti\iKwv rjye/jiovayv teal
/3d$iov eVl vavv depaTrevovres aviov. r)v Se
KCU TWV a\Xa)v Alyt'TTTiCtiv (TTTOV&ij re /ze^/aXr;
Kal TrpoaSoKia Bid rotn'opa Kal Ti]v B6i;av TOV
'AyrjaiXdov, /cdi (Twerpo^a^ov aTravres eVl TTJV

5 6eav. a>? Be ecopwv XafATrpoTrjra fiev Kal KCtra-
(TKeurjv ov$/jiiai>, dvOpwrrov Be TrpecrfivTTjv Kara-
Ki/j,evov ev TIVI Troa Trapd rrjv 9d\aa-crav, evreXrj
KOL fjLLKpov TO (Tw^d, Tpa%v Kal (f>av\ov i/jLariov
a/zTre^o/^ei'Oi', (JKwTTTeiv avrois Kal <ye\o)T07roieiv
tVr/6/., Kal \eyeiv on rouro TJV TO /j,v6o\oyov-

6 fj-evov wBiVGiv opo?, elra /JLVV dTroreKelv. eVt Be
/jLa\\ov avrov Trjv droiriav eOavfjiaaav, ore
TrpoaKOfjLKrOevTwv Kal rrpoaa^Oevrwv d\evpa
Kal /Moo-^of? xal ^7}/'a? e'Xa/Se, rpaytj/uLara Be

Kal /j.vpa Bid)6eiro, Kal (
Kal \iTrapovvrwv e/ceXei/cre Tot?
BtBovai, KOfJiL^ovra^. rfj /j.evroi <rre<f)ava)rpiBi
/3vft\(p tyrjcrlv avrov t'lcrOevra fyeotfrpacrTOS Bid 617
rijv \irorrjra Kal Ka6apiorr]ra TMV arecfrdvajv
alrrjaaaftai Kal \a/3eiv, ore uTreTrXei, Trapd rov



with Coraes and >S :
IO2



AGESILAUS, xxxvi. 3 6

to these considerations, nor did he think any public
service beneath his dignity ; it was more unworthy
of him, in his opinion, to live an idle life in the
city, and to sit down and wait for death. Therefore
he collected mercenaries with the money which



Tachos sent him, embarked them on transports, and
put to sea, accompanied by thirty Spartan counsellors,
as formerly. 1

As soon as he landed in Egvpt, 2 the chief captains
and governors of the king came down to meet him
and pay him honour. There was great eagerness
and expectation on the part of the other Egyptians
also, owing to the name and fame of Agesilaiis, and
all ran together to behold him. But when they saw
no brilliant array whatever, but an old man lying
in some grass by the sea, his body small and con-
temptible, covered with a cloak that was coarse and
mean, they were moved to laughter and jesting,
saying that here was an illustration of the fable, " a
mountain is in travail, and then a mouse is born." 3
They were still more surprised, too, at his eccen-
tricity. When all manner of hospitable gifts were
brought to him, he accepted the flour, the calves,
and the geese, but rejected the sweetmeats, the
pastries, and the perfumes, and when he was urged
and besought to take them, ordered them to be
carried and given to his Helots. He was pleased,
however, as Theophrastus tells us, with the papyrus
used in chaplets, because the chaplets were so neat
and simple, and when he left Egypt, asked and
received some from the king.

1 Cf. chapter vi. 2. a 301 B.C.

3 In Athenaeus, p. 610 d, it is Tachos himself who makes
this jest upon Agesilaiis, who i . -plies in an^or : "Someday
you will think me a lion."

103



PLUTARCH'S LIVES



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6 jiev &)? 7rd\.at



104



AGESILAUS, xxxvn. 1-5

XXXVII. But now, on joining Tachos, who was
making preparations for his expedition, he was not,
as he expected, appointed commander of all the
forces, but only of the mercenaries, while Chabrias
the Athenian had charge of the fleet, and Tachos
himself was commander-in-chief. 1 This was the first
thing that vexed Agesilatis ; then, though he was
indignant at the vain pretensions of the king in other
matters, he was compelled to endure them. He
even sailed with him against the Phoenicians, forcing
himself into a subservience which was beneath his
dignity and contrary to his nature, until he found
his opportunity.

For Nectanabis, who was a cousin of Tachos and
had a part of the forces under his command, revolted
from him, and having been proclaimed king by the
Egyptians, sent to Agesilaiis asking for his aid and
assistance. He made the same appeal to Chabrias
also, promising large gifts to both. When Tachos
learned of this and resorted to entreaties for their
allegiance, Chabrias tried to persuade and encourage
Agesilaiis to continue with him in the friendship of
Tachos. But Agesilaiis said : " You, Chabrias, who
came here on your own account, can decide your own
case ; but I was given by my country to the Egyptians
as a general. It would therefore be dishonourable
for me to make war on those to whom I was sent as
an ally, unless my country gives me a new command
to do so." After these words, he sent men to
Sparta who were to denounce Tachos, and commend
Nectanabis. Tachos and Nectanabis also sent and
besought the support of the Lacedaemonians, the
former on the ground that he had long been their
ally and friend, the latter on the plea that he would

1 Cf. Diudorus, xv. 1>2, 2 f.



IO



PLUTARCH'S LIVES

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