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are the things you fight for."

X. When the season for active operations returned he announced his
intention of marching into Lydia, not meaning thereby to deceive
Tissaphernes; but Tissaphernes deceived himself, for he distrusted
Agesilaus on account of his former stratagem. He therefore concluded
that it was Agesilaus's real intention to invade Karia, especially as
he was weak in cavalry, which could not act in that province. When,
however, Agesilaus, as he had announced, marched into the level
country near Sardis, Tissaphernes was obliged to hurry thither with
all speed; and by means of his cavalry he cut off many stragglers from
the Greek army. Agesilaus now perceived that the enemy's infantry had
not come up, while he had all his troops in hand. He at once
determined to fight, and having formed his cavalry and light-armed
troops into one mixed body he ordered them to advance at once and
attack the enemy, while he led on the heavy infantry in person. The
Persians were routed, and the Greeks, following up their victory, took
the enemy's camp with great slaughter. This victory not only enabled
them to plunder the king's territories undisturbed, but also gave them
the satisfaction of hearing that Tissaphernes, a bad man, and one for
whom all the Greeks felt an especial hatred, had at length met with
his deserts. Immediately after the battle the king of Persia sent
Tithraustes to him, who caused him to be beheaded. Tithraustes now
begged Agesilaus to make peace and leave the country, and offered him
money if he would do so. Agesilaus answered that he had no power to
make peace or war, but that such propositions must be referred to the
authorities at home; while as to money he said that he preferred
enriching his soldiers to enriching himself, and that among the Greeks
it was not considered honourable to receive bribes, but rather to take
plunder from their enemies. Nevertheless, wishing to oblige
Tithraustes, because he had avenged Greece upon that common enemy of
all, Tissaphernes, he removed his army into Phrygia, receiving a sum
of thirty talents from Tithraustes for the maintenance of his

During his march he received a despatch from the government of Sparta,
appointing him to the command of the naval as well as of the military
forces in Asia. He was now at the zenith of his fame and the greatest
man of his age, as Theopompus truly observes; yet he had more reason
to be proud of his virtue than of his power. He was thought, however,
to have committed an error in placing Peisander in command of the
fleet, disregarding the claims of older and more experienced men, and
preferring the advancement of his wife's brother to the interests of
his country.

XI. Having established his army in the province ruled by Pharnabazus,
he not only found abundance of provisions, but also was able to amass
much booty. He marched as far as the borders of Paphlagonia, and
gained the alliance of Kotys,[177] the king of that country.

Spithridatos, ever since he had revolted from Pharnabazus, had
constantly accompanied Agesilaus, together with his very handsome son,
named Megabates, of whom Agesilaus was greatly enamoured, and a fair
daughter. Agesilaus persuaded King Kotys to marry this girl, and
received from him a force of one thousand horsemen, and two thousand
light troops, called peltasts. With these he returned into Phrygia,
and laid waste the country of Pharnabazus, who dared not meet him in
the field, and feared to trust himself in any of his fortresses, but
hovered about the country, taking his valuable property with him, and
keeping his place of encampment as secret as he could. The watchful
Spithridates, however, at last found an opportunity to attack him,
and, with Herippidas the Spartan, took his camp and all his property.
On this occasion Herippidas acted with great harshness in ordering all
the plunder to be given up to be sold by auction, according to Greek
usage. He forced the barbarian allies to disgorge their booty, and
searched for all that had been captured in so offensive a manner that
Spithridates, in disgust at his conduct, at once went off to Sardis,
taking with him the entire Paphlagonian force.

We are told that Agesilaus was terribly chagrined at this. He felt
vexed at losing a good friend in Spithridates, and losing, too, a
large force with him, while he was ashamed of the character for
meanness and avarice which this miserable squabble would gain for
Sparta, especially as he had always prided himself on showing a
contempt for money both in politics and in private life.

XII. After this, Pharnabazus was desirous of conferring with him, and
a meeting was arranged between them by a friend of both, Apollophanes
of Kyzikus. Agesilaus arrived first, and sitting down upon some thick
grass under the shade of a tree, awaited the coming of Pharnabazus.
Presently Pharnabazus arrived, with soft rugs and curiously-wrought
carpets, but on seeing Agesilaus simply seated on the ground, he felt
ashamed to use them, and sat down on the ground beside him, although
he was dressed in a magnificent robe of many colours. They now greeted
one another, and Pharnabazus stated his case very fairly, pointing out
that he had done much good service to the Lacedæmonians during their
war with Athens, and yet that his province was now being laid waste by
them. Seeing all the Spartans round him hanging down their heads with
shame, and not knowing what to answer because they knew that what
Pharnabazus said was true, Agesilaus said: "We Spartans, Pharnabazus,
were formerly at peace with your king, and then we respected his
territory as that of a friend. Now we are at war with him, and regard
all his property as that of an enemy. Now as we see that you still
wish to belong to the king, we very naturally endeavour by injuring
you to injure him. But from the day on which you shall declare that
you will be a friend and ally of the Greeks rather than a slave of the
king of Persia, you may regard this fleet and army and all of us, as
the guardians of your property, of your liberty, and of all that makes
life honourable and enjoyable." In answer to this, Pharnabazus said:
"If the king shall send any other general, and put me under him, I
will join you. But if he places me in command, I will cheerfully obey
him, and will fight you and do you all the mischief in my power."

Agesilaus was struck by the high-minded tone of this reply, and at
once rose and took him by the hand, saying, "Would to God,
Pharnabazus, that such a man as you might become our friend rather
than our enemy."

XIII. As Pharnabazus was retiring with his friends, his son stayed
behind, and running up to Agesilaus said with a smile, "Agesilaus, I
make you my guest,"[178] and gave him a fine javelin which he carried
in his hand.

Agesilaus gladly accepted this offer, and, delighted with the engaging
manners and evident friendship of the young man, looked round for some
suitable present, and seeing that the horse of his secretary Idæus was
adorned with fine trappings, took them off and gave them to the boy.
Agesilaus never forgot the connection thus formed between them, but in
after days, when the son of Pharnabazus was impoverished and driven
into exile by his brother, he welcomed him to the Peloponnese, and
provided him with protection and a home. He even went so far as to
employ his influence in favour of an Athenian youth to whom the son of
Pharnabazus was attached. This boy had outgrown the age and size of
the boy-runners in the Olympic stadium, and was consequently refused
leave to compete in that race. Upon this the Persian made a special
application to Agesilaus on his behalf; and Agesilaus, willing to do
anything to please his protégé, with great difficulty and management
induced the judges to admit the boy as a competitor. This, indeed, was
the character of Agesilaus, disinterested and just in all matters
except in furthering the interests of his friends, in which case he
seems to have hesitated at nothing. A letter of his to Idrilus, the
Karian, runs as follows: "If Nikias be innocent, acquit him; if he be
guilty, acquit him for my sake; but in any case acquit him." Such was
Agesilaus in most cases where his friends were concerned; although in
some few instances he allowed expediency to prevail over affection,
and sacrificed his personal friend to the general advantage, as, for
example, once, when owing to a sudden alarm the camp was being
hurriedly broken up, he left a sick friend behind in spite of his
passionate entreaties, observing as he did so, that it is hard to be
wise and compassionate at the same time. This anecdote has been
preserved by the philosopher Hieronymus.

XIV. Agesilaus was now in the second year of his command in Asia, and
had become one of the foremost men of his time, being greatly admired
and esteemed for his remarkable sobriety and frugality of life. When
away from his headquarters he used to pitch his tent within the
precincts of the most sacred temples, thus making the gods witnesses
of the most private details of his life. Among thousands of soldiers,
moreover, there was scarcely one that used a worse mattress than
Agesilaus. With regard to extremes of heat and cold, he seemed so
constituted as to be able to enjoy whatever weather the gods might
send. It was a pleasant and enjoyable spectacle for the Greek
inhabitants of Asia to see their former tyrants, the deputy governors
of cities and generals of provinces, who used to be so offensively
proud, insolent, and profusely luxurious, now trembling before a man
who walked about in a plain cloak, and altering their whole conduct in
obedience to his curt Laconian sayings. Many used to quote the proverb
of Timotheus, that "Ares alone is king, and Hellas fears not the power
of gold."

XV. The whole of Asia Minor was now excited, and ripe for revolt.
Agesilaus established order[179] in the cities on the coast by mild
measures, without either banishing or putting to death any of the
citizens, and next determined to advance farther, and transfer the
theatre of war from the Ionic coast to the interior. He hoped thus to
force the Persian king to fight for his very existence, and for his
pleasant palaces at Susa and Ecbatana, and at any rate to keep him
fully employed, so that from henceforth he might have no leisure or
means to act as arbitrator between the Greek states in their disputes,
and to corrupt their statesmen by bribes. At this crisis, however,
there arrived the Spartan Epikydides. He announced that Sparta was
involved in an important war with Thebes and other Greek states, and
brought an imperative summons from the ephors to Agesilaus to return
at once and assist his countrymen at home.

"O Greeks, that will upon yourselves impose
Such miserable, more than Persian woes."

It is pitiable to think of the malevolence and ill-will which produced
this war, and arrayed the states of Greece against one another,
putting a stop to such a glorious career of conquest at its very
outset, exchanging a foreign for a civil war, and recalling the arms
which were being used against the Persians to point them at Grecian
breasts. I cannot agree with the Corinthian, Demaratus, when he says
that those Greeks who did not see Alexander seated upon the throne of
Darius lost one of the most delightful spectacles in the world. I
think they would have been more likely to weep when they reflected
that this conquest was left for Alexander and the Macedonians to
effect, by those Greek generals who wasted the resources of their
country in the battles of Leuktra and Koronea, Corinth and Mantinea.
Still, nothing is more honourable to Agesilaus than the promptitude
with which he withdrew from Asia, nor can we easily find another
example of straightforward obedience and self-sacrifice in a general.
Hannibal was in great difficulties and straits in Italy, and yet
yielded a very unwilling obedience when summoned home to protect
Carthage, while Alexander merely sneered at the news of the battle
between Agis and Antipater, observing, "It appears, my friends, that
while we have been conquering Darius here, there has been a battle of
mice in Arcadia."

Well then does Sparta deserve to be congratulated on the love for her
and the respect for her laws which Agesilaus showed on this occasion,
when, as soon as the despatch reached him, he at once stopped his
prosperous and victorious career, gave up his soaring hopes of
conquest, and marched home, leaving his work unfinished, regretted
greatly by all his allies, and having signally confuted the saying of
Phæax the son of Erasistratus, that the Lacedæmonians act best as a
state, and the Athenians as individuals. He proved himself indeed to
be a good king and a good general, but those who know him most
intimately prized him more as a friend and companion than as either a
king or a soldier.

The Persian gold coins bore the device of an archer: and Agesilaus as
he broke up his camp observed that he was being driven out of Asia by
ten thousand archers, meaning that so many of these coins had been
distributed among the statesmen of Athens and Thebes, to bribe them
into forcing those countries to go to war with Sparta.

XVI. He now crossed the Hellespont and proceeded through Thrace. Here
he did not ask leave of any of the barbarian tribes to traverse their
country, but merely inquired whether they would prefer him to treat
them as friends or as enemies during his passage. All the tribes
received him in a friendly manner and escorted him through their land,
except the Trallians,[180] to whom it is said that Xerxes himself gave
presents, who demanded from Agesilaus a hundred talents of silver and
a hundred female slaves for his passage. He answered, "Why did they
not come at once and take them;" and immediately marched into their
country, where he found them strongly posted, and routed them with
great slaughter.

He made the same enquiry, about peace or war, of the King of
Macedonia, and on receiving the answer that he would consider the
question, "Let him consider," said he, "but let us march in the
meanwhile." Struck with admiration and fear at his daring, the king
bade him pass through as a friend. On reaching the country of
Thessaly, he found the Thessalians in alliance with the enemies of
Sparta, and laid waste their lands. He sent however Xenokles and
Skythes to Larissa, the chief town in Thessaly, to arrange terms of
peace. These men were seized upon by the Thessalians and cast into
prison, at which the army was greatly excited, thinking that Agesilaus
could do no less than besiege and take Larissa. He, on the other hand,
said that he valued the lives of either of these two men more than all
Thessaly, and obtained their release by negotiation. This ought not to
surprise us in Agesilaus, for when he heard of the great battle at
Corinth where so many distinguished men fell, and where though many of
the enemy perished the Spartan loss was very small, he showed no signs
of exultation, but sighed heavily, and said, "Alas for Greece, that
she should by her own fault have lost so many men, who if they were
alive could conquer all the barbarians in the world."

The Thessalian tribe of the Pharsalians[181] now attacked his army,
upon which he charged them with five hundred horse, and having routed
them erected a trophy near Mount Narthakius. Agesilaus took great
pride in this victory, because in it he had defeated the Thessalian
horsemen, supposed to be the best in Greece, with cavalry disciplined
by himself in Asia.

XVII. He was here met by Diphridas the Ephor, who brought him orders
to invade Bœotia immediately. Although he had intended to make more
extensive preparations, he thought it right at once to obey, and
informed his friends that the day for which they had marched all the
way from Asia would soon be at hand. He also sent for a reinforcement
of two moras[182] from the army at Corinth. The Lacedæmonium
government at home, also, wishing to do him honour, made proclamation
that whosoever would might enrol himself to serve the King. All
eagerly gave in their names, and from them the ephors selected fifty
of the strongest, whom they sent to Agesilaus as a body-guard. He now
marched through Thermopylæ, crossed the friendly country of Phokis,
and entered Bœotia near Chæronea. While encamped there, he observed
that the sun was eclipsed and became crescent-shaped, and at the same
time came the news of the defeat and death of Peisander in a great
sea-fight off Knidus, against Pharnabazus and Konon the Athenian.
Agesilaus was naturally grieved both at his brother-in-law's death and
at the disaster which had befallen Sparta, but as he feared to damp
the courage of his soldiers on the eve of battle, he ordered the
messengers to spread the contrary intelligence, that the Spartans had
been victorious in the sea-fight, and he himself appeared with a
garland on his head, offered sacrifice as though he had heard good
news, and distributed portions of the meat to his friends, as presents
of congratulation.

XVIII. Proceeding on his march through Bœotia he reached Koroneia,
where he came into the presence of the enemy, and arrayed his forces
for battle, placing the men of Orchomenos[183] on the left wing, while
he led the right in person. In the army of the allies the Thebans
formed the right, and the Argives the left wing. Xenophon informs us
that this battle was the most furiously contested one that ever was
known. He himself was an eye-witness of it, as he had served with
Agesilaus during his Asiatic campaign, and had accompanied him on his
return to Europe. The first shock was not very severe, as the Thebans
easily overthrew the Orchomenians, while Agesilaus with equal ease
routed the Argives. When, however, each of these victorious bodies
heard that their left was hard pressed and retiring, they at once
ceased from following up their success and halted where they stood.
Agesilaus might now easily have won a partial victory, by allowing the
Thebans to pass back again through his own lines and attacking them as
they did so. Instead of this, his fierce spirit led him to form his
troops in close order and attack them front to front. The Thebans
fought with no less courage, and a terrible battle raged all along the
line, but most fiercely at the point where the chosen body-guard of
fifty men fought round the Spartan king. The courage of these men
saved the life of Agesilaus, for they recklessly exposed themselves in
his defence, and by their exertions, although they could not prevent
his being severely wounded, yet by receiving on their bodies through
their shields and armour many blows which were intended for him, they
succeeded in dragging him from where he had fallen among the enemy,
and formed a bulwark around him, slaying many of the enemy, but with
great loss to themselves.

The Lacedæmonians, unable to force back the Thebans, were at length
compelled to open their ranks, and let them pass through, which at
first they had scorned to do. They then assailed them on the flanks
and rear as they passed. Yet they could not boast of having conquered
the Thebans, who drew off and rejoined their comrades on Mount
Helikon, with the proud conviction that in the battle they at any rate
had not been defeated.

XIX. Agesilaus, although suffering from many wounds, refused to go to
his tent before he had been carried on men's shoulders round the army,
and had seen all the dead brought off the field of battle. He gave
orders that some Thebans who had taken refuge in a neighbouring temple
should be dismissed unharmed. This was the temple of Athena Itonia,
and before it stands a trophy, erected by the Bœotians under Sparton,
many years before, in memory of a victory which they had won over the
Athenians under Tolmides, who fell in that battle.

Next morning Agesilaus, wishing to discover whether the Thebans would
renew the contest, ordered his soldiers to crown themselves with
garlands, and the flute-players to play martial music while a trophy
was erected in honour of the victory. When the enemy sent to ask for a
truce for the burial of their dead, he granted it, and having thus
confirmed his victory, caused himself to be carried to Delphi. Here
the Pythian games were being celebrated, and Agesilaus not only took
part in the procession in honour of the god, but also dedicated to him
the tithe of the spoils of his Asiatic campaign, which amounted to one
hundred talents.

On his return home, he was loved and admired by all his
fellow-countrymen for his simple habits of life; for he did not, like
so many generals, return quite a different man, corrupted by foreign
manners, and dissatisfied with those of his own country, but, just
like those who had never crossed the Eurotas, he loved and respected
the old Spartan fashions, and would not alter his dining at the public
table, his bath, his domestic life with his wife, his care of his
arms, or the furniture of his house, the doors of which we are told by
Xenophon, were so old that it was thought that they must be the
original ones put up by Aristodemus. Xenophon also tells us that the
_kanathrum_ of his daughter was not at all finer than that of other

A _kanathrum_ is a fantastic wooden car, shaped like a griffin or an
antelope, in which children are carried in sacred processions.
Xenophon does not mention the name of Agesilaus's daughter, and
Dikæarchus is much grieved at this, observing that we do not know the
name either of the daughter of Agesilaus or of the mother of
Epameinondas; I, however, have discovered, by consulting Lacedæmonium
records, that the wife of Agesilaus was named Kleora, and that she had
two daughters, named Eupolia and Prolyta. His spear also may be seen
at the present day in Sparta, and differs in no respect from that of
any other Lacedæmonium.

XX. Perceiving that many of his countrymen bred horses, and gave
themselves great airs in consequence, he induced his sister Kyniske to
enter a four-horse chariot for the race at Olympia, to prove to them
that the winning of this prize depends not upon a man's courage, but
upon his wealth, and the amount of money which he spends upon it. As
Xenophon the philosopher was still with him, he advised him to send
for his sons and educate them in Lacedæmon, that they might learn the
most important of all lessons, to command and to obey.

Lysander was now dead, but Agesilaus found still existing an important
conspiracy against himself, which Lysander had set on foot when he
returned from Asia. Agesilaus now eagerly undertook to prove what
Lysander's true character had been; and having read amongst the papers
of the deceased that speech which Kleon of Halikarnassus wrote for
him, treating of reforms and alterations of the constitution, which
Lysander meant some day to address to the people of Sparta, he wished
to make it public. However, one of the senators, after reading the
speech, was alarmed at the plausible nature of the argument which it
contained, and advised Agesilaus not to dig Lysander out of his grave,
but rather to bury the speech with him. This advice caused Agesilaus
to desist from his project. He never openly attacked his political
enemies, but contrived to get them appointed generals and governors of
cities. When they displayed their bad qualities in these posts and
were recalled to take their trial he used to come forward as their
friend and by his exertions on their behalf make them his active
partisans instead of his enemies, so that before long he succeeded in
breaking up the party which was opposed to him, and reigned alone
without any rival; for the other king, Agesipolis, whose father had
been an exile, and who was himself very young, and of a mild and
unassuming temper, counted for nothing in the state. Agesilaus won
over this man also, and made a friend of him; for the two kings dine
at the same _phiditium_, or public table, when they are at Sparta.
Knowing Agesipolis, like himself, to be prone to form attachments to
young men, he always led the conversation to this subject, and
encouraged the young king in doing so; for these love affairs among
Lacedæmonians have in them nothing disgraceful, but produce much
modest emulation and desire for glory, as has been explained in the
Life of Lykurgus.

XXI. Being now the most powerful man in Sparta, Agesilaus obtained the
appointment of admiral of the fleet for Teleutias, his half-brother;
and thereupon making an expedition against Corinth, he made himself
master of the long walls by land, through the assistance of his

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