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retreat. Pompeius taking advantage of this opportunity advanced
rapidly and began to cross the ravine. But the soldiers of Domitius
were in disorder and confusion, and what resistance they offered was
neither made by the whole body nor yet in any regular manner: the wind
also veered round and blew the storm right in their faces. However the
storm confused the Romans also, for they did not see one another
clearly, and Pompeius himself had a narrow escape with his life, not
being recognised by a soldier to whom he was somewhat slow in giving
the word on being asked for it. Having repulsed the enemy with great
slaughter (for it is said that out of twenty thousand only three
thousand escaped) they saluted Pompeius with the title of Imperator.
But Pompeius said that he would not accept the honour, so long as the
enemy's encampment was standing, and if they thought him worthy of
this title they must first destroy the camp, upon which they forthwith
rushed against the rampart, and Pompeius fought without a helmet for
fear of what just had happened. The camp was taken and Domitius fell.
Some of the cities immediately submitted, and others were taken by
storm. Pompeius also made a prisoner of Iarbas,[211] one of the kings,
who had sided with Domitius, and he gave his kingdom to Hiempsal.
Availing himself of his success and the strength of his army he
invaded Numidia. After advancing many days' march and subduing all
whom he met with, and firmly establishing the dread of the Romans
among the barbarians which had now somewhat subsided, he said that he
ought not to leave even the wild beasts of Libya, without letting them
have some experience of the strength and courage of the Romans.
Accordingly he spent a few days in hunting lions and elephants;[212]
and in forty days in all, as it is said, he defeated his enemies,
subdued Libya, and settled all the affairs of the kings, being then in
his four and twentieth year.

XIII. On his return to Utica he received letters from Sulla, with
orders to disband the rest of the army, and to wait there with one
legion for his successor in the command. Pompeius was annoyed at this
and took it ill, though he did not show it; but the army openly
expressed their dissatisfaction, and when Pompeius requested them to
advance, they abused Sulla, and they said they would not let Pompeius
be exposed to danger without them, and they advised him not to trust
the tyrant. At first Pompeius endeavoured to mollify and quiet them,
but finding that he could not prevail, he descended from the tribunal
and went to his tent weeping. But the soldiers laid hold of him and
again placed him on the tribunal, and a great part of the day was
spent in the soldiers urging him to stay and be their leader, and in
Pompeius entreating the soldiers to be obedient and not to mutiny,
till at last, as they still urged him and drowned his voice with their
cries, he swore he would kill himself, if they forced him; and so at
last with great difficulty they were induced to stop. Sulla at first
received intelligence that Pompeius had revolted, on which he said to
his friends, it was his fate now that he was old to fight with boys,
alluding to the fact that Marius, who was very young, gave him most
trouble, and brought him into the extremest danger; but on hearing the
true state of affairs, and perceiving that everybody with right good
will was eager to receive Pompeius and to escort him, he made haste to
outdo them. Accordingly he advanced and met Pompeius, and receiving
him with all possible expressions of good-will, he saluted him with a
loud voice by the name of Magnus,[213] and he bade those who were
present to address him in the same way. The word Magnus means Great.
Others say that it was in Libya first that the whole army with
acclamation pronounced the name, and that it obtained strength and
currency by being confirmed by Sulla. But Pompeius himself, after
everybody else, and some time later when he was sent into Iberia as
proconsul against Sertorius, began to call himself in his letters and
edicts Magnus Pompeius; for the name was no longer invidious when
people had been made familiar with it. And here one may justly admire
and respect the old Romans, who requited with such appellations and
titles not success in war and battles only, but honoured therewith
political services and merits also. Two men accordingly the people
proclaimed Maximi, which means the Greatest; Valerius,[214] because he
reconciled the senate to the people when there was a misunderstanding
between them; and Fabius Rullus,[215] because he ejected from the
senate certain rich persons the children of freedmen who had been
enrolled in the list of senators.

XIV. After this Pompeius asked for a triumph, but Sulla opposed his
claim: for the law gives a triumph to a consul or to a prætor[216]
only, but to no one else. And this is the reason why the first Scipio,
after defeating the Carthaginians in greater and more important
contests in Iberia, did not ask for a triumph, for he was not consul,
nor yet prætor. Sulla considered that if Pompeius, who was not yet
well bearded, should enter the city in triumph, he who, by reason of
his age, was not yet a member of the senate, both his own office and
the honour given to Pompeius would be exposed to much obloquy. Sulla
made these remarks to Pompeius, to show that he did not intend to let
him have a triumph, but would resist him and check his ambition, if he
would not listen to reason. Pompeius, however, was not cowed, but he
told Sulla to reflect, that more men worship the rising than the
setting sun, intending him to understand that his own power was on the
increase, but that the power of Sulla was diminishing and fading away.
Sulla did not distinctly hear these words, but observing that those
who did hear them, by looks and gestures expressed their astonishment,
he asked what it was that Pompeius had said. When he heard what it
was, he was confounded at the boldness of Pompeius, and called out
twice, "Let him triumph!" Now many persons were annoyed, and expressed
their dissatisfaction at the triumph, on which Pompeius, wishing to
annoy them still more, it is said, made preparation for entering the
city in a car drawn by four elephants,[217] for he brought from Libya
many of the king's elephants that he had taken; but as the gate was
too narrow, he gave up his project and contented himself with horses.
The soldiers, who had not obtained as much as they expected, were
ready to make a disturbance and impede the triumph, but Pompeius said
that he cared not for it, and would rather give up the triumph than
humour them; whereupon Servilius,[218] a man of distinction, who had
made most opposition to the triumph of Pompeius, said, Now he
perceived that Pompeius was really Great and was worthy of the
triumph. It is also certain that he might then have been easily
admitted into the senate, if he had chosen; but he showed no eagerness
for it, seeking, as they say, reputation from what was unusual. For it
was nothing surprising if Pompeius were a senator before the age, but
it was a most distinguished honour for him to triumph before he was a
senator. Another thing also gained him the good-will of the many in no
small degree, for the people were delighted at his being reviewed
among the Equites after the triumph.

XV. Sulla[219] was annoyed to see to what a height of reputation and
power Pompeius was advancing, but as he was ashamed to attempt to
check his career he kept quiet. However, when Pompeius had brought
about the election of Lepidus as consul in spite of Sulla and against
his wish, by canvassing for Lepidus, and by employing the affection of
the people towards himself to induce them to favour Lepidus, Sulla
seeing Pompeius retiring with the crowd through the Forum, said, "I
see, young man, that you are pleased with your victory: and indeed how
can it be otherwise than generous and noble, for Lepidus, the vilest
of men, to be declared consul before Catulus the best, through your
management of the people? However, it is time for you not to slumber,
but to attend to affairs, for you have strengthened your rival against
yourself." Sulla showed mainly by his testament that he was not well
disposed to Pompeius, for he left legacies to his other friends, and
made them his son's guardians, but he passed over Pompeius
altogether. But Pompeius took this very quietly, and behaved on the
occasion as a citizen should do; and accordingly, when Lepidus and
some others were putting impediments in the way of the body being
interred in the Field of Mars, and were not for allowing the funeral
to be public, Pompeius brought his aid, and gave to the interment both
splendour and security.

XVI. As soon as Sulla's death made his prophetic warnings manifest,
and Lepidus was attempting to put himself in Sulla's place, not by any
circuitous movement or contrivance, but by taking up arms forthwith,
and again stirring up and gathering round him the remnants of the
factions which had long been enfeebled and had escaped from Sulla; and
his colleague Catulus, to whom the most honest and soundest part of
the Senate and the people attached themselves, was the first of the
Romans of the day for reputation of temperance and integrity, but was
considered to be better adapted for the conduct of civil than of
military affairs, and circumstances themselves were calling for
Pompeius, he did not hesitate what course to take, but attaching
himself to the optimates,[220] he was appointed commander of a force
to oppose Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large part of Italy
and held with an army under the command of Brutus, Gaul within the
Alps. Now Pompeius easily defeated the rest whom he attacked, but at
Mutina[221] in Gaul he sat down for some time opposite to Brutus,
while Lepidus having hurried on to Rome and posted himself before the
walls was demanding a second consulship and terrifying the citizens
with a numerous army. But the alarm was ended by a letter from
Pompeius, who had brought the war to a fortunate issue without a
battle. For Brutus, whether it was that he gave up his force himself
or was betrayed by his army changing sides, surrendered his person to
Pompeius and with some horsemen as an escort retired to one of the
small towns near the Padus, where after the interval of a single day
he was put to death by Geminius, whom Pompeius sent to him; and
Pompeius was much blamed for this. For at the very commencement of the
affair of the army changing sides, he wrote to the Senate that
Brutus[222] had voluntarily surrendered, and he then sent another
letter in which he criminated the man after he was put to death. This
Brutus was the father of the Brutus who together with Cassius killed
Cæsar, a man who neither fought nor died like his father, as is told
in his Life. As soon as Lepidus was driven from Italy, he made his
escape into Sardinia, where he fell sick and died of vexation, not at
the state of affairs, as they say, but from finding some writing by
which he discovered that his wife had committed adultery.

XVII. But a general, Sertorius,[223] who in no respect resembled
Lepidus, was in possession of Iberia and was hovering over the other
Romans, a formidable adversary; for the civil wars had concentrated
themselves as in a final disease in this one man, who had already
destroyed many of the inferior commanders, and was then engaged with
Metellus Pius, who was indeed a distinguished soldier and of great
military ability, but owing to old age was considered to be following
up the opportunities of war somewhat tardily, and was anticipated in
his plans by the quickness and rapidity of Sertorius, who attacked him
at all hazards and somewhat in robber fashion, and by his ambuscades
and circuitous movements confounded a man well practised in regular
battles and used to command a force of heavy-armed soldiers trained to
close fighting. Upon this Pompeius, who had an army under his command,
bestirred himself to be sent out to support Metellus; and though
Catulus ordered him to disband his force he would not obey, but kept
under arms in the neighbourhood of the city continually inventing
excuses, until the command was given to him on the proposal of Lucius
Philippus. It was on this occasion, as it is said, that some one in
the Senate asked Philippus with some surprise, if he thought that
Pompeius ought to be sent out as Proconsul,[224] and Philippus
replied, "Not as Proconsul, as I think, but in place of the Consuls,"
meaning that both the consuls of that year were good for nothing. I

XVIII. When Pompeius arrived in Iberia, as it usually happens with the
reputation of a new commander, he gave the people great hopes, and the
nations which were not firmly attached to the party of Sertorius began
to stir themselves and change sides; whereupon Sertorius gave vent to
arrogant expressions against Pompeius, and scoffingly said, he should
only need a cane and a whip for this youth, if he were not afraid of
that old woman, meaning Metellus. However he conducted his military
operations with more caution, as in fact he kept a close watch on
Pompeius and was afraid of him. For contrary to what one would have
expected, Metellus had become very luxurious in his mode of life and
had completely given himself up to pleasure, and there had been all at
once a great change in him to habits of pride and extravagance, so
that this also brought Pompeius a surpassing good-will and reputation,
inasmuch as he maintained a frugal mode of living, a thing that cost
him no great pains, for he was naturally temperate and well regulated
in his desires. Though there were many vicissitudes in the war, the
capture of Lauron by Sertorius gave Pompeius most annoyance; for while
he supposed that Sertorius was surrounded, and had uttered certain
boasting expressions, all at once it appeared that he himself was
completely hemmed in, and as for this reason he was afraid to stir, he
saw the city burnt before his face. But he defeated, near Valentia,
Herennius and Perpenna, who were men of military talent, and among
others had fled to Sertorius and served under him; and he slaughtered
above ten thousand of their men.

XIX. Elated by this success, and full of great designs, he hastened
to attack Sertorius himself, in order that Metellus might not share
the victory. They engaged on the banks of the Sucro, though it was
near the close of day, both parties fearing the arrival of Metellus,
one wishing to fight by himself, and the other wishing to have only
one opponent. The issue of the battle was doubtful, for one wing was
victorious on each side; but of the two commanders-in-chief Sertorius
got the more honour, for he put to flight the enemy who were opposed
to him. A man of tall stature, an infantry soldier, attacked Pompeius,
who was on horseback; and as they closed and came to a struggle, the
blows of the swords fell on the hands of both, but not with the same
effect; for Pompeius was only wounded, but he cut off the man's hand.
Now, as many men rushed upon Pompeius, and the rout had already begun,
he escaped, contrary to all expectation, by quitting his horse, which
had trappings of gold and decorations of great value; for while the
enemy were dividing the booty and fighting about it with one another,
they were left behind in the pursuit. At daybreak both commanders
again placed their forces in order of battle, with the intention of
securing the victory, but when Metellus approached, Sertorius
retreated and his army dispersed. For the fashion of his men was to
disperse and again to come together, so that Sertorius often wandered
about alone, and often appeared again at the head of one hundred and
fifty thousand men, like a winter-torrent suddenly swollen. Now, when
Pompeius went to meet Metellus after the battle, and they were near
one another, he ordered his lictors to lower their fasces out of
respect to Metellus as the superior in rank. But Metellus would not
allow this, and in all other respects he behaved with consideration to
Pompeius, not assuming any superiority on the ground of being a
consular and the elder, except that when the two armies encamped
together the watchword for both armies was given out by Metellus; but
the two armies generally encamped apart. For the enemy used to cut off
their communications and separate them, being fertile in stratagems,
and skilful in showing himself in many quarters in a short time, and
in leading from one combat to another. Finally, by cutting off their
supplies, plundering the country, and getting the command of the sea,
he drove both Pompeius and Metellus from that part of Iberia which was
under him, and they were compelled to fly to other provinces through
want of provisions.

XX. Pompeius having spent most of his own property and applied it to
the purposes of the war, demanded money of the senate, and said that
he would come to Italy with his army if they did not send it.
Lucullus, who was then consul, being at variance with Pompeius, and
intriguing to get the command in the Mithridatic war for himself,
bestirred himself to get money sent for fear of letting Pompeius have
a reason for leaving Sertorius, and attacking Mithridates, which he
wished to do, for Mithridates was considered to be an opponent whom it
would be an honour to oppose and easy to vanquish. In the meantime,
Sertorius[225] was assassinated by his friends, of whom Perpenna was
the chief leader, and he attempted to do what Sertorius had done,
having indeed the same troops and means, but not equal judgment for
the management of them. Now Pompeius immediately advanced against
Perpenna, and perceiving that he was floundering in his affairs, he
sent down ten cohorts into the plain, as a bait, and gave them orders
to disperse as if they were flying. When Perpenna had attacked the
cohorts, and was engaged in the pursuit, Pompeius appeared in full
force, and joining battle, gave the enemy a complete defeat. Most of
the officers fell in the battle; but Perpenna was brought to Pompeius,
who ordered him to be put to death, in which he did not show any
ingratitude, nor that he had forgotten what had happened in Sicily, as
some say, but he displayed great prudence and a judgment that was
advantageous to the commonweal. For Perpenna, who had got possession
of the writings of Sertorins, offered to produce letters from the most
powerful men in Rome, who being desirous to disturb the present
settlement and to change the constitution, invited Sertorius to Italy.
Now Pompeius, apprehending that this might give rise to greater wars
than those which were just ended, put Perpenna to death, and burnt the
letters without even reading them.

XXI. After staying[226] long enough to extinguish the chief
disturbances, and to quiet and settle those affairs which were in the
most inflammatory state, he led his army back to Italy, and happened
to arrive at the time when the servile war[227] was at its height.
This was the reason why Crassus the commander urged on the hazard of a
battle, which he gained, with the slaughter of twelve thousand three
hundred of the enemy. Fortune, however, in a manner adopted Pompeius
into this success also, for five thousand men who escaped from the
battle fell in his way, all of whom he destroyed, and he took the
opportunity of writing first to the senate, to say that Crassus indeed
had conquered the gladiators in a pitched battle, but he had pulled up
the war by the roots. And this was agreeable to the Romans to hear,
owing to their good-will towards Pompeius, and also to speak of. As to
Iberia and Sertorius, no one even in jest would have said that the
conquest was due to any one else than Pompeius. But though the man was
in such repute, and such expectations were entertained of him, there
was still some suspicion and fear that he would not disband his army,
but would make his way by arms and sovereign power straight to the
polity of Sulla. Accordingly, those who through fear ran to greet him
on the way, were as many as those who did it from good-will. But when
Pompeius had removed this suspicion also by declaring that he would
disband his army after the triumph, there still remained one subject
of reproach for those who envied him, that he attached himself more
to the people than to the senate, and that he had determined to
restore the authority of the tribunate, which Sulla had destroyed, and
to court the favour of the many, which was true. For there was nothing
for which the people were more madly passionate, and nothing which
they more desired, than to see that magistracy again, so that Pompeius
considered the opportunity for this political measure a great good
fortune, as he could not have found any other favour by which to
requite the good-will of the citizens, if another had anticipated him
in this.

XXII. Now after a second triumph[228] and the consulship were voted to
him, Pompeius was not for this reason considered an object of
admiration and a great man; but the people considered it a proof of
his distinction, that Crassus, though the richest of all who were
engaged in public life, and the most powerful speaker and the greatest
man, and though he despised Pompeius and everybody else, did not
venture to become a candidate for the consulship till he had applied
to Pompeius. Pompeius indeed was well pleased with this, as he had
long wished to have the opportunity of doing some service and friendly
act to Crassus. According he readily accepted the advances of Crassus,
and in his address to the people he declared that he should be as
grateful to them for his colleague as for the consulship. However,
when they were elected consuls, they differed about everything, and
came into collision: in the senate Crassus had more weight, but among
the people the influence of Pompeius was great. For Pompeius restored
the tribunate[229] to the people, and he allowed the judicia to be
again transferred to the Equites by a law. But the most agreeable of
all spectacles was that which Pompeius exhibited to the people when he
personally solicited his discharge from service. It is the custom
among the Roman Equites[230] when they have served the time fixed by
law, to lead their horse into the Forum before the two men whom they
call Censors, and after mentioning each general and Imperator under
whom they have served, and giving an account of their service, they
receive their dismissal. Honours also and infamy are awarded according
to each man's conduct. Now on this occasion the Censors Gellius and
Lentulus were sitting in all their official dignity, and the Equites
who were to be inspected were passing by, when Pompeius was seen
descending from the higher ground to the Forum, bearing the other
insignia of his office, but leading his horse by the hand. When he
came near and was full in sight, he bade the lictors make way for him,
and he led his horse to the tribunal. The people admired, and kept
profound silence; the censors were both awed and delighted at the
sight. Then the elder said: "I ask you, Pompeius Magnus, if you have
performed all the military services that the law requires?" Pompeius
replied with a loud voice, "I have performed all, and all under my own
command as Imperator." On hearing this the people broke out into loud
shouts, and it was impossible to repress the acclamations, so great
was their delight; but the censors rising, conducted Pompeius home to
please the citizens, who followed with loud expressions of applause.

XXIII. Now when the term of office was near expiring for Pompeius, and
the differences with Crassus wore increasing, one Caius
Aurelius,[231] who though a man of equestrian rank did not meddle with
public affairs, on the occasion of an assembly of the people ascended
the Rostra, and coming forward said, that Jupiter had appeared to him
in his sleep and had bid him tell the consuls not to lay down their
office before they were reconciled. On this being said, Pompeius stood
still, without saying a word, but Crassus making the first advance to
take his hand and address him, said, "I think I am doing nothing
ignoble or mean, fellow citizens, in being first to give way to
Pompeius, whom you considered worthy of the name of Magnus before he
had a beard, and decreed to him two triumphs before he was a senator."
Upon this they were reconciled and laid down their office. Now Crassus
continued the kind of life which he had originally adopted; but
Pompeius withdrew himself from his numerous engagements as advocate,
and gradually quitted the forum, and seldom went into public, and
always with a large crowd of people. For it was no longer easy to meet

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