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or sea of Azoff. (Compare Strabo, p. 555.)]

[Footnote 258: He was the third son of Tigranes by the daughter of
Mithridates. The other two had been put to death by their father. The
young Tigranes appeared in the triumph of Pompeius at Rome and then
was put to death. (Appianus, _Mithridatic War_, c. 104, 5.)]

[Footnote 259: See the Life of Lucullus, c. 26, notes.]

[Footnote 260: Probably Artaxata is meant, for Appianus (c. 104) says
that Pompeius had advanced to the neighbourhood of Artaxata.

Appianus (_Mithridatic War_, c. 104) places these transactions with
Tigranes after the battle with the Iberians which Plutarch describes
in c. 34.]

[Footnote 261: Probably a Persian word, with the same meaning as
Tiara, the head-dress of the Persians and some other Oriental nations.
The kings wore it upright to distinguish them from other people.
(Herodotus, vii. 61.)]

[Footnote 262: A part of Armenia between the Antitaurus and the
mountain range of Masius. (Strabo, p. 527.)]

[Footnote 263: Appianus (_Mithridatic War_, c. 104) states that
Pompeius received 6000 talents (of silver?) from Tigranes; and he
seems to understand it as if the money was for Pompeius. In the other
sums he agrees with Plutarch, except as to the tribunes, who received
10,000 drachmæ, or one talent and 4000 drachmæ, or 40 minæ.

On the value of the drachma, see Life of Tib. Gracchus, c. 2.]

[Footnote 264: _I.e._, to sup with.]

[Footnote 265: This great mountain system lies between the Euxine and
the Caspian, and was now entered for the first time by the Roman
troops. Colchis was on the west side of the mountains.]

[Footnote 266: The Saturnalia were celebrated in Rome on the 19th of
December at this time. (Macrobius, _Sat._ i. 10; and the Life of
Sulla, c. 18.) It was accordingly in the winter of B.C. 66 that
Pompeius was in the mountains of the Caucasus. (Dion Cassius, 36. c.
36, 37.)]

[Footnote 267: I have kept the name Cyrnus, as it stands in the text
of Plutarch, though it is probably, an error of the transcribers. The
real name Cyrus could not be unknown to Plutarch. In the text of
Appianus (_Mithridatic War_, c. 103) the name is erroneously written
Cyrtus; in Dion Cassius, it is Cyrnus. The Cyrus, now the Cur, flows
from the higher regions of the Caucasus through Iberia and Albania,
and is joined by the Araxes, Aras, above the point where the united
stream enters the Caspian on the west coast. The twelve mouths are
mentioned by Appianus (c. 103). Compare Strabo, p. 491.]

[Footnote 268: In fact the Persians never subdued any of the mountain
tribes within the nominal limits of their dominions; and the Caucasus
was indeed not even within the nominal limits.

It is true that Alexander soon quitted Hyrkania, which lies on the
south-east coast of the Caspian; but when he was in Hyrkania he was
still a considerable distance from the Iberians. (Arrianus, iii. 23,

[Footnote 269: This is the Faz, or Reone, which enters the south-east
angle of the Euxine in the country of the Colchi.]

[Footnote 270: The Abas river is conjectured by some writers to be the
Alazonius, which was the boundary between Iberia and Albania, The Abas
is mentioned by Dion Cassius, 37. c. 3.]

[Footnote 271: [Greek: epi tên tou thôrakos epiptuchên] ἐπὶ τὴν τοῦ
θώρακος ἐπιπτυχήν Apparently some part of the coat of mail where there
was a fold to allow of the motion of the body. As to the battle see
Dion Cassius, 37. c. 3, &c.]

[Footnote 272: Appianus (_Mithridatic War_, c. 103) says "Among the
hostages and the captives were found many women, who were wounded as
much as the men; and they were supposed to be Amazons, whether it is
that some nation called Amazons borders on them, and they were then
invited to give aid, or that the barbarians in those parts call any
warlike women by the name of Amazons." The explanation of Appianus is
probably the true explanation. Instances of women serving as soldiers
are not uncommon even in modern warfare. The story of a race of
fighting women occurs in many ancient writers. The Amazons are first
mentioned by Herodotus (iv. 110-116). There is a story of a hundred
armed women being presented to Alexander (Arrian, vii. 13, &c., who
gives his opinion about them). Strabo (p. 503) says that Theophanes,
who accompanied Pompeius in this campaign, places the Gelæ and Legæ
between the Albanians and the Amazons. It is probable that the women
of the mountain tribes of the Caucasus sometimes served in the field,
and this at least may explain the story here told by Plutarch. The
chief residence of the Amazons is placed in the plains of Themiscyra
on the Thermodon in Cappadocia. Plutarch in his confused notions of
geography appears to consider the Thermodon as a Caucasian river. He
also places them near the Leges, a name which resembles that of the
Lesghians, one of the present warlike tribes of the Caucasus. On
antient medals the Amazons are represented with a short vest reaching
to the knee, and one breast bare. Their arms were a crescent shield,
the bow and arrow, and the double axe, whence the name Amazonia was
used as a distinctive appellation for that weapon (Amazonia securis,
Horat. _Od._ iv. 4).]

[Footnote 273: The Caspian sea or lake was also called the Hyrkanian,
from the province of Hyrkania which bordered on the south-east coast.
The first notice of this great lake is in Herodotus (i. 203).]

[Footnote 274: The Elymæi were mountaineers who occupied the
mountainous region between Susiana and Media. Gordyene was in the most
south-eastern part of Armenia. Tigranocerta was in Gordyene. Appianus
says that in his time Sophene and Gordyene composed the Less Armenia
(_Mithridatic War_, c. 105). In the territory of Arbela, where the
town of Arbil now is, Alexander had defeated Darius, the last king of

[Footnote 275: Another Greek woman, as we may infer from the name. The
story of the surrender of the fort by Stratonike is told by Appianus
(_Mithridatic War_, c. 107) with some additional particulars. Dion
Cassius (37. c. 7) names this fort Symphorium.

The narrative of Plutarch omits many circumstances in the campaigns of
Pompeius, which Appianus has described (c. 105, 106) a happening
between the arrangement with Tigranes and the surrender of the fort by
Stratonike. Among these events was the war in Judæa and the capture of
Jerusalem. Pompeius entered the Holy of Holies in the Temple, into
which only the high priest could enter, and that on certain occasions.
Jerusalem was taken B.C. 63 in the consulship of Cicero. The events of
this campaign are too confused to be reduced into chronological order.
Drumann has attempted it (_Geschichte Roms_, Pompeii, p. 451, &c.)]

[Footnote 276: Plutarch means the fort which he has mentioned in the
preceding chapter without there giving it a name; the Symphorium of
Dion. It was on the river Lycus, not quite 200 stadia from Cabira
(Strabo, 556), and was an impregnable place.]

[Footnote 277: [Greek: Hupomnêmata] Ὑπομνήματα: probably written in
Greek, with which Mithridates was well acquainted. These valuable
memoirs were used by Theophanes in his history of the campaigns of
Pompeius. Theophanes was a native of Mitylene in Lesbos and
accompanied Pompeius in several of his campaigns. He is often
mentioned by Cicero (Cicero, _Ad Attic._, ii. 4, and the notes in the
Variorum edition).]

[Footnote 278: The character of Mithridates is only known to us from
his enemies. But his own memoirs, if the truth is here stated, prove
his cruel and vindictive character. He spared neither his friends nor
his own children. Among others he put to death his son Xiphares by
Stratonike to revenge himself on the mother for giving up the fort

[Footnote 279: See the Life of Sulla, c. 6. The registration of dreams
and their interpretation, that is the events which followed and were
supposed to explain them, were usual among the Greeks. There is still
extant one of these curious collections by Artemidorus Daldianus in
five books, entitled Oneirocritica, or The Interpretation of Dreams.
The fifth book of 'Results' contains ninety-five dreams of individuals
and the events which happened.]

[Footnote 280: See the Life of Lucullus, c. 18.]

[Footnote 281: Publius Rutilius Rufus was consul B.C. 105. He was
exiled in consequence of being unjustly convicted B.C. 92 at the time
when the Judices were chosen from the body of the Equites. He was
accused of Repetundæ and convicted and exiled. He retired to Smyrna,
where he wrote the history of his own times in Greek. All the
authorities state that he was an honest man and was unjustly
condemned. (Velleius Paterculus, ii. 13; Tacitus, _Agricola_, c. 1:
and the various passages in Orelli, _Onomasticon_, P. Rutilius

[Footnote 282: See the Life of Lucullus, c. 14.]

[Footnote 283: The strait that unites the Euxine to the Mæotis or Sea
of Azoff, was called the Bosporus, which name was also given to the
country on the European side of the strait, which is included in the
peninsula of the Crimea.]

[Footnote 284: See Dion Cassius, 37. c. 5.]

[Footnote 285: This is the Indian Ocean. The name first occurs in
Herodotus. It is generally translated the Red Sea, and so it is
translated by Kaltwasser. But the Red Sea was called the Arabian Gulf
by Herodotus. However, the term Erythræan Sea was sometimes used with
no great accuracy, and appears to have comprehended the Red Sea, which
is a translation of the term Erythræan, as the Greeks understood that
word ([Greek: erythros] ἐρυθρός, Red).]

[Footnote 286: Triarius, the legatus of Lucullus, had been defeated
three years before by Mithridates. See the Life of Lucullus, c. 35;
and Appianus (_Mithridatic War_, c. 89).]

[Footnote 287: This mountain range is connected with the Taurus and
runs down to the coast of the Mediterranean, which it reaches at the
angle formed by the Gulf of Scanderoon.]

[Footnote 288: This campaign, as already observed in the notes to c.
36, is placed earlier by Appianus, but his chronology is confused and
incorrect. The siege of Jerusalem, which was accompanied with great
difficulty, is described by Dion Cassius (37. c. 15, &c.), and by
Josephus (_Jewish Wars_, xiv. 4). There was a great slaughter of the
Jews when the city was stormed.]

[Footnote 289: This country was Gordyene. (Dion Cassius, 37. c. 5.)]

[Footnote 290: This city, the capital of Syria, was built by Seleucus
Nicator and called Antiocheia after his father Antiochus. It is
situated in 36° 12' N. lat. on the south bank of the Orontes, a river
which enters the sea south of the Gulf of Scanderoon.]

[Footnote 291: The meaning of the original is obscure. The word is
[Greek: to imation] τὸ ιμάτιον, which ought to signify his vest or
toga. Some critics take it to mean a kind of handkerchief used by sick
persons and those of effeminate habits; and they say it was also used
by persons when travelling, as a cover for the head, which the Greeks
called Theristerium. The same word is used in the passage (c. 7),
where it is said that "Sulla used to rise from his seat as Pompeius
approached and take his vest from his head." Whatever may be the
meaning of the word here, Plutarch seems to say that this impudent
fellow would take his seat at the table before the guests had arrived
and leave his master to receive them.]

[Footnote 292: Drumann (_Geschichte Roms_, Pompeii, p. 53) observes
that "Plutarch does not say that Pompeius built his house near his
theatre, but that he built it in addition to his theatre and at the
same time, as Donatus had perceived, De Urbe Roma, 3, 8, in Græv.
Thes. T. 3, p. 695." But Drumann is probably mistaken. There is no
great propriety in the word [Greek: epholkion] ἐφόλκιον unless the
house was near the theatre, and the word [Greek: paretektênato]
παρετεκτήνατο rather implies 'proximity,' than 'in addition to.'

This was the first permanent theatre that Rome had. It was built
partly on the model of that of Mitylene and it was opened in the year
B.C. 55. This magnificent theatre, which would accommodate 40,000
people, stood in the Campus Martius. It was built of stone with the
exception of the scena, and ornamented with statues, which were placed
there under the direction of Atticus, who was a man of taste. Augustus
embellished the theatre, and he removed thither the statue of
Pompeius, which up to that time had stood in the Curia where Cæsar was
murdered. The scena was burnt down in the time of Tiberius, who began
to rebuild it; but it was not finished till the reign of Claudius.
Nero gilded the interior. The scena was again burnt in the beginning
of the reign of Titus, who restored it again. The scena was again
burnt in the reign of Philippus and a third time restored. (Drumann,
_Geschichte Roms_, Pompeii, p. 521; Dion Cassius 39. c. 88, and the
notes of Reimarus.)]

[Footnote 293: Petra, the capital of the Nabathæi, is about half way
between the southern extremity of the Dead Sea and the northern
extremity of the Ælanitic Gulf, the more eastern of the two northern
branches of the Red Sea. The ruins of Petra exist in the Wady Musa,
and have been visited by Burckhardt, Irby and Mangles, and last by
Laborde, who has given the most complete description of them in his
'Voyage de l'Arabie Pétrée,' Paris, 1830. The place is in the midst of
a desert, but has abundance of water. Its position made it an
important place of commerce in the caravan trade of the East; and it
was such in the time of Strabo, who states on the authority of his
friend Athonodorus that many Romans were settled there (p. 779). It
contains numerous tombs and a magnificent temple cut in the rock, a
theatre and the remains of houses.

The king against whom Pompeius was marching is named Aretas by Dion
Cassius (37. c. 15).]

[Footnote 294: The Pæonians were a Thracian people on the Strymon.
(Herodotus, v. 1.) It appears from Dion Cassius (49. c. 36) that the
Greeks often called the Pannonians by the name of Pæonians, which
Sintenis considers a reason for not altering the reading here into
Pannonians. Appianus (_Mithridatic War_, c. 102) uses the name
Pæonians, though he means Pannonians.]

[Footnote 295: This is the Roman word. Compare Tacitus (_Annal._ i.
18): "congerunt cespites, exstruunt tribunal."]

[Footnote 296: The circumstances of the rebellion of Pharnakes and the
death of Mithridates are told by Appianus (_Mithridatic War_, c. 110)
and Dion Cassius (37. c. 11). Mithridates died B.C. 63, in the year in
which Cicero was consul.

The text of the last sentence in this chapter is corrupt; and the
meaning is uncertain.]

[Footnote 297: [Greek: to nemesêton] τὸ νεμέσητον.]

[Footnote 298: The body of Mithridates was interred at Sinope.
Appianus (_Mithridatic War_, c. 113) says that Pharnakes sent the dead
body of his father in a galley to Pompeius to Sinope, and also those
who had killed Manius Aquilius, and many hostages Greeks and
barbarians. There might be some doubt about the meaning of the words
'many corpses of members of the royal family' [Greek: polla sômata tôn
basilikôn] πολλα σώματα τῶν βασιλικῶν but Plutarch appears from the
context to mean dead bodies. Two of the daughters of Mithridates who
were with him when he died, are mentioned by Appianus (c. 111) as
having taken poison at the same time with their father. The poison
worked on them, but had no effect on the old man, who therefore
prevailed on a Gallic officer who was in his service to kill him.
(Compare Dion Cassius, 39. c. 13, 14.)]

[Footnote 299: He made it what the Romans called Libera Civitas, a
city which had its own jurisdiction and was free from taxes. Compare
the Life of Cæsar, c. 48.]

[Footnote 300: He was a native of Apamea in Syria, a Stoic, and a
pupil of Panætius. He was one of the masters of Cicero, who often
speaks of him and occasionally corresponded with him (Cicero, _Ad
Attic._ ii. 1). Cicero also mentions Hermagoras in his treatise De
Inventione (i. 6, and 9), and in the Brutus (c. 79).]

[Footnote 301: See the Life of Sulla, c. 6.]

[Footnote 302: She was the daughter of Q. Mucius Scævola, consul B.C.
95, and the third wife of Pompeius, who had three children by her. She
was not the sister of Q. Metellus Nepos and Q. Metellus Celer, as
Kaltwasser says, but a kinswoman. Cn. Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius
were the sons of Mucia. Cicero (_Ad Attic._ i. 12) speaks of the
divorce of Mucia and says that it was approved of; but he does not
assign the reason. C. Julius Cæsar (Suetonius, _Cæsar_, c. 50) is
named as the adulterer or one of them, and Pompeius called him his
Ægisthus. After her divorce in the year B.C. 62 Mucia married M.
Æmilius Scaurus, the brother of the second wife of Pompeius. Mucia
survived the battle of Actium (B.C. 31), and she was treated with
respect by Octavianus Cæsar (Dion Cassius, 51. c. 2; Drumann,
_Geschichte Roms_, Pompeii, p. 557).]

[Footnote 303: Here and elsewhere I have used Plutarch's word [Greek:
monarchia] μοναρχία, 'The government of one man,' by which he means
the Dictatorship, in some passages at least.]

[Footnote 304: He landed in Italy B.C. 62, during the consulship of D.
Junius Silanus and L. Licinius Murena. The request mentioned at the
beginning of c. 44 is also noticed in Plutarch's Life of Cato (c. 30).
M. Pupius Piso was one of the consuls for B.C. 61.]

[Footnote 305: This was L. Afranius, one of the legati of Pompeius,
who has often been mentioned. He was consul with Q. Metellus Celer
B.C. 60 (compare Dion Cassius, 37. c. 49). Cicero, who was writing to
Atticus at the time (_Ad Attic._ i. 17), speaks of the bribery at the
election of Afranius, and accuses Pompeius of being active on the
occasion. From this consulship Horatius (_Od._ ii. 1) dates the
commencement of the civil wars, for in this year was formed the
coalition between Cæsar, Pompeius, and Crassus. See the remark of
Cato, c. 47.]

[Footnote 306: Compare Appianus (_Mithridatic War_, c. 116) and
Dramann, _Geschichte Roms_, Pompeii, p. 485. When particular measures
of money are not mentioned, Plutarch, as usual with him, means Attic

[Footnote 307: The triumph of Pompeius was in B.C. 61 on his birthday
(Plinius 37. c. 2). Pompeius was born B.C. 106, and consequently he
was now entering on his forty-sixth year - Xylander (Holzmann)
preferred to read 'fifty' instead of 'forty.']

[Footnote 308: Cicero went into exile B.C. 58, and after the events
mentioned in chapter 47. Cæsar returned from his province of Iberia in
B.C. 60.]

[Footnote 309: See the Life of Cæsar, c. 14, as to the events
mentioned in this chapter and the following. Cæsar was consul B.C.

[Footnote 310: L. Calpurnius Piso and A. Gabinius were consuls B.C.
58, in the year in which Clodius was tribune and Cicero was exiled.]

[Footnote 311: As to this remark of Pompeius, compare the Life of
Lucullus, c. 38.]

[Footnote 312: Compare the Life of Cato, c. 34.]

[Footnote 313: A mark of an effeminate person. Compare the Life of
Cæsar, c. 4, which explains this passage.]

[Footnote 314: This event is told by Dion Cassius (39. c. 19), but as
Kaltwasser remarks he places it in B.C. 56, when Clodius was ædile and
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus and M. Marcius Philippus were
consuls. The trial was that of Milo De Vi, B.C. 56. Compare Cicero (Ad
Quintum Fratrem, ii. 3) and Rein (_Criminalrecht der Römer_, p. 758,

[Footnote 315: Q. Terentius Culleo was a tribunus plebis B.C. 58. He
is mentioned by Cicero (_Ad Attic._ iii. 15) and elsewhere.]

[Footnote 316: Cicero returned to Rome B.C. 57 in the consulship of P.
Cornelius Lentulus Spinther and Q. Cæcilius Metellus Nepos. See the
Life of Cicero, c. 33. He had returned to Rome before the trial
mentioned at the end of c. 48.]

[Footnote 317: Pompeius was made Præfectus Annonæ for five years.
There was a great scarcity at Rome, which was nothing unusual, and
dangerous riots (see the article CORN TRADE, ROMAN, 'Political
Dictionary,' by the author of this note). The appointment of Pompeius
is mentioned by Dion Cassius (39. c. 9, and the notes of Reimarus).
Cicero (_Ad Atticum_, iv. 1) speaks of the appointment of Pompeius.]

[Footnote 318: Ptolemæus Auletes had given large bribes to several
Romans to purchase their influence and to get himself declared a
friend and ally of the Romans; which was in fact to put himself under
their protection. His subjects were dissatisfied with him for various
reasons, and among others for the heavy taxes which he laid on them to
raise the bribe money. He made his escape from Egypt and was now in
Rome. The story is told at some length in Dion Cassius (39. c. 12,
&c.), and the matter of the king's restoration is discussed by Cicero
in several letters (_Ad Diversos_, i. 1-7) to this Spinther. The king
for the present did not get the aid which he wanted, and he retired to
Ephesus, where he lodged within the precincts of the temple of
Artemis, which was an ASYLUM. (See 'Political Dictionary,' art.
Asylum; and Strabo, p. 641.)]

[Footnote 319: A Greek historian of the time of Augustus. He was
originally a captive slave, but he was manumitted and admitted to the
intimacy of Augustus Cæsar. He was very free with his tongue, which at
last caused him to be forbidden the house of Augustus. (Seneca, _De
Ira_, iii. 23.) He burnt some of his historical writings, but not all
of them, for Plutarch here refers to his authority. Horatius (1 _Ep_.
19. v. 15) alludes to Timagenes. (See Suidas, [Greek: Timagenês]

[Footnote 320: See the Life of Cæsar, c. 15, and as to the conference
at Luca, c. 21. The conference took place B.C. 56, when Marcellinus
(c. 48, notes) was one of the consuls. Compare also the Life of
Crassus (c. 14, 15), and Dion Cassius, 39. c. 30, as to the trouble at
Rome at this time, and Appianus (_Civil Wars_, ii. 17).]

[Footnote 321: This is the meaning of the word [Greek: politikôteron]
πολιτικώτερον, which is generally mistranslated here and in other
parts of Plutarch. It is the translation of the Roman term
'civiliter.' (Tacitus, _Annal_. i 33, iii 76.)]

[Footnote 322: Life of Crassus, c. 15, notes.]

[Footnote 323: P. Vatinius, often mentioned by Cicero. (See Orelli,
_Onomasticon_, Vatinius.) Cicero's extant oration In Vatinium was
delivered B.C. 56.]

[Footnote 324: C. Trebonius, a friend of Cicero, several of whose
letters to him are extant. (Cicero, _Ad Divers._ x. 28; xii. 16; xv.
20, 21.) He was one of the conspirators against Cæsar; and Cicero
tells him (x. 28) that he was somewhat vexed with him that he saved
Antonius from the same fate. Trebonius was treacherously put to death
at Smyrna by Dolabella with circumstances of great cruelty B.C. 43.
(Dion Cassius, 47. c. 29.) In the notes to the life of Crassus, c. 16,
I have incorrectly called this Tribune Titus.]

[Footnote 325: Plutarch must mean that Crassus left Rome before the
expiration of his consulship B.C. 55; but the words [Greek: apallageis
tês hupateias] ἀπαλλαγεὶς τῆς ὑπατείας are in themselves doubtful.
(Life of Crassus, c. 16.)]

[Footnote 326: Drumann (_Geschichte Roms_, Pompeii, p. 524) has
diligently collected all the circumstances of this magnificent
exhibition. (See also Dion Cassius, 39. c. 38, and the references in
the notes of Reimarus.) The elephant-fight ([Greek: elphantomachia]
ἐλφαντομαχία) was a fight between the elephants and armed Gætulians.
There were eighteen elephants. The cries of the animals when they were
wounded moved the pity of the spectators. The elephants would not
enter the vessels when they were leaving Africa, till they received a
promise from their leaders that they should not he injured; the
treacherous treatment of them at the games was the cause of their loud
lamentations, in which they appealed to the deity against the
violation of the solemn promise. (Dion Cassius.) Cicero, who was not
fond of exhibitions of the kind, speaks with disgust of the whole
affair (_Ad Diversos_, vii. 1). The letter of Cicero, written at the
time, is valuable contemporary evidence. Various facts on the
exhibition of elephants at Rome are collected in the Library of
Entertaining Knowledge, _Menageries_, Elephant.

A rhinoceros was also exhibited at the games of Pompeius; and an
actress was brought on the stage, who had made her first appearance in
the consulship of C. Marius the younger, and Cn. Carbo B.C. 82, but
she made her appearance again in the time of Augustus, A.D. 9, in the

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