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the Rhine and the Rhone; and it was reduced to the form of a province.
(Suetonius, _Cæsar_, c. 25.) With the capture of Alesia the Seventh
book of the Gallic War ends. The Eighth book is not by Cæsar.]

[Footnote 509: As to the disturbances at Rome mentioned in this
chapter, see the Life of Pompeius, c. 54, &c., notes.]

[Footnote 510: Life of Pompeius, c. 52.]

[Footnote 511: M. Claudius Marcellus, consul B.C. 51, with S.
Sulpicius Rufus.]

[Footnote 512: Novum Comum or Novocomum; north of the Padus, had been
settled as a Colonia Latina by Cæsar. (Appianus, _Civil Wars_, ii.

The government of the colonia was formed on a Roman model: there was a
body of Decuriones or Senators.]

[Footnote 513: See the Life of Pompeius, c. 58; Appianus, _Civil
Wars_, ii, 26; Dion Cassius, 40. c. 59.]

[Footnote 514: L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, whom Cæsar took in Corfinium,
c. 34.]

[Footnote 515: See the Life of Pompeius, c. 52.]

[Footnote 516: Cæsar (_Civil War_, i. 1) mentions this letter; but it
was read in the Senate after great opposition. The consuls of the year
B.C. 49 were L. Cornelius Lentulus and C. Claudius Marcellus.

Cæsar, in the first few chapters of the Civil War, has clearly stated
all the matters that are referred to in c. 30 and 31. The "letters"
mentioned in c. 31 as coming before Curio and Antonius left Rome, are
not mentioned by Cæsar. Plutarch might have confounded this with
another matter. (_Civil War_, i. 3.)]

[Footnote 517: Cæsar was at Ravenna when the tribunes fled from Rome,
and he first saw them at Ariminum, Rimini, which was not within the
limits of Cæsar's province. (_Civil War_, i. 6; Dion Cassius, 41. c.

[Footnote 518: Q. Hortensius Hortalus, a son of the orator Hortensius.
He was an unprincipled fellow.]

[Footnote 519: Cæsar says nothing of the passage of the Rubico, but
his silence does not disprove the truth of the story as told by
Plutarch. The passage of the Rubico was a common topic (locus
communis) for rhetoricians. Lucanus (_Pharsalia,_ i. 213) has
embellished it: -

"Fonte cadit modico parvisque impellitur undis
Puniceus Rubicon, cum fervida canduit æstas -
Tunc vires præbebat hiems."

This small stream does not appear to be identified with certainty.
Some writers make it the Fiumicino.

Ariminum was not in Cæsar's province, and Plutarch must have known
that, as appears from his narrative. Kaltwasser thinks that he may
mean that it was originally a Gallic town, which was true.]

[Footnote 520: In Plutarch's time the system of naming the Romans was
greatly confused, and he extended the confusion to earlier times. C.
Asinius Pollio, who was with Cæsar at the Rubico and at the battle of
Pharsalia, wrote a history of the Civil Wars. He was also a poet.
(Horatius, _Od._ ii. 1.) His work, as we may collect from c. 46,
furnished materials for anecdotes about Cæsar.]

[Footnote 521: This dream according to Suetonius (_Cæsar_, c. 7) and
Dion Cassius (41. c. 24) he had at Cades (Cadiz) in Spain during his
quæstorship. The time of the dream is not unimportant, if the
interpretation of it was that he was destined to have the dominion of
the world. Cæsar has not recorded his dream. Sulla recorded his
dreams. He was superstitious and cruel. Cæsar was not cruel, and there
is no proof that he was superstitious.]

[Footnote 522: Pompeius went to Capua, where he thought of making a
stand, but he soon moved on to Brundisium. On the confusion in the
city see Dion Cassius (41. c. 5-9).]

[Footnote 523: The author of the Eighth book of the Gallic War (c. 52)
speaks of Labienus being solicited by Cæsar's enemies. Cæsar had put
him over Gaul south of the Alps. In the Civil War, Book 1, he is
merely mentioned as having fortified Cingulum at his own cost. Cicero
(_Ad Attic._ vii. 7) says that he was indebted to Cæsar for his
wealth. His defection is mentioned by Cicero several times, and it
gave a temporary encouragement to the party of Pompeius. (_Ad Attic._
vi. 12, 13.) Labienus joined Pompeius and the Consuls at Teanum in
Campania on the 23rd of January.]

[Footnote 524: Corfinium three miles from the river Aternus. Cæsar
(_Civil War_, i. 16-23) describes the siege of Corfinium. L. Domitius
Ahenobarbus was treated kindly by Cæsar. He afterwards went to
Massalia and defended it against Cæsar. This most excellent citizen,
as Cicero calls him, met the death he so well deserved at the battle
of Pharsalia, and as Cicero says (_Phillipp._ ii. 29), at the hand of
M. Antonius.]

[Footnote 525: See the Life of Pompeius, c. 62.]

[Footnote 526: From this it appears that the Life of Pompeius was
written after the Life of Cæsar.]

[Footnote 527: Cæsar (_Civil War_, i, 32) has reported his own

[Footnote 528: See the Life of Pompeius, c. 62.]

[Footnote 529: This was the "sanctius ærarium" (Cæsar, _Civil War_, i.
13), which Lentulus had left open; in such alarm had he left the city.
This money, which was kept in the temple of Saturn, was never touched
except in cases of great emergency. Vossius remarks that to save his
own character, Cæsar says that he found this treasury open. But Cæsar
does not say that he found it open. He says that Lentulus left it
open. There was time enough for Metellus to lock the door after
Lentulus ran away. Cæsar would have been a fool not to take the money;
and if he wanted it, he would of course break the door open, if he
found it shut. But whether the door was open or shut was unimportant;
the wrongful act, if there was any, consisted in taking the money, and
he would not have been excused for taking it simply because the door
was unlocked. I believe Cæsar broke it open (Cicero _Ad Attic._ x. 4;
Dion Cassius, 41. c. 17; and the authorities quoted by Reimarus). I
also believe Cæsar when he says that Lentulus left the door unlocked.
The Senate had supplied Pompeius with money for the war out of the
ordinary treasury. When Cæsar took Corfinium, he gave to Domitius all
the money that he found there, which was to a large amount, though
this was public money and had been given to Domitius by Pompeius to
pay his soldiers with. (Appianus, ii. 28; Cæsar, _Civil War_, i. 23.)
When "that man of greatest purity and integrity," as Cicero calls him,
M. Terentius Varro, commanded for Pompeius in Spain (B.C. 48), he
carried off the treasure from the temple of Hercules at Cadiz. That
man, on whom Cicero vents every term of abuse that his fear and hatred
could supply, restored the stolen money to the god. (Cæsar, _Civil
War_, ii. 18, 21.)]

[Footnote 530: The Spanish campaign against Afranius is contained in
the _Civil War_, 34, &c. The legati of Pompeius in Spain were L.
Afranius, consul B.C. 60, M. Petreius, and M. Terentius Varro, better
known for his learning and his numerous works than for his military
talents. After the surrender of Afranius and Petreius, Cæsar marched
to the south of Spain, for Varro, who was in Lusitania, was making
preparations for war. Varro, after some feeble efforts, surrendered to
the conqueror at Cordova. Varro was treated kindly like all the rest
who fell into Cæsar's hands, and he had the opportunity of placing
himself against Cæsar at Dyrrachium.

On his return from the successful close of his Spanish campaign,
Massalia surrendered to Cæsar after an obstinate resistance. (Cæsar,
_Civil War_, ii. 22.)

It was on his return to Massalia from the south of Spain that Cæsar
heard of his appointment as Dictator (_Civil War_, ii. 21).]

[Footnote 531: (Cæsar, _Civil War_, iii. 1; Dion Cassius, 41. c. 37.)
Cæsar does not speak of those who had suffered in Sulla's time; nor
does Dion.]

[Footnote 532: Cæsar and P. Servilius Isauricus (son of the consul
Isauricus, B.C. 79) were elected Consuls for B.C. 48. See the Life of
Pompeius, c. 54, notes; and of Cæsar, c. 57, _Dictator_.

When Cæsar had left Rome, the boys formed themselves into two parties,
Pompeians and Cæsarians, and had a battle without arms, in which the
Cæsarians were victorious. (Dion Cassius, 41, c. 39.)

As to Cæsar's forces, see _Civil War_, iii. 2.]

[Footnote 533: Dion Cassius (41. c. 45) tells this story of the boat
adventure; and (Appianus, _Civil Wars_, ii. 57) Cæsar was uneasy at
the delay of M. Antonius and his legions, and he feared that Antonius
might desert him. Cæsar says nothing of this attempt to cross the sea.
He very seldom mentions his personal risks. He left this to the
anecdote collectors.]

[Footnote 534: The river appears to be the Anas of Dion (41. c. 45)
which is near Apollonia, though he does not mention the river in his
account of Cæsar's attempted voyage. This is the river which Strabo
calls Æas, and Hekatæus calls Aous (Strabo, p. 316).

For the events in these three chapters see the Life of Pompeius, c.
65, &c., and the references in the notes.]

[Footnote 535: Cæsar calls the root Chara (_Civil War_, iii. 48. Comp.
Plinius, _N.H._ 19, c. 8). These facts are mentioned in Cæsar. The
events in the neighbourhood of Dyrrachium and Apollonia must be
studied in Cæsar, Dion Cassius, Book 41, and Appianus, Book ii.]

[Footnote 536: Cæsar mentions the capture of Gomphi (_Civil War_, iii.
80), but he says nothing of the wine. Cæsar let his men plunder
Gomphi. The town had offered him all its means and prayed him for a
garrison, but on hearing of his loss at Dyrrachinm the people shut
their gates against him and sent to Pompeius for aid. The town was
stormed on the first day that it was attacked.]

[Footnote 537: As Kaltwasser observes, there was no bad omen in the
dream, as it is here reported. We must look to the Life of Pompeius,
c. 68, for the complete dream. Perhaps something has dropped out of
the text here. Dacier, as Kaltwasser says, has inserted the whole
passage out of the Life of Pompeius.]

[Footnote 538: This is an error. The name is Q. Cornificus. See the
note of Sintenis. He was a quæstor of Cæsar. Calenus is Fulvus
Calenus, who had been sent by Cæsar into Achaia, and had received the
submission of Delphi, Thebæ, and Orchomenus, and was then engaged in
taking other cities and trying to gain over other cities. (Cæsar,
_Civil War_, iii. 55.)]

[Footnote 539: See the Life of Pompeius, c. 71.]

[Footnote 540: I have omitted the unmeaning words [Greek: ê dia theias
hêttês tethambêmenos] ἢ διὰ θείας ἥττης τεθαμβημένος. See the note of

[Footnote 541: These words of Cæsar are also reported by Suetonius
(_Cæsar_, 30), on the authority of Pollio. They are: Hoc voluerunt:
tantis rebus gestis C. Cæsar condemnatus essem, nisi ab exercitu
auxilium petissem. These words are more emphatic with the omission of
'they brought me into such a critical position,' and Casaubon proposes
to erase them in Plutarch's text, that is, to alter and improve the

[Footnote 542: A rich town of Lydia in Asia Minor on the north side of
the Mæander. This miracle at Tralles and others are enumerated by
Cæsar (_Civil War_, iii. 105; Dion Cassius, 41. c. 61). The book of
Livius, in which this affair of Patavium (Padua) was mentioned (the
111th), is lost. See the Supplement of Freinsheim, c. 72.]

[Footnote 543: See life of Pompeius, c. 42, notes; and Appianus
(_Civil Wars_, ii. 88).]

[Footnote 544: Cæsar crossed the Hellespont, where he met with C.
Cassius Longinus going with a fleet to aid Pharnakes in Pontus.
Cassius surrendered and was kindly treated, in consideration of which
he afterwards assisted to murder Cæsar. (Appianus, _Civil Wars_, ii.

[Footnote 545: Of Knidus. The same who is mentioned by Cicero (_Ad
Attic._ xiii. 7) as a friend of Cæsar, and by Strabo, p. 48, &c.

Asia is the Roman province of Asia.]

[Footnote 546: Cæsar (_Civil War_, iii. 106) speaks of his arrival on
the coast of Egypt. The Egyptians were offended to see the Roman
fasces carried before him.]

[Footnote 547: Cæsar had the head of Pompeius burnt with due honours,
and he built a temple to Nemesis over the ashes. The temple was pulled
down by the Jews in their rising in Egypt during the time of Trajanus.
(Appianus, _Civil Wars_, ii. 90.)

As to the seal ring see the Life of Pompeius, c. 80, and Dion Cassias
(42. c. 18).]

[Footnote 548: The Alexandrine war, which is confusedly told here, is
recorded in a single book entitled De Bello Alexandrino and in Dion
Cassius (42. c. 34-44). The origin of it is told by Cæsar at the end
of the third Book of the Civil War. The history of the Alexandrine war
by Appianus was in his Ægyptiaca, which is lost. Dion Cassius, a lover
of scandal, mentions that Cæsar's attachment to Kleopatra was the
cause of the Alexandrine war (42. c. 44). But it could not be the sole
cause. Cæsar landed with the insignia of his office, as if he were
entering a Roman province, and it might be reasonably suspected by the
Egyptians that he had a design on the country. Instead of thanking
them for ridding him of his rival, he fixed himself and his soldiers
in one of the quarters of Alexandria. Cæsar went to get money (Dion,
42. c. 9). Kleopatra kept him there longer than he at first intended
to stay.]

[Footnote 549: Ptolemæus Auletes through Cæsar's influence had been
declared a friend and ally of the Romans in Cæsar's consulship B.C.
59. (Cic. _Ad Attic._ ii. 16.) Ptolemæus had to spend money for this:
he both gave and promised. It does not appear that this money was
promised to Cæsar: it is more probable that it was promised to the
Roman State and Cæsar came to get it.]

[Footnote 550: The story of Kleopatra coming to Cæsar is also told by
Dion Cassius (42. c. 34). Cæsar mentions his putting Pothinus to death
(_Civil War_, iii. 112). Cæsar had at first only 3200 foot soldiers
and 800 cavalry to oppose to the 20,000 men of Achillas, who were not
bad soldiers. Besides these 20,000 men Achillas had a great number of
vagabonds collected from all parts of Cilicia and Syria.]

[Footnote 551: Alexandria had no springs, and it was supplied from the
Nile, the water of which was received into cisterns under the houses.
This supply was (_Bell. Alex._ 5, &c.) damaged by Ganymedes the
Egyptian drawing up salt water from the sea and sending it into the
cisterns. Cæsar supplied himself by digging wells in the sand.]

[Footnote 552: As to the destruction of the library see Dion Cassius
(42. c. 38) and the notes of Reimarus. The destruction is not
mentioned by Cæsar or the author of the Alexandrine war. Kleopatra
afterwards restored it, and the library was famed for a long time
after. Lipsius (Opera iii. 1124, Vesal 1675) has collected all that is
known of this and other ancient libraries.]

[Footnote 553: The Pharos is a small island in the bay of Alexandria,
which was connected with the mainland by a mole, and so divided the
harbour into two parts. The story of the battle of the Pharos is told
by Dion Cassius (42. c. 40), with the particulars about Cæsar's
escape. See the notes of Reimarus.

The modern city of Alexandria is chiefly built on the mole which
joined the old city to the mainland. (Article _Alexandria_, 'Penny
Cyclopædia,' by the author of this note.)]

[Footnote 554: The King, the elder brother of Kleopatra, was drowned
in the Nile. (Dion Cassius, 42. c. 43, and the notes of Reimarus.) His
body was found. (Florus, ii. 60.)]

[Footnote 555: Cæsar did not add Egypt to the Roman Empire. He married
Kleopatra to her younger brother, who was a boy. Dion says that he
still continued his commerce with Kleopatra. Cæsar was nine months in
Egypt, from October 48 to July 47 of the unreformed Kalendar.

Cæsarion, a Greek form from the word Cæsar, may have been Cæsar's son,
for there is no doubt that Cæsar cohabited with Kleopatra in Egypt.
There is more about this Cæsarion in Suetonius, _Cæsar_, c. 52, where
the reading is doubtful; _Cæsar Octavian_. c. 17. When Cæsar
Octavianus took Egypt he put Cæsarion to death.]

[Footnote 556: He had been acknowledged by Pompeius as king of the
Bosporus after the death of his father. He was now in Asia Minor,
where he had taken Amisus and had castrated all the male children.
Cæsar after hearing of the defeat of Domitius Calvinus, his legatus,
by Pharnakos, advanced against him and routed his army. Zela is eight
hours south of Amasia, the birthplace of Strabo, and about 40° 15' N.
lat. Pharnakes was afterwards murdered by Asander, one of his
generals. (Appianus, _Civil Wars_, ii. 91; Dion Cassius, 42, 46;
_Bell. Alexandria_, c. 72.)

The modern town of Zilleh, which contains 2000 houses, stands on the
site of Zela. A hill rises abruptly above the plain near the centre of
the present town, and occupies a commanding position. The appearance
of the place corresponds very well with Strabo's description (p. 561),
in whose time it was the capital of Zelitis. (Hamilton's _Asia Minor_,
i. 361.)]

[Footnote 557: This is the best MS. reading, not Amintius; the true
name is probably C. Matius. He was an intimate friend of Cæsar, and he
is well spoken of by Cicero. He remained faithful to the cause of
Cæsar after his death, and he attached himself to Octavianus. There is
a letter of Cicero to Matius, with the answer of Matius (Cicero, _Ad
Diversos_, xi. 27, 28) written after Cæsar's death, which shows him to
have been a man of honour and courage, and worthy of the name of
Cæsar's friend.

This letter of Cæsar's is probably a forgery of the anecdote-makers.
Davis (note to Oudendorp's Cæsar, ii. 992) has indicated the probable
source of this supposed letter. (Suetonius, _Cæsar_, c. 37.) The
battle was a smart affair of several hours, and was not won without
some loss.]

[Footnote 558: He was named Dictator for B.C. 47 by the Senate in Rome
immediately after the battle of Pharsalia: he was at Alexandria when
he received this news. He appointed M. Antonius his Master of the
Horse and sent him to Rome. (Dion Cassius, 42. c. 21-33.)]

[Footnote 559: It broke out during his dictatorship. (Suetonius,
_Cæsar_, c. 70; Dion Cassius, 42. c. 52.) The story is told very
circumstantially by Appianus (_Civil Wars_, ii. 92). The soldiers
demanded of Cæsar release from service (missio), and he granted it to
them in a single word, Mitto. The soldiers having got what they asked
for were no longer soldiers, but citizens; and Cæsar in the subsequent
part of the conference properly addressed them as Quirites, just as
Cicero addresses the Roman people by this name in one of his orations
against Rullus. The soldiers at last prevailed on him to restore them
to their former condition; and he set out with them for his African
war. This affair is alluded to by Tacitus. (_Annal._ ii. 42; Lucanus,
v. 357.)]

[Footnote 560: P. Cornelius Dolabella, a devoted adherent of Cæsar.
His turbulent tribunate is recorded by Dion Cassius (42. c. 29, &c.).
He was consul with M. Antonius B.C. 44. The name Amantius occurs here
again. It is Amintius in some editions of Plutarch. Kaltwasser
observes that nothing is known of Amintius and Corfinius. But
Corfinius should be Cornificius; and Amantius should probably be C.

[Footnote 561: Cato was not in the battle of Pharsalus. After the
battle Cato, Scipio, Afranius, and Labienus went to Corcyra, whence
they sailed to Africa to join Juba. (Life of Cato, c. 55; Dion
Cassius, 42. c. 10; Appianus, _Civil Wars_, ii. 95, &c.)

The history of the African War is contained in one book, and is
printed in the editions with the Gallic War of Cæsar. Cæsar landed at
Hadrumetum, because Utica was strongly guarded. (Dion Cassius, 42. c.

[Footnote 562: Comp. the _African War_, c. 1.]

[Footnote 563: Dion Cassius (42. c. 58) calls him Salatto. Suetonius
(_Cæsar_, c. 59) also tells the same story. The African campaign is
told by Dion Cassius, 43. c. 1, &c.]

[Footnote 564: Scipio avoided fighting as long as he could. Thapsus
was situated on a kind of peninsula, south of Hadrumetum, as Dion
Cassius states. But his description is not clear. There were salt-pans
near it, which were separated from the sea by a very narrow tract.
Cæsar occupied this approach to Thapsus, and then formed his lines
about the town in the form of a crescent. Scipio came to relieve
Thapsus, and this brought on a battle. (_African War_, 80.) Cæsar
could not stop the slaughter after the battle was won.]

[Footnote 565: Petreius, Cæsar's former opponent in Spain, fled with
Juba to Zama, where Juba had his family and his treasures. But the
people would not receive Juba into the place. On which, after rambling
about for some time with Petreius, in despair they determined to fight
with one another that they might die like soldiers. Juba, who was
strong, easily killed Petreius, and then with the help of a slave he
killed himself. (_African War_, 94; Dion Cassius, 43, c. 8.)

Scipio attempted to escape to Spain on ship-board. Near Hippo Regius
(Bona) he was in danger of falling into the hands of P. Silius, on
which he stabbed himself. Afranius and Faustus Sulla, the son of the
dictator, were taken prisoners and murdered by the soldiers in Cæsar's

[Footnote 566: As to the death of Cato, see the Life of Cato, c. 65.]

[Footnote 567: The work was in two books, and was written about the
time of the battle of Munda, B.C. 45. (Suetonius, c. 56; Cicero, _Ad
Attic_, xii. 40; Dion Cassius, 43. c. 13, and the notes of Reimarus
about the "Anticato.")]

[Footnote 568: Cæsar made the kingdom of Juba a Roman province, of
which he appointed C. Sallustius, the historian, proconsul. He laid
heavy impositions on the towns of Thapsus and Hadrumetum. He imposed
on the people of Leptis an annual tax of 3,000,000 pounds weight of
oil (pondo olei), which Plutarch translates by the Greek word litræ.
On his voyage to Rome he stayed at Carales (Cagliari) in Sardinia. He
reached Rome at the end of July, B.C. 46. (_African War_, 97, &c.)

Dion Cassius (43. c. 15, &c.) gives us a speech of Cæsar before the
Senate on his return to Rome.]

[Footnote 569: As Kaltwasser remarks, Plutarch has omitted the triumph
over Gaul. (Dion Cassius, 43. c. 19; Appianus, _Civil Wars_, ii. 101.)
After the triumph Vercingetorix was put to death. Arsinœ, the sister
of Kleopatra, appeared in the Egyptian triumph in chains.]

[Footnote 570: See the Life of Sulla, c. 16 notes; and Dion Cassius,
51. c. 15.]

[Footnote 571: Plutarch has the word [Greek: triklinos] τρίκλινος. The
Latin form is triclinium, a couch which would accomodate three persons
at table. The word is of Greek origin, and simply means a place which
will allow three persons to recline upon it. As triclinia were placed
in eating-rooms, such a room is sometimes called triclinium. It is
sometimes incorrectly stated that triclinium means three couches, and
that a dining-room had the name of triclinium because it contained
three couches; which is absurd. Vitruvius describes œci(dining-rooms)
square and large enough to contain four triclinia, and leave room also
for the servants (vi. 10). It may be true that three couches was a
common number in a room.]

[Footnote 572: There was no census this year, as Rualdus quoted by
Kaltwasser shows. Augustus had a census made in his sixth consulship,
B.C. 28; and there had then been none for twenty-four years. That of
B.C. 42 was in the consulship of M. Æmilius Lepidus and Munatius
Plancus. It has been remarked that Plutarch gives the exact numbers
that are given in Suetonius (_Cæsar_, 41), when he is speaking of the
number of poor citizens who received an allowance of corn from the
state, which number Cæsar reduced from 320,000 to 150,000. This
passage, compared with Dion Cassius (43. c. 21), seems to explain the
origin of Plutarch's statement. Appianus (_Civil Wars_, ii. 102) also
supposed that it was a census. See Clinton, _Fasti_, Lustra Romana,
B.C. 50. (See the Life of Caius Gracchus, c. 5, notes.)]

[Footnote 573: Cæsar was sole consul in the year B.C. 45. He was still

[Footnote 574: Munda was in Bætica, west of Malaca (Malaga). The
battle was fought on the day of the Liberalia, the feast of Liber or
Bacchus, the 17th of March. Pompeius, B.C. 49, left Brundisium on the
Ides of March, the 15th.

The Spanish campaign is contained in a book entitled "De Bello
Hispaniensi," which is printed with the "Commentaries of Cæsar:"
thirty thousand men fell on the side of Pompeius, and three thousand
equites (c. 31). See also Dion Cassius, 43, c. 36; and Appianus,
_Civil Wars_, ii. 104.]

[Footnote 575: Cneius Pompeius, the elder of the two sons of Pompeius
Magnus, was overtaken after he had for some time eluded the pursuit of

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