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matter. Hortensius died B.C. 50. Drumann remarks (_Porcii_, p. 198),
"that she lived, after the year 56, in which she reconciled Cato with
Munatius Rufus, with the consent of Cato, with Hortensius, after whose
death in the year 50 she returned into her former relation," that is,
she became again the wife of Cato. If so, Cato must have married her
again (see note, c. 25), as Plutarch says that he did. Drumann speaks
as if Cato had a reversion of her, which became an estate in
possession after the estate of Hortensius was determined by her

[Footnote 738: The quotation is from the Hercules [Greek: Heraklês
mainomenos] Ἡρακλῆς μαινόμενος of Euripides (v. 173), one of the
extant plays.]

[Footnote 739: See Life of Cæsar, c. 72.]

[Footnote 740: Another allusion to the Anticato. It is difficult to
see what probable charge Cæsar could make of this circumstance. The
meaning of Plutarch may easily be conjectured (Drumann, _Porcii_, p.

[Footnote 741: See the Life of Pompeius, c. 65; and the Life of Cæsar,
c. 39.]

[Footnote 742: Cn. Pompeius, the elder son of Pompeius Magnus is
meant. It is conjectured that the word "young" ([Greek: neon] νέον)
has fallen out of the text (compare c. 58). He had been sent by his
father to get ships, and he arrived with an Egyptian fleet on the
coast of Epirus shortly before the battle of Pharsalus. On the news of
the defeat of Pompeius Magnus, the Egyptians left him (Dion Cassius,
42. c. 12).]

[Footnote 743: He must also have seen Cornelia, for Sextus was with
her. Life of Pompeius, c. 78.]

[Footnote 744: These people are described by Herodotus (iv. 173) as
having been all destroyed by the sands of the deserts, and their
country, which was on the Syrtis, being occupied by the Nasamones.

Lucan (_Pharsalia_, ix. 891) has made the Psylli occupy a conspicuous
place in the march of Cato.

"Gens unica terras
Incolit a sævo serpentum innoxia morsu,
Marmaridæ Psylli: par lingua potentibus herbis,
Ipse cruor tutus, nullumque admittere virus
Vel cantu cessante potest."

Seven days is much too little for the march from Cyrene to the
Carthaginian territory, and there is either an error in Plutarch's
text or a great error in his geography.]

[Footnote 745: The name Libya occurs four times in this chapter. Libya
was the general name for the continent, but the term did not include
Egypt. In the first two instances in which the name occurs in this
chapter, the word is used in the general sense. In the other two
instances it means the Roman province of Africa. Kaltwasser has used
the term Africa in all the four instances. It is immaterial which is
used, if rightly understood in both cases.]

[Footnote 746: See the Life of Cæsar, c. 53, 54, 55, and the
references in the notes.]

[Footnote 747: See the Life of Antonius, c. 81.]

[Footnote 748: See the Life of Cæsar, c. 52, and Dion Cassius, 42, c.
57. This Scipio was unworthy of the name and unequal to the times.]

[Footnote 749: The Greek writers represent the name in different ways.
Plutarch writes [Greek: Itukê] Ἰτύκη. Dion Cassius writes it [Greek:
Outikê] Οὐτική. This old Phœnician city was on the coast near the
mouth of the river Bagradas; but its supposed remains are some
distance inland. (Shaw's _Travels in Barbary_, &c., p. 79, 4to.

[Footnote 750: See the Life of Cæsar, c. 53, and Dion Cassius, 43, c.
7. The battle was fought in B.C. 46.]

[Footnote 751: The son of Cn. Octavius, who was consul B.C. 76. Marcus
was Curule Ædile B.C. 50. (Drumann, _Octavii_, p. 225.)]

[Footnote 752: He was the son of L. Julius Cæsar, consul B.C. 64. The
son was pardoned by Cæsar (_Bell. Afric._ c. 88, 89). Dion Cassius
(43, c. 12) says that Cæsar first brought him to trial, but as he was
unwilling to condemn him by his own authority, he privately got him
put to death. The statement of Dion is deficient in precision,
incredible by reason of Cæsar's well-known clemency, and the
insignificance of Lucius as an enemy, and not altogether reconcilable
with other authorities. (Drumann, _Julii_, p. 125.)]

[Footnote 753: The Phædon which contains the last conversation of
Socrates, and his death. The incident of the reading of the Dialogue,
and the reflections which it suggested, have been used by Addison in
his frigid and bombastic tragedy of Cato.]

[Footnote 754: Kaltwasser quotes a note of Dacier who cannot conceive
how Cato could read so long a Dialogue through twice in so short a
time. It is equally a matter of wonder how any body could know that he
read it through once. The fact that he had the book and was reading it
is all that could be known. Another difficulty that is suggested by
Dacier is, that the Dialogue contains the strongest arguments against
suicide; but perhaps this difficulty is removed by the suggestion that
in one passage it is said that a man should not kill himself till the
deity has sent a kind of necessity; and Cato might conceive, as he did
conceive, that the necessity had come to him.

The suicide of Cato was a peculiar case and hardly belongs to the more
general cases of suicide. His position, if he had lived under the
domination of Cæsar, would have been intolerable to a man of his
principles; for that he might have lived by Cæsar's grace, if he had
chosen, can hardly be doubted notwithstanding Cæsar wrote his

[Footnote 755: This was P. Licinius Crassus Junianus, a Junius who had
been adopted by a Crassus, as the name shows.]

[Footnote 756: [Greek: êdê d' ornithes êdon] ήδη δ' ὄρνιθες ηδον. The
translators do not agree about these words. Dacier and others
translate them literally, as I have done. Kaltwasser translated them,
"and already the cocks crowed." He adds that the other translation is
wrong, because it is said immediately after, that it was still night.
But what follows as to the night does not prove that it was dark; it
rather implies that there was not much sleeping time that remained
before morning. Cocks sometimes crow in the night, it is true, but
Plutarch evidently means to show by the expression that the morning
was dawning, and so the birds might be singing, if there were any
birds in Utica. The matter is appropriate for a dissertation, which
would be as instructive as many other dissertations on matters of

[Footnote 757: Appian (_Civil Wars_, ii. 98, &c.) tells the story of
his death differently. He says that the wound was sewed up, and that
being left alone, he tore his bowels out. But it is improbable that,
if the wound had been sewed up, he would have been left alone. The
story of Dion Cassius (43, c. 11) is the same. See Florus, iv. 2, 71,
who says that he killed himself "circa primam vigiliam."]

[Footnote 758: As he died in B.C. 46, he was in the forty-ninth year
of his age. His chatacter requires no comment; it has been fully
delineated by Plutarch. A single letter of Cato to Cicero is extant
(_Ad Diversos_, xv. 5); and a letter of such a man is worth reading,
though it be short. His speech against the conspirators, which Sallust
has given, may contain the matter, but not the words of Cato.]

[Footnote 759: He had his father's property. After Cæsar's death he
joined M. Brutus, the husband of his sister Portia, and fell at
Philippi B.C. 42. This son of Cato had a younger brother (c. 52),
whose mother was Marcia, but nothing more is known of him. The death
of the wife of Brutus is told in the Life of Brutus, c. 13, 53.]



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