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LIBRARY

OF THK

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.



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Class



gale bicentennial J&ublteattmt0

THEMISTOCLES AND ARISTIDES



gale ^Bicentennial publications

With the approval of the President and Fellows
of Tale University, a series of volumes has been
prepared by a number of the Professors and In-
structors, to be issued in connection with the
Bicentennial Anniversary, as a partial indica-
tion of the character of the studies in which the
University teachers are engaged.

This series of volumes is respectfully dedicated to

45raDuate0 of tlje






PLUTARCH'S

THEMISTOCLES

AND

ARISTIDES



NEWLY TRANSLATED, WITH INTRODUCTION
AND NOTES

BY
BERNADOTTE PERRIN

Professor in Yale University



Wie schwer sind nicht die Mittel zu erwerben,
Durch die man zu den Quellen steigt !

GOETHE'S Faust, I. i, 209 f.




NEW YORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS

LONDON: EDWARD ARNOLD

1901



Copyright, 1901,

BY CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS



Published, September, 1901.



UNIVERSITY PRESS JOHN WILSON
AND SON CAMBRIDGE, U.S.A.



TO

JOHN HAY

FRIEND OF HELLENISM



PREFACE



IN writing this book, I have had in mind as possible
friends to be won by it, first, all lovers of Plutarch, whose
name, it is to be hoped, is still legion. Knowing how im-
possible it is to reproduce in English the illusive qualities
which distinguish one Greek style from another, they will
commend my work of translation if it brings out clearly the
spirit of Plutarch as a writer of Lives : the easy and com-
fortable movements of his thought ; his attitude toward men
who are struggling with great problems of life and destiny ;
his amiable weaknesses as a judge of historical evidence ; his
relish for the personal anecdote and the mot ; his disregard of
the logic and chronology of events ; his naive appropriation of
the literary product of others ; his consummate art in making
deeds and words, whether authentic or not, portray a pre-
conceived character, a more or less idealized character.
They will welcome my introductions and explanatory notes
also, in so far as these enable the English reader to repro-
duce, even though faintly, the atmosphere of bountiful liter-
ary tradition which Plutarch amply breathed before and as
he wrote. It should be possible, in some degree, at least, for
the student of these notes and introductions to penetrate, as
it were, into the very studio of the greatest of ethical portrait-
painters, and watch him mix his colors and apply them to
the canvas.

I have had in mind, second, all lovers of Greek history,
and especially of the story of the Greek Wars of Freedom,
wherein Salamis and Platsea must always be the glorious
names. Translation and notes together will show how suc-
cessive generations of Greeks told and retold the stories of



x PREFACE

these battles ; how new and civil hates obscured the laurels
won against foreign foes ; how genius was discredited and
mediocrity rewarded ; and how for six centuries romance and
invention went on weaving their unsubstantial robes around
the dim figures of the man of genius and the man of medi-
ocrity. It may possibly be that some students of Greek his-
tory in our high schools, academies, and colleges have come
to love it, as their teachers doubtless all do, and that both
students and teachers may welcome the opportunity which
this book affords them of getting behind the stereotyped
phrases of the ordinary manual of Greek history into that
stimulating atmosphere of doubt and uncertainty before
conflicting testimonies which nourishes the judgment rather
than the memory; where witnesses who desired to tell an
attractive story can be confronted with witnesses who desired
to tell the same story truly, or perhaps even with the witness
of imperishable monuments; where even the earliest oral
testimonies show that the story-teller's delight in the form
of the story was apt to affect the matter of the story, in
ancient as well as in the latest history.

To the professional and learned student of Greek history
I should scarcely venture to appeal with this book, unless
he might wish to compare with his own opinions on contro-
verted points the opinions which I have reached after weigh-
ing the same evidence which he has himself weighed. There
is always interest, if not profit, in such comparisons. But to
the professional and learned student of other history than
Greek, and especially of modern history, I do confidently
appeal for enough attention to this book to convince himself,
if he is not already convinced, of the substantial identity of
the problems and methods of historical research in fields so
remote from each other as this from his. It is quite as diffi-
cult, probably, in 1901 A.D. for an intelligent historian, without
recourse to the official documents of the War Office, to get true
accounts of the battles at Gettysburg in 1863 as it was for
Herodotus in 440-430 B.C. to get true accounts of the battles
at Plataea in 479 ; and even contemporary accounts of im-



PREFACE xi

portant engagements in the current war in South Africa,
given by leading participants, are sharply conflicting.

I do not forget Niebuhr's quotation from Wilhelm von
Humboldt : " Es soil mir Alles recht sein, wenn man Plutarch
nur nicht als Geschichtsschreiber betrachtet," and I neither
regard Plutarch as an historian nor would I have others do so.
We must admire and love Plutarch for what he is, not rely
upon him or criticise him for what he is not and did not try
to be. But, in the dearth of testimony for obscure events in
ancient history, Plutarch will often be brought to the stand
as a witness ; in that case only those who know him thor-
oughly as the artist in ethical portrait-painting which he
tried to be, can judge of the worth of his witness on an
historical question.

On such hotly controverted points as the authenticity
of the tract On the Malignity of Herodotus, ascribed to
Plutarch ; the extent and worth of the biographical tract
of Stesimbrotus of Thasos; the date of the archonship of
Themistocles, and many others like them, I have, of course,
simply taken the position to which my studies have led me,
without arguing the questions out fully. The authorities
cited in the notes are not always, or often, indeed, the final
authorities, but such as my English readers will find most
accessible and convenient. Great storehouses of classical
scholarship have been opened to the English reader in the
translations of Herodotus by Kawlinson, of Thucydides by
Jowett, and of Pausanias by Frazer. These I quote, and to
these I refer often, in the hope of bringing many a reader
under the larger spell of their entire works. But, though I
may not profitably cite them much in the current notes, it
would be unfair not to express my constant obligation to
such works as Busolt's Griechische Gfeschichte, Wilamowitz-
Moellendorffs Aristoteles und Athen, Adolf Schmidt's ec-
centric but useful Perikleische Zeitalter, Eduard Meyer's
Forschungen zur alien Geschichte, particularly the second
volume (1899), Adolf Bauer's ThemistoUes (1881) and
Plutarchs ThemistoUes (1884), and Ivo Bruns' Das litera-



xii PREFACE

rische Portrdt der Griechen. While my book was passing
through the press I had, through the kindness of Professor
Gudeman, the tantalizing pleasure of reading Friedrich Leo's
Grifchisch-Itdmische Biographic (1901), a work of which
I would gladly have made more use. I am largely indebted
to it for one section of my Introduction (Biography before
Plutarch).

It will be seen at once, then, that I have not tried to write
a learned book for the learned, but one which may attract an
ordinary English reader of culture and taste toward learning,
and Greek learning in particular. From such recruits the
Greek scholar of the future may come by promotion.

And yet I should like to get the approval of scholars also.
My highest reward would be to have truly said of me, as
represented by this book, what Ivo Brans said of Henri Weil
and his last edition of the Medea of Euripides : " Er belehrt
den Anf&nger, und regt den Kenner an."

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the courtesy of Frau
Heimpel, daughter of the late Professor Rhousopoulos, of
Athens, in allowing the Magnesian coin which her father had
published to be photographed for my use ; of Dr. von Prott,
Librarian of the German Institute at Athens, in allowing me
the use of the drawing which illustrated the coin of Professor
Rhousopoulos, as published in the Mittheilungen of the Insti-
tute ; of Dr. Db'rpfeld, Director of the Institute, in furnish-
ing me with a photograph of the Themiatocles-ostrakon ; of
my pupil, Mr. Samuel E. Bassett, at present the Soldiers'
Memorial Fellow of Yale, at Athens, in assisting me to
secure the illustrations mentioned; and of Mons. Babelon,
Conservateur du Cabinet des Me'dailles in the Bibliotheque
Nationale at Paris, in supplying me with impressions of the
Magnesian didrachm of Themistocles.

B. P.

NEW HAVKX, June, 1901.



CONTENTS

PACK
PREFACE ix

LIST AND EXPLANATION OP ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS . xv

INTRODUCTION :
I. PLUTARCH, THE BIOGRAPHER 1

II. THEMISTOCLES, AND THE TRADITION OF HIS HISTORY

IN PLUTARCH'S LIFE 25

(a) Outline Sketch of the Persian Wars

(b) The Sources of Plutarch in his Themistocles

(c) Analysis of the Themistocles

III. ARISTIDES, AND THE TRADITION OF HIS HISTORY IN

PLUTARCH'S LIFE 49

(a) Aris tides in the Persian Wars

(b) The Sources of Plutarch in his Aristides

(c) Analysis of the Aristides

IV. BIOGRAPHY BEFORE PLUTARCH 64

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORITIES CITED BY PLU-
TARCH IN THE THEMISTOCLES 68

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF AUTHORITIES CITED BY PLU-
TARCH IN THE ARISTIDES 69

THE THEMISTOCLES 71

THE ARISTIDES 121

NOTES ON THE THEMISTOCLES 171

NOTES ON THE ARISTIDES 263

INDEX 333



LIST AND EXPLANATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS
AND MAPS



1. AN ATHENIAN STRATEGOS Frontispiece

A marble herm, the so-called " Themistocles " of the Vatican.
It is now generally recognized to be in a style later than the
time of Pheidias, as late, perhaps, as the first part of the fourth
century B. c. Furtwangler speaks of it (Masterpieces of Greek
Sculpture, p. 1 22, note) as " a copy of a beautiful head by some
artist closely akin to Cresilas," who was active at Athens during
the age of Pericles. The Corinthian helmet betokens a Strategos,
or Athenian Commander-in-chief. The point of the vizor has been
restored, and the face shows signs of reworking. Friederichs-
Wolters, Bausteine, No. 482 ; Helbig, Guide to the Public Collec-
tions of Classical Antiquities in Rome, I. p. 134- Bernouilli,
Griechische Ikonographie, I. pp. 95-100.

2. A THEMISTOCLES- OSTRAKON 104

Found in January, 1897, during excavations by the German
Archaeological Institute, in a trial-trench dug northwest of the
Areiopagus, near the modern carriage-road, on the site, probably,
of the ancient agora. It is a fragment of a large crater, with
letters carefully incised. It was used to vote for the ostracism
of Themistocles either in 483 B. c., when he was successful
against Aristides, or in 472 (? ), when he was unsuccessful against
Cimon. Athenische Mittheilungen, XXII. (1897), pp. 345-8.

3. (a) A DlDRACHM OF THEMISTOCLES 254

Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, Cabinet des Me'dailles. A silver
didrachm of the Attic standard, the coinage of Themistocles at
Magnesia, 464-458 (? ) B. c. Obverse : Apollo, standing toward
right, chlamys over shoulders and depending at either side,
right hand stemmed against thigh, left supported by long branch
of olive ; inscription, 0EMI2TOKAEO2. Reverse : incuse, within
which raven, or hawk (as bird of augury), in full flight upwards,
MA (Magnesia) beneath the wings at either side. Waddington,
Revue Numismatinue, 1856, pp. 47 ff., Plate III. 2 ; Baumeister,
Denkmaler, III. p. 1762. There is a plated imitation of this
coin in the British Museum. Head, Catalogue of Greek Coins,
Ionia, p. 158.



xvi ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS

PAOE

(b) AN ATTIC DIDRACHM 254

British Museum; period, 527-430 B.C. Obverse: head of
Athena, towurd right, of archaic style, weariug round ear-ring
and close-fitting crested helmet. Reverse : incuse square, withiu
which an owl with closed wings, toward right; behind owl, an
olive spray ; in front, A6E (Athens). Plead, Catalogue of Greek
Coint, Attica, p. 8, Plate IV. 4. For comparison with (a).

(c) ATHENIAN BRONZES OF THE ROMAN IMPERIAL PERIOD 254
British Museum. Obverse (not here given): bust of Athena,

with Corinthian helmet, lievene (two types) : (1 ) Themistocles,
wearing cuirass and helmet, striding to right on galley, carry-
ing wreath and trophy ; on prow of galley, owl and serpent
(2) Similar features, turned toward left. " In Salamis there is
a sanctuary of Artemis and a trophy of the victory which The-
mistocles, sou of Neocles, was instrumental in winning for the
Greeks. There is also a sanctuary of Cychreus. It is said that
while the Athenians were engaged in the sea-fight with the
Modes a serpent appeared among the ships, and God announced
to the Atheuians that this serpent was the hero, Cychreus"
(Pausanins, I. 36, 1). Head, Catalogue of Greek Coins, Attica,
p. 108, Hate XIX. 1 and 2; Imhoof-Blnmer and Percy Gardner,
Numismatic Commentary on Pausanias, Plate EE, xxii., xxi.

4. A MAGNESIAN BRONZE, COINAGE OF ANTONINUS Pius . 258
In the private collection of the late Professor Rhousopoulos,
Athens. Very much worn, photographs therefore indistinct ;
cuts from accurate drawings. Obverse : bust of Antoninus Pius,
toward right, wearing wreath of laurel, the ends of which hang
down into the neck ; mantle (paludamtnlum) on breast and shoul-
ders ; inscription, [ ] KAI2APANTQNEINO2. Reverse :
nude man of stately presence, with short beard, wearing on the
head a wreath or fillet, the ends of which fall into the neck. He
stands, toward the left, before a blazing circular altar. In his
right hand, which is stretched out over the altar, he holds a
saucer (patera), from which he makes a libation (of blood).
With his left hand he grasps the hilt of a sword, which hangs
in a sheath at his left side. At the foot of the altar lies the
slain victim of the sacrifice, with outstretched head and open
month, an Asiatic bison (zebu). The inscription encircling
the field is EniAIOSKOTPIAOTITATOTMHTPMArNHT, and is
found on two other Magnesian coins. The Dioskourides is other-
wise unknown. A second inscription, in the left of the field,
above and below the outstretched hand, reads 0EMI20OKAE2
It was held by Rhonsopoulos that the monument erected by the
Magnesians to Themistocles in the market-place of their city is
here copied. It represented Themistocles as Hero of Magnesia,
sacrificing. The original monument, judged to have been of
bronze, must have been extant in the time of Antoninus Pius.
Atlienisclie Mittheilungen, XXI. (1896), pp. 18 ff.



ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS xvii

PAGE
MAPS : (a) Attica and the Saronic Gulf ; (b) The Straits

of Salamis 206

The upper map is made after Kiepert ; the lower, after the map
in Papers of the American Schoolat Athens,!, p. 240.

MAPS : (a) Boeotia and Confines ; (l>) The Battle-field of

Plataea 287

The upper map is made after Kiepert ; the lower, after the map
in Papers of the American School at Athens, V. p. 256.




INTRODUCTION



I PLUTAECH, THE BIOGRAPHER 1

FOR the study of human character no true biography can
properly come amiss. But for the study of human history,
of the great institutions of society, of the sweep and reach of
civilization, and especially for the study of the history of
a particular people, the biographical method has its disad-
vantages and may easily be abused. There is great fascina-
tion in the touch of a living personality with one which is
past and gone ; a certain excitement hi calling back from
death and the grave into life and action before the eyes, as
it were, the once potent spirits who enriched human life,
whether by good or evil courses. The biographical study of
history lifts the student into an enjoyment like that of the
melancholy Bavarian king, when he sat alone in the opera
house and had the musical dramas of "Wagner produced
before him with all the pomp of royal resource. It is pre-
cisely because the biographical method is so fascinating, so
exciting, so dramatic, that it must be used with caution, with
the constant corrective of the best historical criticism, so that
even while the reader yields to the charm of great historical
dramas re-enacted for his individual benefit, he may be well
aware how ideal or how real the characters moving before
him are ; how far they are the genuine products of their own
time, and how far they have been clothed upon by the more
or less false and perverting interpretations of subsequent
times, through the dense medium of which the original,
personal spirit shines down to the present day.

1 R. W. Emerson, Introduction to Plutarch's Morals, edited by "W. "W.
Goodwin, Boston, 1870, 1889. R. C. Trench, Plutarch, Five Lectures,
London, 1873, 1874. George Wyndham, Introduction to the "Tudor"
Edition of North's translation of the Lives, London, 1895.

1



2 INTRODUCTION

The biographical method, then, by its dramatic charm and
power, may give unreal and even false ideas of historical
processes and evolutions; it may obscure them altogether.
The larger personalities who achieve the distinction of biog-
raphy often strive against tendencies which are sure to be
victorious in the end, and sure to bring the richer blessing
on the world. And yet the keen sympathy aroused by the
special study of their personal endeavors may make the
reader oblivious to the narrowness and error of such endeav-
ors. It may keep him from distinguishing between creative
and moulding personalities, who shape the history of their
time and of all times by initiating and guiding torrents of
accumulated human desire ; representative personalities, who
simply mirror the average desire, or echo the prevalent voices ;
and obstructive personalities, who stem and thwart for a
while the great currents of human desire, but are finally,
after changing somewhat the channel of the stream, swept
along with the stream or drowned by it.

But the advantages of the biographical method of studying
history will always outweigh the disadvantages, if due care
is exercised. " There is one mode," says Frederic Harrison
(The Meaning of History, p. 22), "in which history may be
most easily, perhaps most usefully approached. Let him who
desires to find profit in it, begin by knowing something of
the lives of great men. Not of those most talked about, not
of names chosen at hazard ; but of the real great ones who
can be shown to have left their mark upon distant ages.
Know their lives, not merely as interesting studies of char-
acter, or as persons seen in a drama, but as they represent
and influence their age." And let us know them, one may
surely add, not merely as they represent and influence their
own age and people, but as they stand related to the history
of the race.

Nothing is harder than for a modern to throw himself
into the mental attitude of an ancient. Fortunately for us
moderns, the great biographer of the ancient Greek and
Roman world, while an ancient himself and an " encyclo-



PLUTARCH, THE BIOGRAPHER 3

paedia of Greek and Roman antiquity," as Emerson called
him, was_alsq a jnan of the largest possible humanity, and
has always appealed with marvellous power to the greatest
and best modern minds. From the fifteenth century on, the
leading men of the world have been more influenced by
Plutarch's Lives than by any book of classical antiquity.
These biographies have been " the pasture of great souls,"
the favorite reading of kings and commanders; but also
the delight of simple folk, of plain, " self-made " men, of
pure women, of aspiring youth. A tone of affection runs
through the appreciations of Plutarch made by such differ-
ent types of men as Emerson, Archbishop Trench, and the
Honorable George Wyndham; and many an unknown man
could speak of Plutarch's Lives as the eccentric Thomas
Hollis did : " a work which at school he read avidly at
times he might have slept, and to which he afterwards
became indebted for the honestest and fairest dispositions
of his mind."

When the student disentangles himself from dates and
names and minor details, and tries to take into one view the
whole sweep of ancient Greek and Roman history, he sees a
constant pressure of great streams of humanity conquering
from North to "South and East, but periodically stayed and
even forced back by refluent waves of conquest toward North
and West. The eastern world-empire of the Persians is
pressed upon too hard by the warlike peoples along its
northern boundary, and the Scythian expedition of Darius,
and the invasion of Europe by Xerxes, the epic prose tale
of which is told us by the Father of History, are refluent
waves from the southern sea of accumulated human culture,
inundating for a while, but driven slowly back by fresher
national vigor under Miltiades, Themistocles, Pausanias, and
Cimon. Again the southward-flowing stream gathers head,
and, under the Macedonian Alexander, sweeps over the
eastern world. Refluent billows from the southern penin-
sulas check or reverse the Gallic inroads from the North,
and then the Roman flood of conquest in its turn sweeps



4 INTRODUCTION

over Greece and the East Refluent billows, again, of
Roman legions under Caesar, Agricola, and Trajan, surge
over Germany, Gaul, Britain, and Dacia, but the next
great southward-heading flood, that of Goths and Visigoths,
submerges the Roman Empire.

Plutarch lived after the Roman flood of conquest had
swept over his native Greece, and wliile the Roman Empire
was making successful headway against the ever accu-
mulating streams of vigorous barbarism from the North.
He lived, that is, at a period of poise in the vast conflicts
between the races of the South and North which constitute
ancient history, when the culture and wealth which man had
won were still able to defend themselves. He lived to do his
best work on the threshold of that fairest of ages since the
fabled age of gold, the age of the Antonines. The years 50
120 A. D. probably cover his life. As a university student
of sixteen at Athens, he saw bloody Nero wear the imperial
purple ; as a young man, the gloomy Domitian ; in his middle
age, great Trajan; and in his last days he must have
welcomed to the succession the brilliant Hadrian.

Of this age, of the better life which still survived in Greece
and the Greek world in this Indian summer of its history,
Plutarch is the best spokesman. He tells better than any
one else of that last renascence of all the good forces in the
ancient world which followed a long carnival of " scarlet
vices" and swift decay, and preceded, or even paved the
way for the gradual and unsuspected assumption of control
by the new, lowly, and therefore most comprehensive religion
of the Christ. Plutarch shows no sign of acquaintance with
Christianity. Longer residence at Rome, and greater famil-
iarity with the many lines of influence diverging from and
converging upon that focus of the world, might have brought
this gentle, devout pagan, this "anima naturaliter Christi-
ana," into contact with that principle of religious life which
absorbed the best of paganism into its vigorous, supplanting
growth. He would certainly have brought to the contact a
soul readier for reception of the essence of the new world-



t

PLUTARCH, THE BIOGRAPHER 5

religion than did the brilliant Lucian, who followed him
by only a few years. Plutarch was one of those lights of
the ancient world whose fate in the hereafter was matter of
affectionate concern to kindred spirits of a later time who had
accepted the Christian dogmas of the Judgment. " It was
his severe fate," says the editor of the Morals in 1718, in
a sentence which Emerson is unwilling to have lost, " to
flourish in those days of ignorance which, 'tis a favor-
able opinion to hope that the Almighty will sometime
wink at; that our souls may be with these philosophers
together in the same state of bliss."

Plutarch was Greek to the core. He gloried in the past
history of his country, and in the heritage of his race, and all
the more because of present poverty and degradation. He
looked upon the Eoman conquest much as Polybius did, as a
beneficent necessity. Polybius introduced their conquerors
to the Greeks, in the hope that futile resistance to inevitable
conquest might cease. Plutarch introduced the Greeks to
their conquerors, when conquest had bred forgetfulness



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