Copyright
Polybius.

The histories, with an English translation (Volume 2) online

. (page 1 of 36)
Online LibraryPolybiusThe histories, with an English translation (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 36)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


1
I
I
I
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
I
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1



POLYB] S



[S"OR]ES




Translated by
W. R. PATON



I
i
I
I

I
I
1
1
W
1
1
1
I

1
1



1

S

1
1



1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1



Complete list of Loeb titles can be
found at the end oj each volume



\



\



\



\



POLYBIUS (born c. 208 B.C.) of Mega-
lopolis in the Peloponnese (Morea), son
of Lycortas, served the Achaean League in
arms and diplomacy for many years,
favouring alliance with Rome. From
1 68 to 151 he was hostage in Rome where
he became a friend of Aemilius Paulus and
his two sons, especially adopted Scipio
Aemilianus whose campaigns he attended
later. In late life he was trusted mediator
between Greece and the Romans whom
he admired; helped in the discussions
which preceded the final war with
Carthage; and, after 146 B.C., was
entrusted by the Romans with details of
administration in Greece. He died at the
age of 82 after a fall from his horse. The
main part of his famous historical work
covers the years 264-146 B.C. With two
introductory books, it described the rise
of Rome to the destruction of Carthage
and the domination of Greece by Rome.
It is a great work; accurate, thoughtful,
largely impartial, based on research, full
of insight into customs, institutions,
geography, causes of events and character
of people ; it is a vital and most interesting
achievement of first rate importance,
despite the incomplete state in which all
but the first five of the forty books have
reached us. Polybius' overall theme is how
and why the Romans spread their power
as they did.



REF 937.04



THE HISTORIES




WITF? AN ENGL
VOLUIMF 2



ISH TRANSLA*



0163464






MM
HSS



The New\bri
Public Librai ,

vj

Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundatior ra


ruDLIV^ UIBHAnT

II

3333 0<


nt BMANUM LIBRARIES

9198 7335































































455 f "$ .

; ,

^ : ROOM









THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL. D.
EDITED BY

G. P. GOOLD, PH.D.

FORMER EDITORS

fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. tE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D.

fW. H. D. ROUSE, LITT.D. fL. A. POST, L.H.D.

E. H. WARMIXGTOX, M.A., F.R.HIST.SOC.

POLYBIUS

II



137



POLYBIUS



THE HISTORIES

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY

W. R. PATON



IN SIX VOLUMES
II




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS

LONDON

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD

MCMLXXIX



American ISBN 0-674-99152-4
British ISBN 434 99137 6



First printed 1922
Reprinted 1954, I960, 1967, 1975, 1979



Printed in Great Britain



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II

PAGE
BOOK III ........ 2

BOOK IV 296



THE HISTORIES OF
POLYBIUS



nOAYBIOT

ISTOPIQN TPITH



1 "Ort JJLCV dpxds VTTOTiOefJieOa rfjs OLVTOJV Tr/oay/za-
retas" TOV re cn^u/za^t/cdi' /cat TOV ' 'Awt/?ta/cov, rrpos

TOVTOLS TOV 7Tpl KotAl]? Su/Ha? TToXtfJiOV , V rfj

Trpcory fj,V rrjs oXrjs crvvra^ccos, rpirrj 8e ravrrjs

2 avaiTtpov fivfiXa) SeSTyAajAra/zev 6[4Oia>s Se /cat ras
alridSj St* as avaSpa/zo^res' rot? ^po^ot? TT/JO
TOVTOJV ra)V Kaipwv avvera^dfjieOa ras Trpo Tavrrjs

3 fivfiXovs, ev avrfj *KW7] 8iaa<f)tjaa/uiv. vvv Se
7TLpaa6fJL0a rovs TrpoeLprjfjLevovs TT-oAe/xous", /cat rd?
alrias e' (Sy eyeVovro /cat St* a? eVt roaovrov

, p,T* aVoSei'^eaj? e^ayyeAAetv,



4 "Ovro? yd/) evo? cpyov /cat ^ea/xaro? eros rou

, vrrep ov ypd(f)iv cVt/ce^et/j^/ca/xev, rou
/cat Trore /cat Std rt Trdvra rd
T^? oi/cotyzeV)]? ^770 TT^V 'Pco/zatcuv

5 e'yeWro, rovrov 8* \ovros /cat r^v a-pxty yvo}pit,o-



/cat rov ^povov copiofievov /cat

/xeV^v, ^p^crt/xov -^you/ze^' etvat /cat TO
77ept rajt' /Lteytcrrcov ei^ auroj fj,pa)V, oaa
/cetrat r^? dp%fjs /cat row reXovs, /ce^a
6 7njjivr)cr6f}vaL /cat 77/>oe/c0e'a$at. /xdAtara yap OVTCJS



THE HISTORIES OF POLYBIDS

BOOK III

1. IN my first Book, the third, that is, from this count-
ing backwards, I explained that I fixed as the starting-
points of my work, the Social war, the Hannibalic
war, and the war for Coele-Syria. I likewise set
forth in the same place the reasons why I wrote the
two preceding Books dealing with events of an
earlier date. I will now attempt to give a well
attested account of the above wars, their first causes
and the reasons why they attained such magnitude ;
but in the first place I have a few words to say
regarding my work as a whole.

The subject I have undertaken to treat, the how,
when, and wherefore of the subjection of the known
parts of the world to the dominion of Rome, should
be viewed as a single whole, with a recognized
beginning, a fixed duration, and an end which is not
a matter of dispute ; and I think it will be advan-
tageous to give a brief prefatory survey of the chief
parts of this whole from the beginning to the end.

3



THE HISTORIES OF POLYB1US



rot? (f>iXofJLa9ovcn

7 iKavrjv evvoiav rrjs oXrjs eVtjSoA^?. TroAXa juev yap
7rpoXafjLf3avovanr)s rrjs fax?)? e/c ra)V oXtov npos rrjv
Kara fiepos rcov rrpayfjidrajv yvajcrw, TroAAa 8* e/c raJv
Kara /ze'po? irpos Trjv ra>v oXajv emcrTT^Lirp, dpiaTrjv
rjyovfjievoL TTJV l d^olv erriaracfiv Kal Oeav, a/co-
\ovOov rot? Lpr)iJ,VOLS TTOirjorofJieOa Try 7rpoeK0aw

8 rrjs avrajv TT/aay/zaTeta?. TTJV fJL\> ovv KaOoXov rfjs
VTToOecreajs e^aaLV /cat rr^v 7TpLypa<f)r)V 17817 SeSyyAco-

9 Kajjiev. ra)V Se Kara fjiepos ev avrfj yeyovortov
dpxa-S ftev efvat ovufiaivei rovs TrpoeLprj/nevovs
TToXefjiovs, Karaarpofirjv Se feat avvreXeiav rrjv
KardXvaiv rrjs V Ma/ceSovta /SacrtAeta?, \povov Se
rov jjLrav rrjs dpxrjs Kal rov reXovs err) 7TvrrJKOvra

10 rpia, 7Tpiex a @ aL $* ^ v TOVTW rrjXiKavras Kal
roiavras Trpa^et?, ocra? ouSet? ra>v rcpoyeyovorajv

11 Kaipdjv V icrto Trepte'Aa^e Stao-rT^/xart. Trept a>v arro
rfjs eKaroarrjs Kal rerrapaKocrrfjs oAy/xTrt
dpd[jLvoi rotavSe rtva TTOLrjcrofJLeOa rrjv e<^oSov



2 'TTroSet^avres 1 yap rds alrias, Si* as o
jjievos avvearri Kap^Sop'tot? Kal 'Pco/xatot? Trd
o irpocrayopevdels 'Awt^taAco?,

2 'IraAtap' e/zjSaAovre? Kap^^Sovtot /cat

TT)V 'Pco/JiaiCDV Svvacrreiav et? jue'yay />tev (f>6/3ov
e/cetVof? rjyayov rrepi afiwv Kal rov rrjs rrarpiftos
eod<f>ovs> (JieydXas S* e'cr^ov aurot /cat rrapaS6ovs
eA77tSas-, ct? /cat r^? 'Pwfjurjs avrrjs e' e'^oSou

3 KparrjcrovreS' c^Tys" Se rovrois Tvetpacro^e^a Stacra-
<^etv co? /cara rou? auroi)? /catpov? OtAtrrTro? /xev o
Ma/ceScov StaTroAe/xiycra? AtrcoAot? /cat /uera ravra
cwarrjadfjievos ra Kara TOVS "EAA^va?,

4



BOOK III. 1.6-2.3

For I believe this will be the best means of giving
students an adequate idea of my whole plan. Since
a previous general view is of great assistance to the
mind in acquiring a knowledge of details, and at the
same time a previous notion of the details helps us
to knowledge of the whole, I regard a preliminary
survey based on both as best and will draw up these
prefatory remarks to my history on this principle.
I have already indicated the general scope and limits
of this history. The particular events comprised in it
begin with the above-mentioned wars and culminate
and end in the destruction of the Macedonian
monarchy. Between the beginning and end lies a
space of fifty-three years, comprising a greater 220-168
number of grave and momentous events than any
period of equal length in the past. Starting from
the 140th Olympiad I shall adopt the following order 220-216

n f-*

in my exposition of them.

2. First I shall indicate the causes of the above war
between Rome and Carthage, known as the Hanni-
balic war, and tell how the Carthaginians invaded
Italy, broke up the dominion of Rome, and cast the
Romans into great fear for their safety and even
for their native soil, while great was their own
hope, such as they had never dared to entertain,
of capturing Rome itself. Next I shall attempt to
describe how at the same period Philip of Macedon,
after finishing his war with the Aetolians and settling
the affairs of Greece, conceived the project of an



THE HISTORIES OF POLYBIUS



rcov avra>v eAm8a>i>, '

8e /cat HToAe/zato? o OtAoTrdYtop rj[Ji(f)icrf3ij-
y TeAo? 8* eTToAe/r^crai' UTrep KoiA^s* Supt'a? TT/JO?

5 dAA^Aous 1 , 'PoStot Se /cat npoucrtas 1 dvaXaflovres
trpos Bu^aimou? rroXcfjiov rjvdyKacrav avrovs O.TTO-
arrlvcLi rov Tiapaycoyta^etv rovs TrXeovras els TOV

6 Hdvrov. (jTTJcravres 8* eVt TOVTOJV TTJV Snjyqcnv TOV

rfjs t Pa)fJLaia>v TroAtretas 1 ovcrrrjoofjizda Aoyov,
/cara ro CTUve^e? UTroSet^o/zev ort /zeytara
' avrols rj rov TroAtTei^taTOS" tStor^? 77^0?
TO /XT) JJLOVOV dva.KTijaao'Oai TTJV 'IraAtCDrcup' /cat
)jt/ceAtcoTa)y Suvacrretav, ert Se T^ *If3ijpa)v TrpoaXa-
jSetv /cat KeArcov dp^v, dAAa TO TeAeuTatov /cat Trpoy
TO KpaTrjcravTas ra> TroAe/xa) Kap^rySovtcoi' evvoiav
TOV oAcov 7TL^oXrjs. a^u,a Se TOVTOIS Kara

KaraXvaw rfjs 'le

8 TO> 2iVpaKoo*iov Svvaareias. of? eVrtcruvaJ/roftev
Trcpt TT)V Atyu77TOV rapa)(ds /cat TtVa rpoTrov HTO-
Ae/Ltatou TOU fiaaiXeajs {JLraXXdavTOs rov f&ov av/Ji-
<f>povr}O'avT$ 'AvTto^os" /cat Ot'AtTTTro? 77t Statpecret
TOU KaraXeXeijjLfjLevov 77at8o? dpx^js rjpavro /ca-
payfjiovelv /cat Tas 1 x ?P as 77tjS
Tot? /caT* Atyatov /cat KaptW /cat
e TOI? /caTa KotAr^v Suptav /cat
3 //.eTa Se ravra cruy/ce0aAata>aajU,evot raj e^ '

/cat Aifivr] /cat 2t/ceAt'a Trpd^eis 'Poj^aiajv /cat Kap-



et? TOJ)? /caTa TT^V f EAAa8a TOTTOU? ctju-a Tat?

2 Trpay^draiv jLteTa/foAats 1 . e^yTycra/Aevot 8e TO,? *AT-
TaAou /cat 'PoStcuv vavp,a%ias irpos OtAtTTTrov, eTt 8e
TOV *Paj/Ltatwv /cat OtAtTTTrou TroAe/xop, a*? 7rpdxdr)

3 /cat Sta TLVOJV /cat Tt TO TeAos 1 ecr^e, rovra) aw-



BOOK III. 2.4-3.3

alliance with Carthage ; how Antiochus and Ptolemy
Philopator first quarrelled and at length went to war
with each other for the possession of Coele-Syria,
and how the Rhodians and Prusias, declaring war on
the Byzantines, compelled them to stop levying toil
on ships bound for the Euxine. Interrupting my
narrative at this point, I shall draw up my account
of the Roman Constitution, as a sequel to which
I shall point out how the peculiar qualities of the
Constitution conduced very largely not only to their
subjection of the Italians and Sicilians, and subse-
quently of the Spaniards and Celts, but finally to
their victory over Carthage and their conceiving
the project of universal empire. Simultaneously in
a digression I shall narrate how the dominion of
Hiero of Syracuse fell and after this I shall deal with
the troubles in Egypt, and tell how, o.i the death of
Ptolemy, Antiochus and Philip, conspiring to parti-
tion the dominions of his son, a helpless infant,
began to be guilty of acts of unjust aggression,
Philip laying hands on the islands of the Aegean,
and on Caria and Samos, while Antiochus seized on
Coele-Syria and Phoenicia.

3. Next, after summing up the doings of the Roman
and Carthaginians in Spain, Africa, and Sicily I shall
shift the scene of my story definitely, as the scene
of action shifted, to Greece and its neighbourhood.
I shall describe the sea-battles in which Attalus
and the Rhodians met Philip, and after this deal with
the war between the Romans and Philip, its course,
its reason, and its result. Following on this I shall

7



THE HISTORIES OF POLYBIUS



TO avvexes fjLvrjcrOrjO'OfJLfOa rrjs AircoXajv
opyfjs, Kdff rjv 'AVTLOXOV e'mo^aaa/zeyot Toy 0,770 rrjs
'Ao-ta? 'A^atot? /cat 'Paj/zatot? e'^e'/caucray 77oAe/zoy.

4 ov orjXcjaavres rds alrias /cat rty 'AvTto^ou Sia/8acrty
cts" TT]^ TZvpcjmrjv , Oiaaa^tjaofjiev rrpajrov [lev riva,
rporrov K rrjs 'EAAaSo? e'</>uye, oevrepov Se TTCJS rjr-
rrjOels rrjs TTL rdoe rov Tavpov rrdarjs e^e^wp^cre,

6 TO Se rpirov riva rporrov 'PcD/^,atot /caTaAucraj'Tes' rr/v
TaXaratv vfipw dorfpirov ^kv a^iai rrapeo-Kevaaav
Trjv rfjs 'Acrt'a? dpxrjv, drreXvaav Se rovs eVt TaSe
TOU Taupou KaroiKovvras flapfiapiK&v (froficov /cat

6 rrjs FaAaTcSy rrapavofjiias . ^tera Se ravra Oevres
VTro rrjv oifjiv rds AlrcuXwv /cat Ke^aAA^ycov aTV-
^t'a? 67nj3aXovfjiv rovs Eu/zeVet ov&rdvras rrpos r
Upovaiav /cat FaAaTa? 77oAe / /zous > , o/xotco? Se /cat Toy

7 /LteT* *Apiapd6ov rrpos Oapya/cay. of? e^ry? errifjivri-
oQevres rrjs rrapd YleXorrovvrjaLOJV o^ovoias /cat
Karaardaeats , eVt Se T^? avija0}S rov



8 yf)<jiv afjLa /cat ras 1 77/oafets', eVt Trdcriv
crdfjiVOL rr]V 'Avrto^ou urpareiav etV Alyvrrrov rov
KXrjdevros 'Ei7TL(f)avovs /cat rov Ile/ocrt/cov 77oAe/xov
/cat r^v /caraAwcrty r^? eV Ma/ceSovta

9 St' cSv a^a deojprjOijcreTai TTOJS e/cao-ra
*Pa>//atot Trdoav eVot^cravro T



4 Et /tef ow e'^ aurcDv rcDv KaropOajfjidrajv r] /cat



U77ep rcov iscKrajv r rovvavrov
/cat TroXirevfjidrajv, eV^aSe 77ou A^yetv av
eSet /cat Karaarpe^eiv a/za r^y SLrjyrjO'iv /cat
7rpayfjiarLav CTTI ras reAevratas 1
8



BOOK III. 3.3-4.1

make mention of the angry spirit of the Aetolians
yielding to which they invited Antiochus over, and
thus set ablaze the war from Asia against the Achaeans
and Romans. After narrating the causes of this
war, and how Antiochus crossed to Europe, I shall
describe in the first place how he fled from Greece ;
secondly how on his defeat after this he abandoned
all Asia up to the Taurus ; and thirdly, how the
Romans, suppressing the insolence of the Galatian
Gauls, established their undisputed supremacy in
Asia and freed its inhabitants on this side of the
Taurus from the fear of barbarians and the lawless
violence of these Gauls. Next I shall bring before
the reader's eyes the misfortune that befel the
Aetolians and Cephallenians, and then make mention
of the war of Eumenes with Prusias and the Gauls
and of that between Ariarathes and Pharnaces.
Subsequently, after some notice of the unification
and pacification of the Peloponnese and of the
growth of the Rhodian State, I shall bring the whole
narrative of events to a conclusion, narrating finally
the expedition of Antiochus Epiphanes against
Egypt, the war with Perseus, and the abolition of the
Macedonian monarchy. All the above events will
enable us to perceive how the Romans dealt with
each contingency and thus subjected the whole
world to their rule.

4. Now if from their success or failure alone we
could form an adequate judgement of how far states
and individuals are worthy of praise or blame, I could
here lay down my pen, bringing my narrative and
this whole work to a close with the last-mentioned

9



THE HISTORIES OF POLYBIUS

2 7rpdet? Kara rrjv e OLp^rjs rcpoQeaw. o T yap
Xpovos 6 TfevrriKovraKairpierris els raur* eArjyev rj
r* avrjcns /cat Trpo/coTn) rijs 'PcojLtatcov Svvacrreias

3 erereXeicuro Trpd? Se rovrois o/AoAoyovfjievov eSd/cet
TOUT* etmt /cat /carT^ay/caoyteVov dVacrtv ort

eart 'Pco/zatcov a/couew /cat rourot? Tret^ap^e

4 rcDv TrapayyeAAofJLevcov. CTTCL 8* ou/c auroreAets 1 etatv
owre Trept rcDv /cpar^cravrcoy cure Trept raiv eAaTra>-

at ^rtAcos" e^ aurcDv ra)v dycovtcr/xaTcav Sta-
Sta ro TroAAot? /^eu ra /z-e'ytora So/coui/r*
Ta)y /caTop$a>/mTO>v, oray ft^ SeovTO)? aurot?
TO.? /u,ey terra? 7TVf]vo)(6vai <JvfJL<j>op(is,
OVK oAiyoLS Se ra? e/CTrA^/crt/ccoTaTa? TreptTreret'as',
orav euyevcD? auras 1 dvaSe^covrat, TroAAa/cts- et?
6 rou avjj.<f)epovTOs Tre/otTreTrrco/ceVat
TZOV av ir) rat? Trpoetp^/xeVats 1 7rpd^<JL TTJV re TCOV
KparovvTCov aiptaiv , 7rota rt? 7^^ /xerd raura /cat TrcDs 1
Trpoecrrdret rcDv 6'Acov, rd? re rcuj/ dAAcov dTroSo^d?
/cat StaA^j/fet?, Trocrat /cat rtVe? VTrrjp^ov rrepl TO>V
Trpos Se TOVTOLS ras opfjias /cat



rive? Trap 9 e/cdcrrot? eneKparovv
/cat Kari<j-)(yov TrepL re rovs /car* t'Stav /Stous" /cat



7 rd? /cotvd? TroAtreta?. S^Aov yap co? e/c rovrcov
(fxivepov ecrrat rot? /^ev vw oucrt Trorepa

r) rovvavriov alperrjv etvat cry/^^atVet r^y

Svvaareiav, rot? 8' eTnyivo^evois Trorepov

/cat ,r)Aa)rr]V TJ J/re/cr^v yeyoveVat vop,t,crreov

8 apxty CLVTOJV. ro yap co^eAt/xov r?^? ^yiterepa? iaro-
pta? Trpo? re ro rrapov /cat Trpos ro ^LteAAov ev rovrco

g TrXelarov /cetcrerat ra) /zepet. ou yap 8^ rour* et^at
reAo? VTToArjTrreov ev irpoiy^aaiv ovre rot?



vot? oure rot? aTT-o^atvo/teVot? uVep rourcov, TO
10



BOOK III. 4.2-9

events, as was my original intention. For the period
of fifty-three years finished here, and the growth
and advance of Roman power was now complete.
Besides which it was now universally accepted as a
necessary fact that henceforth all must submit to the
Romans and obey their orders . But since j udgements
regarding either the conquerors or the conquered
based purely on performance are by no means final
what is thought to be the greatest success having
brought the greatest calamities on many, if they do
not make proper use of it, and the most dreadful
catastrophes often turning out to the advantage of
those who support them bravely I must append to
the history of the above period an account of the sub-
sequent policy of the conquerors and their method of
universal rule, as well as of the various opinions and
appreciations of their rulers entertained by the sub-
jects, and finally I must describe what were the pre-
vailing and dominant tendencies and ambitions of the
various peoples in their private and public life. For
it is evident that contemporaries will thus be able to
see clearly whether the Roman rule is acceptable or
the reverse, and future generations whether their
government should be considered to have been
worthy of praise and admiration or rather of blame.
And indeed it is just in this that the chief usefulness
of this work for the present and the future will lie.
For neither rulers themselves nor their critics should
regard the end of action as being merely conquest

11



THE HISTORIES OF POLYBIUS



10 Krjcrai /cat TTOLrjcraaOai TrdvTas VfjS eavTOVS. ouVe
yap TroAe/zet rots' TreXas ou8ets" vovv e^cov CVCKCV
avTOV TOV KaTayojVLaaaBaL TOVS o.vTtTaTTO/zeVoys',
ovre TrAet TO. TreXdyrj X^-P LV T v Trepai<jL>9f}vai JJLO-
vov, /cat (jtr/v ouSe ra? efJL7TLpias KOI re^va? avrfjs

11 VKa rry? eTricrTTJfjLrjs dvaXa/Ji^dveL' Trdvres Se Trpdr-
Tovai Travra \o-piv rwv lTriyivo^Jieva)v rot? epyot?

12 r]$ea)V rj KaXcov r) <JVfji(f)p6vTajv. 60 /cat -ny? Trpay-
/Ltaretas 1 ravrry? TOUT' e'cn-at TeXecnovpyrjua, TO yv&-
vai rrjv Kardcrraaiv Trap* e/cacrTot?, vrota TI? ^^ />teTa
TO KaTaya)Via8rjvai ra 6Xa /cat ireaelv 6tV TT)V TCLI^
'Pco/zatcuv c^ovcriav, eco? Tr^? /xeTa ravra TrdXiv eVt-

13 yevofjievrjs rapa^-fj? /cat /ct^crecos". UTrep ^? 8ta TO

ra>v ev avrfj Trpd^eajv /cat TO 7rapdSoov
LvovTajv, TO Se /zeytcrTov Sta TO TaJt' TrAet-
CTTOJV /XT) [Lovov a.VTOTTTiq's y aAA' tov /xei^ CTUi^epyos', (St'
Se /cat ^etptCTTT]? yeyoj^eVat, TrporjxOrjV oiov dp)(rjv
5 rron^ad^vo? aAA^v ypdfaiv. r\v 8' 7} Trpoetp^eV^
/aV^at?, ev 27 'Pco/^tatot /xei^ Trios' KeATt^pa? /cat
Oi)a/c/catou? e^i/ey/cav TroXefiov, Kap
TO^ Trpo? Macro-avao-o-av /SaatAea TOJV

2 77e/3t Se TT)V 'Aatav "ATTaAo? /xei' /cat
77/30? aAA^Aou? eTToXe/jL-rjo-av, 6 8e TO>^
So/ccDi' fiaoiXevs 'Apta/oa^Ty?, eKneaajv e/c

VTT* *Qpo<j)epvovs 8ta A^/xT]Tptou TOU jSacrtAecu?,
av0is dvKTijaaTO 8t' 'ATTaAou T^V TTCLTp

3 o* 8e SeAeu/cou ATy/xTyTpto? Kvpios yevo^evos
8ajSe/ca T7y? ei> ^ivpia /SaatAeta? a/xa TOU /3t'ou /cat
a-p^ffs 6o~Tprj6r), avaTpafievTOJV CTT' auTOV

4 aAAa>y fiaaiXeajv . aTro/caTeCTTi^aa^ 8e /cat 'Pa>/>tatoi



TOU? ' EAAVa? tS" TTV OLKCLOLV TOVS .K TOV



KO.TOiLTLa.Bf.VTaS, a7TO\VaaVTS T7JS

12



BOOK III. 4.10-5.4

and the subjection of all to their rule ; since no man
of sound sense goes to war with his neighbours
simply for the sake of crushing an adversary, just
as no one sails on the open sea just for the sake of
crossing it. Indeed no one even takes up the study
of arts and crafts merely for the sake of knowledge,
but all men do all they do for the resulting pleasure,
good, or utility. So the final end achieved by this
work will be, to gain knowledge of what was the
condition of each people after all had been crushed
and had come under the dominion of Rome, until the
disturbed and troubled time that afterwards ensued.
About this latter, owing to the importance of the
actions and the unexpected character of the events,
and chiefly because I not only witnessed most but
took part and even directed some, I was induced to
write as if starting on a fresh work. 5. This period of
disturbance comprises, firstly the war waged by
Rome against the Celtiberians and Vaccaei, that
between Carthage and Massinissa the King of the
Libyans and that between Attalus and Prusias in
Asia. Next, Ariarathes, King of Cappadocia was
expelled from his kingdom by Orophernes through
the agency of King Demetrius and recovered his
ancestral throne by the help of Attalus. Then
Demetrius, son of Seleucus, after reigning in Syria
for twelve years lost both his kingdom and his Jife,
the other kings combining against him. Next the
Romans restored to their homes the Greeks who had
been accused in consequence of the war with Perseus,
acquitting them of the charges brought against them.

13



THE HISTORIES OF POLYBIUS



avrols oiapoXrjs. oi 8* avrol JLICT* ov TroXv
eirefiaXov rds ^et/oa?, rd /xev irpatrov
L, ^tera. Se ravro. TraAtv dpSrjv avrovs
oOe^voi Std ra? eV rot? ef^? pi]dr)-

6 cro/zeVa? atrta?. ot? /caraAA^Aa Ma/ceSovcuv ^tei'
aTro r^? 'Pa>/xatct>v faXias, AaAreSat/zovtcuv 8e r^?
TCOV 'A^atcDv crvp,7ToXiTias dTToaravTCDV, apa rrjv
a*PX*) v Ka -i- T TeXos ea^e TO /cotvov aTU^/

rfjs 'EAAaSoj.

7 Td /zei/ ouy T^S" eVt^oA^? rjfJL&v roiavra'

8' eVt T^? TU^?, ?va crvvSpOLfjir) rd rov ftiov 77/30?

g TO TT^V Trpodeaiv errl reXos dyayzlv. TreTreta^tat /Ltev
yap, /caV Tt crvfjififj Trepl 7^u,a? dvOpwTrivov, OVK
dpyij<JLV rr]V VTroOcacv 01)8' dTropijcreiv dv
d^Loxpzajv, 8td TO /cd'AAous 1 TroAAoi)? Kareyyvrj
o&ai Kal OTTOvSdcrew TTL reXos dyayeiv avrijv.

9 'Evret 8e rds eTTL^aveardras TOJV 7rpd



Aatou SteAi]Ai;^a/zei/, ^ov\6^evoi /cat /ca^oAou /cat
ftepo? ets" ewotav ayayetv T^? oA^s" laropias



rovs tVTvyxvovras , a>pa jjLvr)novvovTa$ rrjs Trpo-
e77avayayetv eVt T^ dp-^v rrjs avrcov VTTO-



Q "Evtot Se TOJV avyye'ypacfroTajv Ta? /caT* '
Trpdfet?, f3ovX6iJLVOL TO.? OLITLCLS rjfjitv
8t' a? 'Pco/xatot? /cat Kap^So^tots" o
evearrj rroXcfjios, Trpwr-qv /JLCV aTro^atVoucrt TT^V Za-

2 KavOrjs TToXiopKLdv VTTO Kap^Sovtcuv, Bevrepav 8e
TT^V Std/Jaatv auTaiv rrapd rds crvvd^Kas rov rfpoa-
ayopevojjievov Trapd TO t? cy^coptots "ifcypos TrorafjLOv.

3 eyto 8e ravras dpxds fJ,V elvai rov TroAe/zou <^7^-
crat/Lt' ai^, alrias ye /XT)^ ovSa/xco? av oruy^cup^crat/it.

4 7roAAou ye Setv, et /xi] /cat TT)V 'AAefaySpou 8ta-
14



BOOK III. 5.5-6.4

A little later the Romans attacked Carthage, having
resolved in the first place on changing its site and
subsequently on its utter destruction for the reasons
that I shall state in due course. Close upon this
followed the withdrawal of the Macedonians from
their alliance with Rome and that of the Lace-
daemonians from the Achaean League, and hereupon
the beginning and the end of the general calamity
that overtook Greece.

Such is the plan I propose, but all depends on
Fortune's granting me a life long enough to execute
it. However I am convinced that in the event of
my death, the project will not fall to the ground for
want of men competent to carry it on, since there
are many others who will set their hands to the task
and labour to complete it.

Now having given a summary of the most important
events, with the object of conveying to my readers
a notion of this work as a whole and its contents in
detail, it is time for me to call to mind my original
plan and return to the starting-point of my history.

6. Some of those authors who have dealt with
Hannibal and his times, wishing to indicate the
causes that led to the above war between Rome
and Carthage, allege as its first cause the siege of
Saguntum by the Carthaginians and as its second
their crossing, contrary to treaty, the river whose
native name is the Iber. I should agree in stating
that these were the beginnings of the war, but I
can by no means allow that they were its causes,
unless we call Alexander's crossing to Asia the cause

15



THE HISTORIES OF POLYBIUS

el? rrjv 'AcrtW alrlav elvai ri? (frrjaei rov
rov? nepcra? rroXefiov Kal rov 'Aimd^ou /caret -
Tt\ovv el? AT^itTyTptaSa rov rrpo? 'Pcofjuaiov?' ojv

5 OUT' elKo? our' dXrjOe? eariv ovSerepov. rL? yap
dv vo[j,io~eie rauras 1 alria? vrrdp^eLV, d>v TroAAa /xev

vSpos rrporepov, OVK oAtya 8e Ot'AiTTTros' ert
ev^pyr/ae Kal rrapeaKevdaaro rrpos rov Kara
TCJV YleporaJv rroXcfjiov, ofioitos Se rrdXiv Atra>Aot
rrpo rijs *Avno^oy rrapovaias rrpos rov Kara 'Pco-

6 fJiaiaiv ; aAA* eanv dvBpajrrojv rd roiavra (JLTJ 8t-



Online LibraryPolybiusThe histories, with an English translation (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 36)