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JOUENAL



POLYNESIAN SOCIETY



OONTAnrXNO



THE TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS
OF THE SOCIETY.



Vol. IX.



1900.




>^



WELLINGTON, N.Z.:

PBINTBD FOB THB 800IETT BT WHTTOOIIBE AND TOMBS UHITED, LAMBTON QUAY.

AOBNT FOB AHKBICA :
BXV. 8. D. PXET, BDITOB OV " THB AMBKICAN AMTIQUABT," CBIOAOO.

1900.



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CONTENTS OF VOL. IX.



No. 88.— March, 1900.

PAOB

Constitution of Society, List of Officers and Members ... ... i-v

Annual Meeting ... ... ... ... ... ... vi

Annual Report of the Council... ... ... ... ... vi

Balance Sheet ... ... ... ... ... ... viij

Wars of the Northern against the Southern Tribes of New Zealand. By S.

Percy Smith ... ... ... ... ... ... 1

•• The Creation Song " of Hawaii. By Edward Tregear ... ... 38

Nga Mahi a Te Wera, me Nga-Puhi Hoki, ki Te Tai-Rawhiti. Na Takaanui

Tarakawa i Tuhituhi ... ... ... ... ... 47

The Doings of Te Wera and Nga-Puhi on the East Coast. Te Wera proceeds

South ... ... ... ... ... ... 54

Notes and Queries. 129 The Cross in Polynesia. 130 Sun Worship in New

Zealand ... ... ... ... ... ... 63

Proceedings of the Society ... ... ... ... ... 64



No. 84.— June, 1900.

Nga Mahi a Te Wera, me Nga-Puhi Hoki, ki Te Tai-Rawhiti. Na Takaanui

Tarakawa i Tuhituhi ... ... ... ... ... 66

The Doings of Te Wera and Nga-Puhi on the East Coast ... ... 74

Wars of the Northern against the Southern Tribes of New Zealand. By S.

Percy Smith ... ... ... ... ... ... 86

Triangular Teeth amongst Maoris. By the late F. E. Clarke ... ... 121

Proceedings of the Society ... ... ... ... ... 126

Notice to Members ... ... ... ... ... 126



No. 86.— September, 1900.

Folk Songs and Myths from Samoa. By J. Fraser, LL.D. ... ... 126

Ancient Moriori Art in New Zealand. By Joshua Rutland ... ... 142

Ancient Indian Astronomy. By Joshua Rutland ... ... ... 144

Wars of the Northern against the Southern Tribes of New Zealand. By S.

Percy Smith ... ... ... ... ... ... 146

Notes and Queries ... ... ... ... ... 169

Obituary.— Rev. Charles McEwen Hyde, D.D. ... ... ... 170

Proceedings of the Society ... ... . ... ... ... 171



No. 86.— December, 1900.

Spiritual Concepts of the Maori. By Elsdou Best, of Rua-tahuna, Tuhoe-land 173
Ko ** Aotea ** Waka. Te Haerenga mai a Turi ki Aotea-roa nei. Na Heta-

raka Tautahi i Korero, Otira na raua ko Werabiko Taipuhi ... 200

The " Aotea " Canoe. The Migration of Turi to Aotea-roa (New Zealand).

Translated and Annotated by S. Percy Smith ...
A Song of Savage Lsland (Nine). By Ed. Tregear ... ... ... 234

Pi oceedings of the Society ... .. ... ... ... 236



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POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.



OFFICERS FOR 1899.
J. H. Pope.



QDouncii :



S. PsBOT Smith, F.R.G.S.

C. A. EWBN.

B. B. BoT.



N. J. Tone.

E. Tbegbab, F.B. Hist. S.

B. GOUPLAND HaBDINO.



||(0int t^on* ^tcv9iavi9% and ®v«a»ttv»v», anh
^Mtti^r^ of ^0uvnai :

S. Percy Smith and Ed. Treobar.



/^HE Society is formed to promote the study of the Anthropology, Ethno-

^^ logy, Philology, History and Antiquities of the Polynesian races, by the

pnblioation of an official journal, to be called "The Journal of the Poltnbsun

Socibtt" and by the collection of books, manuscripts, photographs, relics, and

other illustrations.

The term ** Pol3mesia *' is intended to include Australia, New Zealand,
Melanesia, Micronesia, and Malaysia, as well as Polynesia proper.

Candidates for admission to the Society shall be admitted on the joint re-
commendation of a member of the Society and a member of the Council, and
on the approval of the Council.

Every person elected to membership shall receive immediate notice of the
same from the Secretaries, and shall receive a copy of the rules; and on pay-
ment of his subscription of one pound shall be entitled to all the benefits of
membership. Subscriptions are payable in advance, on the 1st January of
each year.

Papers will be received on any of the above subjects if sent through a
member. Authors are requested to write only on one side of the paper, to use
quarto paper, and to leave one inch margin on the left-hand side, to allow of
binding. Proper names should be written in BOMAN TYPE.

The office of the Society is at present Government Buildings, Welhngton
Kew Zealand.

The price of back numbers of the Journal, to members, is 28. 6d.
Vols, i, ii, and iii are out of print.



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MEMBERS OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

IsT OP Januaby, 1900.



The sign * before a name indicates an original member or founder.

As this list will be published annually, the Secretaries would feel obliged if members will supply
any omisBions, or notify change of residence.



HONORARY MEMBERS.

Liliuokalani, ex-Queen of Hawaii, Honolulu, Sandwich Islands

Rev. R. H. Codrington, D.D., Wadhurst Rectory, Sussex, England

Rev. Prof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., Queen's College, Oxford, England

Hon. J. G. Ward, M.H.R., Wellington, N.Z.

Right Hon. Prof. F. Max Muller, M.A., P.O., F.R.S., Oxford. EngUnd

Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., Wellington, N.Z.

Professor H. H. Giglioli, Florence, Italy

CORRESPONDING MEMBERS.

Prof. Otis T. Mason, A.M., Ph.D., Smithsonian Institution, National Moseam,

Washington, U.S A.
Rev. T. G. Hammond, Patea, Taranaki, N.Z.
W. Te Kahui Kararehe, Rahotu, Taranaki, N.Z.
Te One Rene Rawiri Te Mamaru, Moeraki, Otago, N.Z.
Rev. Mohi Turei. Wftiapu, N.Z.
Takaanui-Tarakawa, Te Puke, Maketu, N.Z.
Earipa-Te-Whetu, Wbangarae, Nelson, N.Z.
Tiwai Paraone, Miranda, Auckland, N.Z.
Aporo-Te-Kumeroa, Grey town, N.Z.

F. W. Christian, Tenterfield House, Putney Hill, London, S.W.
Hare Hongi, Hawera, N.Z.
Wiremu Kauika, Waitotara N.Z.
Tali Salmon, Papara, Tahiti.
Pa-ariki, Ngatangiia, Rarotonga.
Rev. J. E. Moultan, Newington College, Stanmore, Sydney.

ORDINARY MEMBERS.

• Atkinson, A. S., F.L.8., Nelson, N.Z.

• Adams, C. W., Survey Office, Blenheim, N.Z.

• Alexander, Dr. E. W., F.R.G.S., Dunedin, N.Z.

• Alexander, Hon. W. D., F.R.G.S., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands
Aldred, W. A., Wellington, N.Z.

Atkinson, Ronald, Wellington, N.Z.
Aitken, J. G. W., Wellington, N.Z.
Atkinson, W. E., Naikorokoro, Fiji

• Broderick, J. N., Timaru, N.Z.

" Birch, W. J., Erewhon, Napier, N.Z.

• Blair, J. R., Terrace, Wellington, N.Z.

• Barron, A., Survey Department, Wellington, N,Z.

• Best, Elsdon, Rua-tahuna. Botorua, N.Z.

• Bishop, Hon. C. R., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands

Buller, Sir W. L., K.C.M.G.. F.R.S., Terrace, Wellington, N.Z.
Bate, A. T.. WeUington, N.Z.
Battley, B. T., Moawhango, N.Z.



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LIST OF MEMBERS, ii

Bamford, E., Auckland, N.Z.

Benn, H. R., Galatea, N.Z.

Bettany, J. H., Marton, N.Z.

Buohanan, W. C, M.H.B., Brandspeth, N.Z.

Beetham, W., Masterton, N.Z.

Bonar, W., Surprise Island

Billings, Dr. J. S., Director New York Public Library, New York

Burnett, Frank, Vancouver

Broderick, W. T., Omaramutu, Opotiki

Blackwood, L., Inspector of Machinery, Auckland

Brown, Rev. C. Crisp, Te Ngae, Rotorua

Bennett, Rev. F., Te Ante

* Chapman, F. R., Dunedin, N.Z.

* Cowie, Bight Rev. W. G., D.D., Primate of N.Z., Bishopscourt, Auckland

N.Z.

* Carroll, A., M.A., M.D., St. Kilda, Koogarrah, Sydney, N.S.W.

* Chalmers, Rev. James, F.R.G.S., New Guinea

* Crompton, A., Port Adelaide, Adelaide, S.A.

* Carkeek, Morgan, Otaki, N.Z.

Claxton, Rev. A. E., Chung King, Hankow, China .

Chambers, W. K., Repongaere, Gisbome, N.Z.

Carter, H. C, 233 Fifth Avenue, New York

Comins, Rev. R. Blundell, Norfolk Island

Chapman, M., Wellington, N.Z.

Cooper, Rev. E. V., Leone, Tutuila, Samoa

Caddiok, Miss H., c/o A. Caddick, Esq., Glenfield, Sutton Coalfield, England

Cooper, Theo., Auekland, N.Z.

Castle, G. P., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands

Churchill, W., Denver, Col., U.S.A.

Compton, Rev. A. W. H., Opunake

Davies, Henry, Napier, N.Z.

* Denniston, The Hon. J. E., Ohristchurch, N.Z.
D'Albertis, Captain, E. A., CHnoa, Italy
Dulau & Co., 37, Soho Square, London

Doty, W. Lamb, U.S. Consul, Tahiti.
Dufaur, E. T., Auckland, N.Z.
Duthie, J., M.H.R., Wellington, N.Z.

* Emerson, J. S., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands
Emerson, Dr. N. B., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands
Ewen, C. A., Wellington, N.Z.

Edger, F. H., Judge N.L.C., Auckland, N.Z.

* Eraser, J., LL.D., Newland St., Waverley, N.S.W.

* Eraser, D., Bulls, Rangitikei, Wellington, N.Z.
Friedlander, R., Carlstrasse 11, Berlin, N.W.
Friedlaender, Dr. B:, Regenten Strasse 8, Berlin, W
Fletcher, Rev. H. J., Taupo. N.Z.

Forbes, E. J., 40, Hunter Street, Sydney

* Gold-Smith, E. C, Survey Office, Napier, N.Z.

* Grace, L. M., Taupo, N.Z.

* Gudgeon, Lient.-Col. W. E., British Resident, Rarotonga Island
Gunn, Rev. W., D D., Futuna, New Hebrides

Gordon, H. A., F.G.S., Auckland. N.Z.
Gamier, J. H., Rarotonga Island
Gully, H. v.. Nelson, N.Z.
Gurr, C. W., Apia, Samoa Islands.

* Hursthouse, C. W., Te Kuiti, Auckland, N.Z.

* Hocken, Dr. T. M., F.L.S.. Dunedin, N.Z.

* Hamilton, A., Otago University, Dunedin, N.Z.

* Hyde, Rev. C. M., D.D., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands



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iv JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

* Henry, Miss Tenira, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands
Harding, R. Coupland, Wellington, N.Z.
Harris, Christopher, Auckland, N.Z.

Hislop, J., Hawera, N.Z.

Harper, W. B., Ashfield. Sydney

Hutohin, Bev. J. J. K., Barotonga.

Hastie, Miss J. A., 11, Ashburn PJaoe, Cromwell Boad, London

Handley, J., Okehu, N.Z.

Hutton, Capt. F. W., F.B.S., Christchurch, N.Z.

lorns, William, Masterton

* Johnston, Dr. D. G., Carterton, N.Z.

* Johnston, H. Dunbar, Judge N.L. Court, Auokland, N.Z.

Jackson, F. Arthur, M.B.A.Asso., F.I.Inst., Jackson Dale, Fiji Islands

* Kenny, Hon. C. W. A. T., M.L.C., Picton. N.Z.

' Kensington, W. C, Survey Office, Auckland, N.Z.
Kiihl, W. H., W.J«ger Strasse, Berlin

Kenny, W. T., H.M. Consul General, Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands
King, John, Gisbome

* Lawrence, Bev. W. N., Aitataki Island

* Large, J. T., Aitutaki Island

* Lamg, B. M., M.A., High School, Christchurch, N.Z.
Leggatt, Bev. T. W. Watt, Malikula. New Hebrides
Lambert, H. A., Tane, Pahiatua, N.Z.

Leslie, G., Government Insurance Department, Wellington

* Murray, Bev. C. M.A., Carterton, N.Z.

* Marshall, W S., Pemberton, Wellington, N.Z.

* Moss, F. J., Auckland, N.Z.

* Morpeth, W. T., Survey Department, New Plymouth, N.Z.

* Major, C. E., Hawera, N.Z.

* MacDonald, Bev. Dr. D., Efate, New Hebrides
Mitchell, F. J., Home Bule, N.S.W.
McArthur, J. P., McArthur <fe Co., Sydney, N.S.W.

* Mackay, A., Judge N.L.C., Wellington, N.Z.
Mackay, A. W., Newington College, Stanmore, Sydney

March, H. Colley, M.D., F.S.A., Portesham, Dorchester, England

Mair, Captain G. W., F.L.S., Thames, N.Z.

Maginuis, Craig, Tonga Island

McCuUock, W. F., Fairmount Park, Hawthorne, Victoria

Marshall, J. W., Marton, N.Z.

Marshall, H. H., Marton, N.Z.

Mason, Dr. J. M., Otaki, N.Z.

McNab, B., M.H.B., Gore, N.Z.

Maunsell, B., Masterton, N.Z.

Bfaclaurin, Professor, Victoria College, Wellington

Mahupuku, Hamiora, Papawai, Wairarapa

Martin, Josiah, F.G.S., Auckland

* Nelson, C. E., Botorua, Auckland,
Nicholas, H., Barotonga Island N.Z.
Nathan, D. J., WellinRton, N.Z.
Newell, Bev. J. E., Malua, Apia,
Nairn, F. E., Hastings, H.B., N.Z.
Ngata, A. T., M.A., LL.B., Auckland, N.Z.

Oahu College, Honolulu, Sandwich Islands

* Phillips, Coleman, Featherstone, N.Z.

* Pope, J. H., Education Department, Wellington, N.Z.
Pratt, T., M.H.B., Moeraki, Otago, N.Z.

Pritt, Bev. F. G., Gairlock, Brisbane, Queensland

Partington, J. Edge, F.B.G.S., British Museum, London, England



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LIST OF ULMBERS.

• Batland, Joshua, Ganvastown, Marlborough, N.Z.

• Reid, W. S., Fitzherberfc Terrace, Wellington, N.Z.

• Roy, R. B., Taita, WeUington, N.Z.
Redwood, J. H., Blenheim, N.Z.

• Smith, W. W., F.B.S.. Ashburton, Canterbury, N.Z.

• Shand, A., Ohatham Islands

• Smith, H. a. Seth, M.A., Auckland, N.Z.

• Smith, F. S., Kaikoura, N.Z.

• Smith, M. C, Survey Department, Wellington, N.Z.

• Smith, S. Percy. F.R.G.S., Survey Department, Wellington, N.Z.

• Stout, Hon. Sir R., K.G.M.G., Wellington, N.Z.
Skinner, W. H., Survey Department, New Plymouth. N.Z.
Saxton, Henry Waring, F.L.S., New Plymouth, N.Z.
SoanneU, D., Judge N.L.G., Auckland, N.Z.

Smith, T. H., Grafton Road, Auckland, N.Z.

Scott, Prof. J. H., M.D., F.R.S.E., Otago University, Dunedin, N.Z.

Stainton, G., Rongomai, Pahiatua, N.Z.

Smith, Hon. W. 0., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands

TumbuU, A H., Bowen Street, Wellington, N.Z.

• Tregear, E., F.R.Hi8t.S., Wellington, N.Z.

• Tone, N. J., Wellmgton, N.Z.

• Testa, F. J., Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands
Trimble, W. H., Survey Department, Gisbome, N.Z.
Tinline, J., Nelson, N.Z.

Tait, P. W., Wellington, N.Z.

• Webster, J., Kokianga, N.Z.

• Wilkinson, G. T., Otorohanga, Auckland, N.Z.

• Wheeler, W. J., Gisbome, N.Z.

• Weetmau, S., F.U.G.S., Christchnrch, N.Z.

• Williams, Right Rev. W. L., B.A., Bishop of Waiapu, Napier, N.Z.
Williams, Rev. H. W., Gisbome, N.Z.

• Wilson, D. G., Whangarei, Auckland, N.Z.

• Wright, A. B., Survey Department, Auckland, N.Z.
Williams, J. N., Frimley, Hastings, Hawke's Bay, N.Z.
White, Taylor, Wimbledon, Hawke'a Bay, N.Z.
Wilson, A., Whangarei, N.Z.

Wilcox, Hon. G. N., Kauai, Hawaiian Islands

Watt, Rev. W., Tanna, New Hebrides

Watt, F. F., Rotorua, N.Z.

Williams, F. W., Napier, N.Z.

Wallis, F., Right Rev., Bishop of Wellington, N.Z.

Woodwortii, W. McM., Museum Gomp. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A.

• Young, J. L., Tahiti Island



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ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY.



THE annual meeting was held In the Leotare Boom, Moseom, WeUington, on
the 38rd Janoary, Mr. 0. A. Ewen In the ehalr.

The annual report and aoooanis were read and passed, and ordered to be
printed in the March nnmber of the JoumoZ.

Mr. J. H. Pope was re-elected PreaidMit, and Messrs Tone, Tregear and
Smith re-leected members of Coandl. Messrs. Tregear and Smith were re-elected
Hon. Secretaries and Treasarers, and Mr. A. Barron Hon. Auditor.

Professor H. H. Giglioli, of Florence (Italy), was elected an Honorary
Member.

A vote of thanks to the Chairman concluded the meeting.



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE COUNCIL

FOB THE YSAB ENDING DECBMBEB, 81n 1899.



Presented at the Eighth Aimual Meeting, January 9Srd, 1900, in terme of
Rule No, 13.



IN presenting the Eighth Annual Beport, the Oouncil have to remark that
nothing of particular importance requires the notice of the Society.

Our losses by death during the year have been fewer than usual— Mr.
Haggard, one of our ordinary members, died, as also did the Bev. Samuel Ella,
one of our corresponding members, whose loss ¥rill be much felt, for he was e^er
ready to render help from the large stores of information relating to Polynesian
matters, which he acquired during a long residence in Polynesia.

We have also lost through resignation eight ordinary members, and ten have
been struck off for non-payment of their subscriptions. The strength of the
Society on the 17th January was as follows :—

Ordinary Members ... 166

Life Members .. .. 6

Honorary Members 6

Corresponding Members 16

194

The above figures show a dimunition on those of the present year of 18
members.



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JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY. vii

The J<mnuU has been pablished with tolerable regularity each quarter of the
year, and forms a volume of 271 pages (without index), being 23 pages more
than for the previous period. The first three volumes of our Transactions are now
out of print ; those, therefore, remaining in the hands of members have acquired a
considerable value. The first six volumes of the Transactions were sold at auction
nofe long since for a price of 10 lOs., proving that the Journal has acquired a value
considerably above the subscription.

In financial matters the Society holds its own, notwithstanding that 24
members were in arrear with their subscriptions on the 81st December, a sum
which, had it been paid, would have enabled the Council to refund to Capital
Account the amount borrowed the previous year to pay for copying the Micronesian
Vocabularies. The. accounts attached show that we commenced the year with a
balance of £16 148. 5d., and end with one of £4 Ss. lid., whilst the Capital
Account stands at £58 7s. 8d.

Beferenoe has previously been made to the large amount of original matter
still on hand and awaiting publication, most of it untranslated. It is hoped that
some of it may be prepared during the coming year, for these original texts will
prove of more and more value as time goes on. The aim of the Society is to
preserve these texts in print for future generations, when the writers have passed
away, together with the language in which they are expressed. If we succeed in
doing this, the Society will not have existed in vain.

S. PEBCY SMITH, ) Hon.
BD. TREGEAB, ) Secntarm,



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WAKS OF THE NOKTHEKN AGAINST THE
SOUTHERN TRIBES OF NEW ZEALAND IN THE
NINETEENTH CENTURY.



Bt S. Pergt Sboth.



IN the " Peopling of the North,"* a sketch of the history of the
Ngati-Whatua tribe of Eaipara was given from the earliest times
up to the close of the eighteenth century. The following
account relates all that can be ascertained of the further history of
that tribe up to 1840, when New Zealand became a British colony.
Their history, from the close of the eighteenth century, became so
mixed up with that of Nga-Puhi, that both have to be treated together,
especially so as the later tribe takes by far the most prominent place.

The visit of Captain Cook to New Zealand in 1768 and the follow-
ing years, and those of subsequent voyagers during the latter part of
the eighteenth century, introduced many changes into the country,
which told on the people in various ways. For the first time the
Maoris became acquainted with a white race far superior to themselves
in all the arts and sciences — acquainted, that is, personally, for they
have embalmed in their traditions the far-off recollection of a fairer
race than themselves, which their ancestors encountered in some of
their distant wanderings. Hence the name they gave the white man,
Pakeha, which means pale, or fair. The immediate origin of their
name for us is undoubtedly derived from Pakehakeha, a name for a
mythical white race, otherwise called Turehu, or Patu-pae-arehe, and
by many old Maoris said to be a name for a class of sea-gods, who
were pale in complexion. These gods were also called Waraki, a name

* See this Journal, vol. v. and vi.

18



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2 WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES.

oft^i applied ionaerly to white men. Maitai was another name given
to the white man, which means '' from the sea/' but it was also the
name given to iron, indeed this is still the common name the Ure-wera
and other tribes of the East Coast use, instead of the more general
name, rino, Eorako is another name applied to the Patu-pae-arehe
(or fairies), and probably meant white originally, for it is also the
Maori term for an Albino."^ Tupua again is a name frequently given
to white people, but this does not refer to their colour, but rather to
their superior knowledge, strange ways and customs. It is a name
given to anything out of the common, and is equally applicable to
black people. Whilst the meaning of pakeha (white or pale) is clearly
as stated above, there are instances known in which the term was
applied to members of their own race. The Ngati-Toa tribe, on their
migration from Eawhia to Cook's Straits in 1821, were called pakeha
by the original inhabitants of those parts.

It is strange, but prior to the advent of the white man, the Maoris
appear to have had an idea that they were to receive the visit of some
strange race. The following is the prediction as told by Pangari, of
Hokianga, somewhere about the year 1820. At that time Pangari
was an old man, and he had heard the story when quite a child, as
related by the old men of Nga-Puhi. "In the days of old when Maoi
was alive, he told this story. Maoi was a tohunga, or priest, and when
he approached his end he said to Nga-Puhi, " It will not be very long
before I die, nor very long after I am dead, that a god will come on
the crest of the wave, and ghosts [kehua) will be on his back. That
god will be like the canoes in appearance, but he will be much larger*
and he will sail all over the ocean, over everywhere. He will never be
mistaken in his course over the ocean ; he will sail away, and will not
be seen by the people. After a long disappearance another god will
appear, who will be like the former one. The first god will come by
the aid of sails, but the latter by the aid of fire.*'

Ellis, in his '< Polynesian Researches," relates a very similar



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