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Opotiki, when Te Whanau-a-Apanui fled, in 1828. On that occasion
Tara-patiki chased Te Hie — Tu-te-rangifUoti being absent at the
time. When the latter returned, he was told of this — that Tara-
patiki was the man who had chased Te Hie, when many were killed
and others taken prisoners. So Tu-te-rangi-noti said : — ** If I had
been there, there would be no patiM for the shore or for the sea.*'*
Tu-te-rangi-noti was captured at Puke-kura, near Awa-nui, and then
Tara-patiki said to him, " sir ! is that you and your saying ? if you
had been there, there would be no patiki ashore or at sea. Now, then,
sir, stand up ! Here am I, Tara-patiki !'* But he said nothing. Then
Tara-patiki seized him by the hair and slew him.

Now, when those in the pa at Toka-a-kuku saw the retreat of their
friends, they aroused, and charged forth to attack the main body of
Nga-Puhi; who were surrounding the pa. But they never got near
them on account of the discharge of the muskets. There were 100
of Nga-Puhi engaged against the pa ; the ** saying " is applicable to
their firing, '* Like the flax fire, and the burning totara,\ Te Papapa
was a great battle, but Hariki was very like Te Ika-a-ranganui, where
Hongi overwhelmed the Ngati-Whatna tribe in 1825.

And so Nga-Puhi and Ngati-Kahu-ngunu returned on their tiaok
from Te Awa-nui to inspect their handy work stretched out along the
road. In the morning Te Wera stood amongst his people and said,
** sirs I collect the produce of the battlefield ! Let 40 men collect
the bodies, whilst 20 armed men guard them, and another 20 men
build a stage to hang them on. Let the chiefs be separated from the

*Thi8 is a play on Tara-patiki's name, patiki being the name of the flounder. —
Trans.

IBoth the native flax and the totara tree make a loud cracking noise when
burning, hence (he volleys of firing were likened to them.— Trams.



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80 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

others." This was done, and all finished by the evening, and in the
morning Te Wera stoofi up amongst the 1700 men resting in the war
canoes, and said, ** 0, my child * come forth from the bellies and teeth
of the men (who slew and ate you). Here am I, thy relative, seeking
for thee, lamenting thee, and I turn from thee !" Then addressing his
people, ** Listen, Nga-Puhi ! Listen, Ngati-Kahu-ngunu ! Enough !
my sadness has ceased this day by your aid, Ngati-Kahu-ngunu !
Behold ! they hang there ! They lie in heaps in front of me. These
are all chiefs : there are Bangi-patu-riri, Te Kaka-pai-waho, Te Hau-
to-rua, and Tu-te-rangi-noti. See ! there are 70 of them in a heap-
spread out — and he (Marino) was but one. Now ! in the morning we
will be afloat. Desecrate not the bodies ; you have done enough in
causing their fall.'*t

At daylight the two tribes embarked for home, whilst those in the
pa were still wailing their dead. Along the sea coast came the war
canoes, until they reached Nuku-taurua. Te Wera had finished up his
speech (as above) by saying, ** people, listen to my words : I will
return now, as well as you, to Nuku-taurua. You will never be
abandoned by me, and I will die with you, Ngati-Kahu-ngunu." So
the tribes of Ngati-Kahu-ngunu dwelt at Nuku-taurua, Te Wera being
the fence, holding authority to guard them, and conducting all tran-
sactions relating to the god Tu, that is, for war.

It was about this time tjiat news reached there of the fall of Te
Tumu pOf at Kaituna, near Maketu, in which the Ngai-Te-Bangi
tribe was defeated by Te Arawa tribe. There were many chiefs killed
on this 9th April, 1886. It was Tarakawa (my father) who caught
Hikareia-Ruamoana, and shot him — he was caught at Te Houhou, near
Wairakei, on the coast between Maketu and Tauranga.

Te Wera continued to abide by his spoken word. The people who
lived under his authority wondered at him, on account of his admir-
able government. Great was his name, and far-spreading his fame to
all the bounds of the East Coast, and even to the West Coast. His
magnanimity towards those under him was great. He never feared war,
and great was his knowledge of strategy in besieging pas, and causing
the overthrow of the enemy in battle. Never was he ever accused of
evil deeds, nor did he ever abandon those who placed themselves under
his guidance and benificent rule. He never presumed to advise any
treacherous dealings towards other tribes, or evil of other kinds, nor
wantonly attacked other tribes without good cause. If a messenger
came asking his assistance, he carefully inquired into the cause, and if
he saw it was unjustifiable he would say, *' Begone ! Do thy own

'^Bef erring to his nephew, Marino, killed and eaten by those now slain. — Tbanb.
f Owing to the teachings of the Missionaries, some of whose converts were
with the war party, none of the enemy were eaten. — Trans.



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THE DOINQS OF TE WERA AND NGA-PUHL 81

work." But if Te Wera saw it was a just cause he would consent to
conduct the war in order that it might be quickly closed. Great is the
reputation of this chief ; and he was very highly thought of by the
tribes of Turanga-nui (Poverty Bay'), as well as by the Ngati-Kahu-
ngunu, right down to the time of his death in 1839 (or perhaps 1848).
At that time all the tribes of the East Coast assembled — to lament over
him — Ngati-Porou, with their chief, Kaka-tarau, of Waiapu ; the
people of Te Kani-a-takirau, and his tribes of Ngati-Hauiti. Rongo-
whakaata and Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki and their tribes with their chiefs,
Wiremu Kingi-Paia ; with Tawheo-o-te-rangi, and his tribe, Ngai-
Tahupo. He died of old age.

There is a song of honour for Te Wera, as follows : —

(Give thought) to Te Wera there,

Whose fame spreads afar,

Even to the distant west,

For the sorrow that overcomes me,

For the tears of my eyes

That silently f alL

(The following events are connected with Te Wera*s doings on the
East Coast, but not entered in their proper place in the narrative by
the author. — Tbans.) : —

Omaxu-kara.

A force of Ngati-Kahu-ngunu proceeded to Taupo, and there took
the Omaku-kara 'pa, which is situated to the west of Oruanui. Te
Kohika, a great chief of the Ngati-Tu-whare-toa and Ngati-Te-Kohera
tribes, and related to Te Whatanui and Te Momo, and he was the cause
of this expedition. He was much annoyed at Te Heuheu, who had
sent a message to Te Wera and the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu tribe, which led
to the death of Te Momo, of Ngati-Raukawa. Te Heuheu had en-
deavoured to prevent Te Memo's going to Heretaunga, because a peace
had been concluded between Te Rohu — Te Heuheu's daughter — and
Pare-ihe, of Ngai-Te-Whatu-i-apiti, at Te Roto-a-Tara. Te Momo
would not listen, and hence Te Heuheu sent to Te Wera, Te Whare-
umu and Pare-ihe. These were the words, " Don't let the ashes of Te
Momo's fire sink. Extinguish it."

Te Kohika had another reason also. Some of Ngati-Tu-wharetoa
had been seen in the army of Waikato when they passed through
Taupo and Runanga, where they killed Te Wakaunua (Ngati-Hineuru),
of Tarawera, and then passed on and attacked and took Te Pakake pa
(where the Spit Railway Station, Napier, now stands).

Hence it was that Te Kohika sent for help, and Omaku-kara fell,
and Ngati-Raukawa lost many men. Two days afterwards this party
proceeded to Waitaha-nui to Te Heuheu's pa, south end of Taupo

6



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82 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN 80CIEIY.

Lake, and when the companies had been arranged (to fight), Te
Eohika saw his elder relative, Te Heuheu-Tnkino, and made peace.
After this, the war party returned to Naku-taurua, and it was a long
time afterwards that Te Wera Hauraki died.

Tb Roto-a-Tara.

It was a long time after (Te Heuheu's first attack on Te Boto-a-
Tara pa) that he returned to that pa. They were four days consider-
ing the position, under the chiefs Te Heuheu and Poutama (the father
of Hauauru, of Ngati-Mania-poto, and Ngati-Baukawa), when Te
Heuheu felt sorry for those in the pa^ and said to Poutama, << The
people who are dwelling in the pa on the island there are relations of
ours. They are the descendants of Hine-i-ao, the elder sister of Tu-
waka. What shall we do ?*' Poutama replied, " Yes." Let us send
Te Bohu (Te Heuheu's daughter) to the island." This was ageed to,
and then Te Bohu called to the people on the island : *' Pare-ihe, t
send hither a canoe for me ; 1 am coming to visit you. It is I, Te
Bohu 1*' So the canoe was paddled across by a young man, and Te
Bohu embarked, and was ferried across to the island. She wept as
she proceeded. On arrival, Pare-ihe stood up and wept also, and then
made a speech, being dressed up in korohunga, paepasroa^ kaitaka and
other mats, in honour of Te Bohu. At the end he stepped over and
stood in front of Te Bohu, and presented her with the garments,
having a patu-pounamu in his hand, named Te Eiri-o-tauaroa, which he
placed on top of the garments. Said he, ** These are for your up-
lifting of the mist that rests on me.*' He then retired, and Te Bohu
arose to address the tribe, Ngai-Te-Whatu-i-apiti, saying, '* Listen,
Pare-ihe, the descendant of Hine-i-ao. Here are the descendants of
Bongo-mai-papa and Tu-waka, traversing the Heretaunga district,
and there thou art, the descendant of the same ancestors. It was Te
Heuheu, my father, that sent me that thou mayst know there is fair
weather beyond. This ends, sir! The army returns to Taupo
to-morrow." So Te Bohu returned clothed in her new garments, and
the patu in her hand. The war party returned home at break of day,
and Te Heuheu's footsteps were never again seen in Heretaunga.
This was his second visit to Te Boto-a-Tara.

The third expedition against that pa was that of Te Wera and
Pare-ihe, at the time when Heretaunga was in occupation of Ngati-
Baukawa, and when Pare-ihe conceived the idea that he should ally
himself to Te Wera, in order that Heretaunga should again revert to
him and other hapus of Ngati-Eahu-ngunu. It is true, that through
the course pursued by Pare-ihe, the strong hand of Te Wera was
stretched over Heretaunga, and the strength of Ngati-Baukawa a^d



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THE D0INQ8 OF TE WERA AND NOA-PUHI. 88

Ngati-Tu-Wharetoa was broken, and the country was preserved to the
name of Te Whatu-i-apiti, and his descendants and his many hapm.

Tb Abatipi and Puke-tapu.

Te Aratipi was a battle, as well as a pa, which fell. Ngai-Te-
Whatu-i-apiti there fell before Ngati-Tu-Wharetoa and Ngai-Te-
Upoko-iri and others, but Pare-ihe, Tiaki-tai and other chiefs escaped
the slaughter. The cause of this disaster was the death of Manuhiri,
Te Heuheu's brother, who fell at the attack on Maunga-wharau, which
occurred in the same expedition that Te Heuheu first attacked Te
Boto-a-Tara. After this was the fight at Te Puke-tapu ; these events
took place about the commencement of the occupation of Heretaunga
by Ngati-Raukawa under Te Whata-nui. The pa was assaulted by
Ngai-Te-Upoko-iri, under Te Wanikau and Te Hauwaho, and after
some time the pa, Te Puke-tapu fell, and many Ngafci-Baukawa were
killed. Te Whata-nui escaped, flying over a cliff, and alighting in a
deep pool of water, there concealing himself till night, when he made
off, sorrowfully saying, ** I had a narrow escape."

After this, came a force to obtain revenge for this defeat at Puke-
tapu, composed of Ngati-Raukawa and Ngati-Tu-wharetoa. They came
out at Tutae-kuri River, where they were discovered by Ngati-mate-pu
and Ngati-Eurukuru. The one side dashed forward, the other side
closed with it ; the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu attack prevailed ; the braves of
the invading party dashed out, that is, Tahere, Tama-rakau, Whaka-
raro, and others of Ngati-Eiko-piri. They were lamenting as they
advanced, <^ Alas I old women ! old men ! who died at Te
Puke-tapu ! enter then 1'* whilst the old chiefs, Te Hau-waho and
Te Eum-o-te-rangi, sang the war song :

O ! close the earth I

Glose the Heavens !

Gall on them ! (those to be avenged)

Gather then I

Taiki E.

The invading force of Ngati-Raukawa, Ngati-Eiko-piri, and Ngati-
Tu-wharetoa was badly defeated, whilst Tahere and many others were
killed, by the side of the Tutae-kuri River, very few escaping. son !
their cause was bad — an unwarrantable proceeding in occupying the
lands of other people.

Manoa-toetoe.

Now, after Te Puketapu was Manga-toetoe, a battle in which
Ngai-Te-Whatu-i-apiti were beaten by Ngati-Te-Upoko-iri under Tu-
wawahia and other chiefs. Here the hapu of highest rank of the



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84 JOUfiNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY^

descendants of Te Whatu-i-apiti fell — 80 in number — Whence the
saying, *' The fish of high descent of the deep pool.'' Some of the
names of those chiefs were: Te Kokiritanga-hoe, whose son was
Puhara Hawaiki-rangi, whose son was Urupeni Puhara ; and Whaka-
rongo, Te Ringa-nohu and others. Te Whiti-o-Tu fight was after
Manga-toetoe.

Wai-pohue.

The fight after Manga-toetoe was Wai-pohue, a battle fought at
Poukawa Lake, near Te Ante, Hawke*s Bay. It was Te Hoeroa, son
of Te Wanikau, of Ngati-Te-Upoko-iri, who asked Turoa, of Upper
Whanganui, to help in this. When he reached there he found Turoa
building a pa, in order to fight against Tangi-te-ruru, to whom Te
Hoeroa said, *' 1 do not not let us fight against Tangi-te-ruru,
rather make peace with him, and get him to join us against the
Heretaunga people." To this Turoa consented, so they went and
made peace, and Tangi-te-ruru and his host joined them on their ex-
pedition. They came by inland Patea, climbed over Buahine Moun-
tains, then Baukawa, and descended to Te Ipu-o-Taraia, and sidled
along to Pou-kawa Lake, and attacked Wai-pohue, where Te Tuha-o-
te-rangi was killed.



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WARS OP THE NORTHERN AGAINST THE

SOUTHERN TRIBES OF NEW ZEALAND IN THE

NINETEENTH CENTURY.



By S. Percy Smith.



Part IV.
1821-22.



'^^N the last number of this Journal our history was brought down
®J to the early months of 1822, when Te Pae-o-te-rangi, a young
Nga-Puhi chief and most of his followers were annihilated at
Roto-kakahi, Rotorua District.

We must now go back to the middle of 1821, and relate the story
of another of the northern expeditions against the southern tribes.
Tb Amio-whbnua number two.

It will be remembered that the above name has been applied to the
expedition undertaken by Patu-one and others of Hokianga and
Eaipara in conjunction with Te Rauparaha, when they reached as far
south as Wairarapa, and during which raid the latter chief made up his
mind to migrate with all his tribe — Ngati-Toa — to the neighborhood
of Cook Straits, in order to communicate more freely with the vessels,
which about that time (1819-20) were beginning to frequent the
Straits for purposes of trading in flax, and in whaling.

The name Amio-whenua means '' round-about- the-land," and is
more applicable to the following than to the previous expedition. The
date of this latter expedition is important as it serves to fix that of
Te Rauparaha's migration from Eawhia, which has heretofore been
wrongly assigned to the year 1819. It will therefore be as well to
state what data is relied on to fix this date. In the <' Orakei judge-
ment " already referred to, it is stated that Te Kawau, the principal



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86 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

chief of the Taou branoh of the Ngati-Wbatua tribe, took part in the
defence of Mau-inaina'^' when Eoperu was killed in June, 1821, f and
Nga-Puhi repulsed by Ngati-Paoa. It has been shown J that the
battle of Okoke took place about the beginning of November, 1821,
and that the first siege of Puke-rangiora at Waitara was going on at the
same time ; Te Eawau was with the besieged in the pa. It is also dear
that the siege of Matakitaki in Waikato took place in May or June,
1822, and it is known that Te Kawau returned home to Tamaki shortly
after the latter event. As Te Eawau accompanied the Amio-whenua
expedition, and as the native accounts say it was absent about nine
months, it follows that the taua must have left Tamaki (or Auckland
peninsula) at the end of August or the beginning of September, 1821.

The Amio-whenua expedition was essentially a Ngati-Whatua
undertaking, and Apihai Te Eawau of the Taou section of that tribe
was the principal leader, though Tu-korehu of Ngati-Mania-poto took
a very prominent part in it, as a warrior and leader of experience.
The other principal chiefs of Ngati-Whatua who joined in with their
followers, were Awarua and his son Totara-i-ahua, Te Tinana,
Uruamo, Pa-te-oro, Tama-hiki, Ha-kawau (of the Uri-o-Hau branch)
and as some say, Muru-paenga, one of their principal men and leaders
against Nga-Puhi in their intertribal wars, as has been related ; but
of this I am doubtful. || The Ngati-Whatua expedition started from One-
one-nui, in Southern Eaipara, and proceeded by the usual route up the
Waikato, being joined in lower Waikato by Eukutai, the chief of
Ngati-Tipa. In upper Waikato the force was increased by a con-
tingent of the Ngati-Mania-poto and Waikato tribes under the well-
known chiefs Tu-korehu and Te Eanawa, who brought with them 140
men, thus making the total number of the tana up to 600, several of
them armed with muskets. It has already been stated (p. 81) that
some of the Ngati-Maru tribe of the Thames likewise joined the
expedition, but under what chiefs I have been unable to ascertain.

The cause of this formidable expedition is obscure, but there can
be little doubt that the great success of Pata-one's and Tu-whares's
southern raid in 1819-20 (vol. viii., p. 216) had engendered in Tu-
whare's fellow-tribesmen a strong desire to emulate their deeds of
bravery, wanton destruction, and massacres, deeds which appealed
very strongly to a warlike people like the Maoris. But it is said that
Te Arawa tribe of Botorua was the immediate cause of it, though the

*It may be observed that whilst the above is the correct spelling of this name,
it is pronoanced Mauinaina, a strong accent being on the second ''a.''

t See this Journal, Vol. IX., p. 22.

\ See this Journal, Vol. IX., p. 34.

II Bangipito, of the Ati-Awa tribe, is my authority for this ; he is a very well
informed man on his own tribal history.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 87

story furnished to me does not supply a sufficient reason. From this
account it appears that Tu-kai-whakahi of Te Arawa, induced Te
Eahawai"^ of that tribe to invite Ngati-Whatua to take part in a raid
on Heretaunga, the Maori name for the Hawkes Bay district. On
the arrival of the taua in Waikato it formed into two divisions, and
came on by the old track vi& Patetere to the Hautere village situated
on the edge of the forest, where that track comes out to the open land
of Rotorua. The party were then handed over to the care of other
Arawa chiefs, viz., Te Matapihi, Te Mumuhu, Te Eohika, and Te
Eapua-i-waho, but for reasons not known the Arawa did not join the
further adventures of the expedition, beyond a few young men, who
doubtless were swayed by the desire of Kawe-ingoa, or making a name
for themselves.

From Rotorua the force passed on by way of Paeroa and the Wai-
o-tapu valley to Orakei-korako, on the Waikato river, their advent
causing great alarm to the people living there, for which, no doubt,
there was good reason. They assembled and retreated to a cave in that
neighborhood which is said to be able to contain 600 people, and
although the tana sought high and low they failed to find the refugees.
Possibly this is the Alum cave near Orakei-korako, as trees were said
to grow in it, but although large, that cave would scarcely hold 500
people. At any rate the local tribe escaped the usual fate of those
living on the track of a Kai-tangata or man-eating expedition. After
some time, the force passed on across the Eaingaroa Plains to Bunanga
on the eastern side. Here, the news of their advance caused the
whole of the Ngati-Hineuru tribe to flee to the mountains for safety.
Proceeding onward to the upper waters of the Mohaka, the tavux passed
to the westward of the Titi-o-kura pass and descended to Te Toi-kuri
near the Ngaru-roro river, and thence directly onward to Rau-kawa
hills, and descending by Te Ipu-o-Taraia, arrived at Te Boto-a-Tara
lake near where Te Ante College is now situated. Here they sat down
to besiege the pa of the Ngai-Te-Whatu-i-apiti tribe which was living
there under their chiefs Pare-ihe and Tapu-hara. One of my in-
formants tells me it was during this siege that the Kaupapa or cause-
way was built by the besiegers from the main land to the island pa,
but it seems doubtful if this did not occur at a later date. Seeing
that the besiegers were likely to effect their object and take the pa, Tapu-
hara cried out, '*E! Kahahina he morehu" ! meaning, let there be
some survivors left ; so the besieged took to their canoes in the night
and escaped, that is, the able-bodied portion of the tribe, but many
old men and women, not able to travel, were left in the pa, and became

* Te Kahawai of the Ngati-Bangi-wewehi tribe of Botorua, was killed at the
taking of Te Tama pa^ near Maketa, Bay of Plenty on May 9th, 1836.



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88 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

the prizes of the invading force, some, no doubt, being put to the
usual purposes in such cases.*

After this, the expedition pursued their way southerly over the
Bua-taniwha Plains and through the Tauiaki, or Seventy Mile Bush,
until they reached Te Apiti, or Manawaiu Gorge. Here they captured
several villages belonging to the Bangitane tribe, but although the
fires were burning everywhere, they only secured a very few old people —
turi-takn — i.e., those unable to travel. At the first alarm the main
body of the people had taken to the woody mountains and assembled
at Te Ahu-o-Turangai on the old native track over the mountains,
where they remained in safety. One prisoner of rank was captured
here, Whakarongo, the sister of Hirawanu, who was taken back by
the taua to the north. In subsequent days, after the introduction of
Christianity, Hirawanu travelled to the north to search for his sister,
and found her living amongst the Uri-o-Hau branch of the Ngati-
Whatua tribe, not far from Whangarei. He brought her back with
him to her own people, the Bangi-tane.

From the Manawatu Gorge the Amio-whenua force passed to the
south-east through what is now the Pahiatua District, killing and
eating all they came across, until they reached Maunga-rake, not very
far from the present town of Masterton. Here they found the Ngati-
hika-rahui tribe living in their pa of Hakikino, situated on the Wai-
nui-o-ru river some two miles south of Brancepeth. As the pa
appeared to be of great strength, the leaders of the force decided to
try what strategy could effect. They camped near the pa and sent
messengers with friendly words intimating their desire to visit the pa^
and exchange presents, &c. Te Hopu, one of the principal chiefs of
Hakikino was desirous of acceeding to these overtures, but Po-tangaroa
a chief of celebrity, strongly advised against it. Te Hopu, however,
having faith in the invaders, proceeded to their camp with several
others, and there they were all massacred. Po-tangaroa, seeing that
his fears had been confirmed, and having lost many warriors in the
massacre, decided to evactuate the /^a, and retire to the broken wooded
hills in the neighborhood. This was effected, but the taua was too
quick for some of them, who were caught and killed in the pa before
they could escape. One chief of rank was captured here by the iauay
named Nahi-ki-te-rangi, whose sister was Kuru-tene, mother of To-
whare.

* One of my native correspondents informs me that this was the first siege of
the island fortress of Te Boto-a Tara, but this is doubtful. I am inclined to think
it was the third siege. Four times has this stronghold been attacked, so far as can
be ascertained, but it is very difficult to fix the dates.

t Te Ahu-o-Turanga is named after one of Turi's sons, who there built a
Tu-ahu to commemorate a victory he obtained over some of the Tungata-whtnua
inhabitants of New Zealand in the fourteenth century.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AQAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. B9

From Hakikino the taua moved on southwards, eventually reaching
Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara, or Port Nicholson, where the City of Wellington
now stands, hut what adventures befell them on the way, we know not,
for all the old men who could have told us, have passed away. Only
one brief note has come down to us as to their doings in this neigh-


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