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bourhood, to the effect that the taua assaulted and took the Tapu-te-
ranga pa, which was situated on the little island that gives the name
to Island Bay, near Wellington. The people of the pa would be some
of the practically extinct tribe of Ngati-Ira, that formerly occupied all
the district around Wellington.

The news of this expedition, however, had preceded it all along
the coast, so when the taua reached Cook Straits, they found nothing
but empty pas, or more likely villages, for there are few pas along this
coast. The Mua-upoko and Bangitane tribes had taken refuge on
Eapiti Island ; no doubt they had no very pleasant recollections of
the last northern raid under Patu-one and Te Bauparaha in 1819-20.
No one was found at Porirua, but a few refugees were discovered at
Horowhenua safely ensconced in the island pas in the lake, at whom
the taua were obliged to look in vain, for they had no canoes with
which to reach the islanders.

The tatia continued its course up the west coast to Whanganui,
where the local tribes were met with, and a fight took place on an
island in the river called by Ngati-Whatua, Te Manuka. The tatia
was victorious, but only after a hard struggle. Then they passed
through the thickly populated districts of Patea and Taranaki, but
what success they had against the people of those parts is unknown.
We next hear of them at Waitara, where the Ati-Awa tribe opposed
their course in force.

The taua on passing Te Bewarewa pa (near the mouth of the Wai-
whakaiho river) halted for a time, thus allowing time for a messenger
to be dispatched by Tautara, who was the Ati-Awa chief of that pa, to
the chiefs of Waitara telling them to let the northern taua cross the
Waitara and then fall on them in force ; but Huri-whenua of Waitara
decided otherwise, and as the tau^ arrived at Te Bohutu, near the
the mouth of the river on the south side, he and his fellow tribesmen
of Ati-Awa, attacked the invaders as they commenced to cross. Te
Pokai-tara of Te Ati-Awa, who possessed a gun fired into Ngati-Whatua
and killed one or more of them, which led to some confusion, and
eventually caused the invaders to give up the attempt to cross the
river. They now retreated to the pa just outside the present town of
Waitara, named Pukekohe, but were again attacked here by Te Ati-
Awa, and once more the taua was forced to retreat. This time they
turned inland, and finding the Nga-puke-turua pa — near the Sentry
Hill Bailway Station — occupied by some of the Puketapu branch of



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90 JOURNAL OF THE POLYt'ESIAH SOCIETY.

the Ati-Awa tribe, the taua attacked it with saocess, firing volleys into
the pa which killed a great number of those inside. Ati-Awa had only
their rakau-maoH or native weapons to defend themselves with, so
could not get at their enemies. The Ati-Awa, seeing the probability
of the pa being taken, decided to attempt an escape ; they made a
gallant dash for life, and succeeded in breaking through the ranks of
their enemies, and joiuing their fellow tribesmen at Waitara. The
Amio-whenua expedition now occupied the pa abandoned by the Ati-
Awa, but had not been there very long before the owners of the pa, re-
inforced by the people from Waitara, were seen approaching The
invaders were now, in their turn, besieged by the Ati-Awa, but for how
long is not known.

Then follows one of those peculiar incidents of Maori warfare so
difficult for Europeans to understand. Several of the chiefs of the
Puke-tapu branch of Ati-Awa, as well as some of the Ngati-Bahiri
branch, of northern Waitara, were engaged in the siege, and as provi-
sions fell short within the /?a, the besiegers — in the words of my in-
formant, ** Ka whai koha e ratou ki a Waikato '' — *' became possessed
with a feeling of generosity towards Waikato,*' — i.e., towards Tu-
korehu and others. Negotiations ensued, and then Te Manu-toheroa,
of Puke-tapu, springing into the midst of Ta-korehu's warriors caused
the fighting to cease. Then the chiefs of the Ati-Awa, amongst whom
were Pekapeka, Whakaruru, Whatitiri, Korotiwha, Te Ihi-o-te-rangi
Ngata, and Te Morehu, arranged that the beleagured garrison should be
conveyed by them to Puke-rangiora, a strong pa on the Waitara
River, afterwards so celebrated for the memorable siege under Waikato
in December, 1831.*

But the troubles of the Amio-whenua tatui were not at an end. At
Puke-rangiora they were again besieged by the Ati-Awa tribe, and
surrounded by a large force '* as in a pig-sty," hence the name of this
episode in Maori history, '' Baihe-poaka,** which means a pig-sty.
Whether the Puke-tapu chiefs helped in this siege is not known. The
whole of the transactions between the invaders and the Ati-Awa tribe
are obscure, and now incapable of explanation.

The seige of Puke-rangiora continued some time. The besieged, see-
ing little prospect of Ati-Awa moving off, and their provisions becoming
scarce, decided to send to Waikato for help. The first party of envoys
was caught and killed, but a second party met with better success.
Travelling by the mountains and unfrequented paths, they reached
Waikato, and laid the matter before the great Waikato chief, Te
Wherowhero. The latter chief was nothing loth to assist his fellow
tribesmen in their sore need, the more so as it fell in with the tribal

*Mr. Skinner tells me the following people of note were killed at Nga-Puke-
tnrua:— Mahia, Eapa, Herapaku, Hape and Takinga, all of Te Ati-Awa.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TR4BES. 91

determination to be avenged on Te Baaparaha for his evil deeds, done
at Kawhia, and which eventuated in his abandoning his aiicienfc home
with the whole of his tribes — the Ngati-Toa and Ngati-Koata.

Te Bauparaha was at this time actually migrating from Eawhia, and
was on his way, between Eawhia and Urenui ; but that affair does not
belong to this story. Suffice it to say that Te Wherowhero determined
at once to follow Te Bauparaha, and at the same time to raise the siege
of Puke-rangiora. The Waikato force overtook the migrants at Mimi,
and there the battle of Okoke was fought, on the plain of Motu-nui,
with the unexpected result that Te Wherowhero was badly defeated
and Waikato lost some of their greatest chiefs.* This event occurred
in November, 1821. After the battle, in the stillness of the summer
night, as the two opposing parties laid in their respective camps,
exhausted with the exertions of the previous day's fight, each sorrow-
fully thinking of the friends and relatives lying stark on the battle
field, the voice of Te Wherowhero was heard calling to Te Bauparaha :
" E Raha ! E Raha ! He aha to koha hiaau?'' ** Te Bauparaha 1
What is thy consideration for me ? " The great tribe of Waikato were
in deep distress at the toss of so many of their principal chiefs, and
feared that Te Bauparaha would follow up his success the next day,
when probably the tribe would be almost annihilated. Hence the old
chief appealed to his distant relative's feelings of consideration towards
him. Te Bauparaha, rising to the occasion, replied, advising Te
Wherowhero to proceed south, and join his fellow- tribesmen at Puke-
rangiora. " If you turn back homewards, the upper jaw will 'close on
the lower, and you will be lost *' — referring to another taua of Ngati-
Mutunga, allied to Te Bauparaha, then hastening to the latter's
assistance from the north, and which would thus place Te Whero-
whero between two hostile forces.

Te Wherowhero acted at once on Te Bauparaha' s advice, and
starting that same night, marched through the dark, daylight over-
taking the force at Waitara. They then made their way up the river
to Puke-rangiora, and joined their forces to those of Tu-korehu and
Te Kawau, within that pa. How long the combined force held Puke-
rangiora is not known, but after some time a truce was patched up
with Ati-Awa, and the combined Waikato and Amio-whenua expedi-
tions prepared to start homewards. But, apparently, they did not
return together. Either whilst on the way back, or directly after
the return, Te Wherowhero heard the news of the great Nga-Puhi
raid, under Hongi, which was approaching the Waikato territories,
and he hastened his return sufficiently to take part in the defence of

•See the story as related by Mr. Shand m this »• Journal," vol. i. It will be
^▼en with greater detail in *' The History of the West Coast *' when it appears.



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92 . JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

Matakitaki, whilst Te Kawan and the Ngati-Whatoa force did not
reach their homes at Eaipara until after Matakitaki had fallen, or
some time after May or June, 1822.

My Ngati-Whatua friends informed me that on this expedition Te
Eawau habitually had a basket of human flesh for a pillow, all the
way round the island. Probably this wa^ a mere fa^on de parUr, but
it shows that a very great many victims fell a sacrifice to the cannibal
lusts of the northern warriors, and, it may be added, the flesh must
have been raw — no cooked food could have been allowed to touch the
sacred head of this fine old chief, who, even in my time, was the most
strictly tapned man I ever came across. It was Te Eawau who invited
Oovemor Hobson to settle on the shores of the Wai-te-mata, and he
was there to welcome the Governor when Auckland was founded, in
1841. He died at Ongarahu, Eaipara, some time in the sixties, full
of honour, respected by Maori and Pakeha alike, and at an advanced
age, probably over eighty.

The Amio-whenua expedition is the longest overland raid that any
Maori force ever undertook, so far as I know ; the distance traversed
could not have been much under 800 miles. All the time they were
absent they lived on their enemies, taking their stores of kumaras and
tarosy and eating the owners as a relish. These, with fern root also,
Would form a considerable portion of the stores. At that time neither
Waikato nor Ngati-Whatua possessed many muskets, so the bulk of
the force would be armed with native weapons. This was the last of
the northern expeditions to reach Cook Straits, though many to less
distant parts remain to be narrated. It was daring exploits like this
expedition that caused the name of the northern tribes to be sq much
feared all over the island.



Matakitaki — May 1822.

It has already been stated that Hongi-flika*s object in visiting
England in 1820-21, was to obtain a large supply of arms with which
to wipe out the defeats his tribe — Nga-Puhi — had suffered at the hands of
the southern tribes. One of these defeats was at Raho-ngaua, in
which the Waikato tribes under Te Eanawa, and some of the Ngati-
Paoa tribe under Eohi-rangatira had attacked Nga-Puhi and beaten
them. The date of this event I have been unable to fix. Again, at
the taking of Te Totara pa at the Thames in December 1821, some of
the Waikato people had assisted Ngati-Maru in the defence, and it was
supposed had been instrumental in the killing of the two young Nga-
Puhi chiefs, Tete and Pu. Here then, were sufficient takes for Hongi-
Hika to undertake the punishment of Waikato, and to that end he
rallied his forces at the Bay of Islands for an expedition to the Hno



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 98

kohnnga^ or ** very nest ** of Waikafco within their own territories, in
the early part of 1822, or not long after the return of his forces from
Te Totara.

On the 15th Fehrnary, 1822, the Missionaries at the Bay record
the fact that great preparations were then under way for an expedition
against Waikato — whither the refugees from Mau-inaina had fled —
to avenge the deaths of Tete and Pu, killed at Te Totara. Many
hundreds of warriors assembled at the Kerikeri, Bay of Islands, from
distant parts, to join the Nga-Puhi people of the Bay, so soon as their
canoes were ready, and the intention was that this should be one of
the greatest expeditions yet sent from the Bay.

** Missionary Register," 1822, page 851 : In a letter from the
Rev. S. Leigh, dated 26th February, 1822, he says : *' Hongi and his
party have killed more than 20 slaves since their return from war (Te
Totara), most of whom they have roasted and eaten. He and his
friends are at war again . Since I landed here (last week in January)
not less than 1,000 fighting men have left the Bay for the Thames
(i.e, Waikato), and not less than 2,000 more are near us, who are
preparing to march (embark) in a few days to the same place. Hongi
is at the head of this party and will go with them to battle.*'

The expedition under Hongi left on the 25th February, and on the
27th March news was received that two of the canoes which formed the
rear-guard of the fleet had been destroyed with their crews. They had
gone ashore somewhere to obtain fern-root for food, when they were
surprised. It is not known where this occurred, or by whom the
canoes were taken, but it is probable that some of the Ngati-Whatua
living about Mahurangi were the assailants.

A considerable number of Ngati-Whatua were living in Waikato
at this time, besides most of the Ngati-Paoa tribe. It is evident that
the Waikato people expected this visit from Nga-Puhi, for — it is said
—the whole of the tribes which come under that name had assembled
at Matakitaki, a very large pa situated at the junction of the Manga-
piko stream with the Waipa river, and about a mile and a-half north
of the present township of Alexandra or Pirongia, as it is now called.
There were three pas in one, called respectively Matakitaki, Taura-
kohia and Puketutu, with steep, almost precipitous, slopes down to the
two rivers, and with a very large and deep ditch cutting oflf the pa
from the plain on the east side. The native accounts say that they
numbered ten thousand people in the pa. No doubt this number is
exaggerated, but as most of the people from Manukau and Waikato
were there the pa must have been very populous.*

* Rev. W. K. Wade passed Matakitaki in February 1838 ; it was then vacated.
He learned that it had contained 5,000 inhabitants at the time of Hongi's attack.
The MisBionaries in 1884 estimated that the Waikato tribes could turn oat 6,680
fighting men.



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94 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

Hongi's fleet oame by the usual route, first up the Tamaki inlet,
at the head of which — ^at Otahuhu—they hauled their canoes over into
the Manukau, and after crossing this they dragged them over Te-pae-o-
Eai-waka, the portage between the Waiuku creek and the Awaroa
stream running into the Waikato. The Waikato tribes, in anticipation
of this event, had felled trees across the stream to stop the fleet, but
these were cleared away, and in some places — which are pointed out
still — Hongi had to cut short channels across sharp bends in the river
to allow his canoes to pass. The native accounts says it took Hongi
two months to clear the obstructions, but once clear he had the whole of
the Waikato and Waipa rivers before him, along which it would not
take many days* paddling to reach Matakitaki. He was probably,
therefore, before the pa about the middle of May 1822. There was
some skirmishing on the way up the Waipa, but no serious obstruction
delayed Hongi in reaching the great pa, opposite to which he camped,
on the west side of the Waipa, and from whence at a distance of not
more than 100 yards or so his guns could play on to the pa.

It is stated that very soon after fire was opened on the pa, many of
the Waikato people, who were now for the first time to see the effect
of guns, began to leave, and as the firing increased a panic seized
them, and they retired in such numbers that they pushed one another
off the narrow bridge over the great ditch, when a dreadful
scramble for life ensued in which many hundreds of people were
trodden to death.

Hoani Nahe, of the Thames, gives a graphic description of the
scene, which is re-printed below. It will be found in the original at
page 147 (Maori) of Mr. John White's ** Ancient History of the
Maori,'* vol. v. :

** Those who had at first fled across the ditch on the wooden
bridge went in an orderly manner, but as the voice of the guns
continued to speak it caused dread, and the fleeing ones in their wish
to escape hustled each other in passing over the bridge. Thus many
fell into the deep ditch. They could not, on account of its depth, get
out again, and as the banks of the trench were perpendicular those
who fell into it were kept there. The first to fall in in their attempts
to climb out were knocked back by others falling on them ; and so it
continued, some who attempted to climb up the bank and partly
succeeded, were pulled back by others in their endeavours to escape.
Some of those in the pa who were good jumpers tried to jump across
the ditch, and, failing in the attempt, but catching hold of the opposite
bank with their hands, hung down with their legs dangling in the
ditch, when those below seized hold of them as a means of aiding their
own escape, thus bringing down those who had nearly succeeded.
Many in the ditch, seeing their relatives escaping, cried out to them



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 96

for help, but the fear was so great that all relationship was forgotten
in the dread that they too should be dragged into the trench. Thus,
brothers and sisters, fathers and mothers, parents and ohildren, called
in vain to their relatives. The ditch soon became full, and those
underneath were trodden to death or smothered by the others. Some
who were in the ditch escaped into the Waipa river, where they were
shot by Nga-Puhi."

Nga-Puhi now assaulted the pa, and although the Waikato and
their friends fought hard with their Maori weapons, they were soon
overcome, being either killed or driven to flight, their enemies following
up their advantage, killing and taking prisoners for many miles. The
next day, however, Te Wherowhero and Te Kanawa, two of the
principal chiefs of Waikato, rallied some of their men and beat back
Nga-Puhi to the pa.

In the chase after the flying Waikato, the Nga-Puhi force caught
a large number of the principal women of the Ngati-Mahuta tribe of
Waikato, near Orahiri ; but, as Te Wherowhero and his party returned
after the flight, they came suddenly on this party of Nga-Puhi and
their prisoners, and killed the whole lot of them — about fifty in
number — ^with their chief, Hui-Putea, which went towards squaring
the losses the Waikato suffered. Some of the Waikato chiefs killed
in this affair were Te Hiko, Te Ao-tu-tahanga, Hope, Hika, Whewhe,
and others.

After this the Waikato tribe and their allies scattered to the
fastnesses of the forests, most of them going to the Upper Mokau,
where they lived for many years, owing to their fear of Nga-Puhi. It
was here the late King Tawhiao, Te Wherowhero's son, was bom,
somewhere about 1824 ; whilst Nga-Puhi appear to have returned
straight back to the Bay, being satisfied for the time with the vengeance
they had exacted. Some of the Ngati-Toa and Ngati-Eoata, Te Baupa-
raha*s tribes, were on a visit to Waikato at the time, and were killed
in the fall of Matakitaki. The '^ Missionary Record " notes the fact
that Bewa returned from this expedition on the 29th July, 1822, and
from the context it appears that Hongi and the whole of the others
were at the Bay a few days after, when he informed the Missionaries
that he had '' killed 1,500 people on the banks of the Waikato."

I have often heard the Ngati-Whatua people describe the losses they
suffered in this siege : indeed, they seemed to think the number killed
was as great as at Te-Ika-a-ranga-nui a few years afterwards.

When leaving Matakitaki, Nga-Puhi had spared some few women
and left them there, so as to open a way for making peace if Waikato
wished it. One of these was the sister of Te Eanawa, named Pare,
kohu, and another was his wife, named Te-Ba-huroake.



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96 JOUfiNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

In the attack on Matakitaki it is said that some of the Ngati-te-ata
tribe of Waiuku assisted Hongi, which is another instance of those
combinations so incomprehensible to Europeans. On Hongi*s retam^
when they arrived at Te Kauri, a point in the Manukau harbour, near
the heads, the ceremony of Whakatahurihuri was performed with the
heads of the Waikato chiefs, which had been preserved. Mr. John
White gives the following description of the custom : ** We will now
suppose the victorious war party on the return to their home, bearing
with them the preserved heads of the great chiefs whom they have
killed. Just on the borders of their own territory they dig a small
hole for each ; then all the people turn round towards the country
from which they came, and the priests, each taking a head, repeat a
song, to which all the warriors dance, and every time they leap from
the ground the priests lift up the heads. This ceremony is called
Whakatahurihrm (a turning round, a causing to look backwards), and
is, as it were, a farewell from the heads to their own land, and a
challenge to the defeated tribe to follow. The words of the song are
these : —

Tarn then, look back, look back I

And, with a farewell glance,

Look on the road thou wast brought

From all that once was thine.

Turn then, look back, look back t

These holes are also to perpetuate the memory of the battle, and those
who fell in it ; and the ceremony is repeated at every subsequent
halting-place.*' Here at Te Kauri was performed the first WhaJcata-
hurihuri with the Waikato heads who fell at Matakitaki. The place is
consequenty sacred to Waikato, who would never land or stay there ;
" for, were they to do so, the spirits of their slaughtered friends would
be sure to visit their impiety with death."

On the 8th June, 1822, Mr. Francis Hall notes : " Tui, with his
brothers, Korokoro and Te Rangi, and Korokoro's son, William,
arrived here (Keri Keri). Tui has been absent, fighting, for about
two years, and has had many narrow escapes, and received many
wounds. War seems to be his chief delight : he says when the people
to the eastward have all been destroyed those to the northward will be
attacked. He mentioned many of hi? marvellous deeds, and, amongst
others, that on one occasion he was hemmed in, in a fortified place, for
a considerable time, and had nothing to eat or drink for twenty days !
His enemies appeared so confident of taking him that they prepared
wood for roasting him ; he was, however, relieved from his perilous
situation by his friends from Mercury Bay. His face is tattooed all
over, and he looks very thin. He purposes, it appears, to go again to
war in about three months."



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 97

On the 26th November died, at Waimate, Whatarau, one of the
chiefs wounded at Matakitaki — his wife Tiki, hung herself, and two of
his other wives were shot by Tahyree — (?) Tahiri — (?) Te Haere — ^his
father ; done, he said, to prevent them becoming the wives of others.
Mr. Hall said of one of these unfortunates, that '* she was the most
beautiful and interesting woman I have seen in New Zealand/'

There is more than one tarufi, or lament, for those who fell at
Matakitaki, of which the following is one in which the causes of
Hongi's raid are referred to : —

Takiri ko te ata

Ka ngau Tawera, te tohu o te mate,

I hnna ai nga iwi, ka ngaro ra-e !

Taku tuatara, o matoa ra,

Ka tuko koutou.

Tola e Kobi* ki te kaha o te waka

Hei ranga i te mate.

Kei a Te Whare, a Te Hinu.

Ka ea nga mate o te ori ra o Eokako.

E pai taku mate-
He mate taua kei tua o Manukau,

Kei roto o Kaipara, kei Dga iwi e maha.

Eihai Eopera i kitea ibo e au ;

Tautika te haere ki roto o Tawa-tawhiti,

Mo Tu-hoehoe, mo Kaipiha ra, e pa !

Mo Taiheke i kainga hoetea e koe,

£ kai ware ana ko Te Hikata, ko Te Mabarehare,

Haere ke ana, E Hika I E Hope I i a Te Barawa

Tena Hongi-Hika, nana te hou-taewa

Huna kautia Waikato ki te mate.



A TANGI, BY PUHI-BA-WAHO, FOR THE SLAIN AT MATAKITAKI.

Dart forth the rays of morning,

The morning star^ bites (the moon),

A token of disaster,

Presaging the death of the tribe.

Lost is my taatara^— thy parents,

Te all consented that

Kobi^ should prepare the canoe,

To avenge your deatbs.

*Twa8 Te Wbare and Te Hinu

That avenged the wrongs

Of the descendants of Kokako,^

*Twere well for me to die

On battlefield beyond Manukau,

Or witbin the waters of Kaipara,

Amongst the numerous tribes,

Koperu^ was not seen by me.

Straiglit was the course to Tawatawbiti,*


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