Copyright
Polynesian Society (N.Z.).

The journal of the Polynesian Society online

. (page 12 of 26)
Online LibraryPolynesian Society (N.Z.)The journal of the Polynesian Society → online text (page 12 of 26)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Where Tnboeboe and Kaipiha^ fell,



Digitized by



Google



98 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

And Taiheke was eaten, paddling along,

As slaves were eaten,

The Hikntn and Mahurehure^*^ tribes,

O Hika I O Hope« 1 Ye were killed by The Barawa,

When Hongii-Hika brought the affliction*

That obliterated Waikato in death.

Note. — ^Tawera. or Venus, as the Morning Star, when it (or any other star)
approached the moon it was a sign of coming disaster. ^Tuatara, the great lizard,
emblematical for a chief. ^Kohi, abbreviated fur Kohi-rangatira, a chief of
Ngati-Paoa then living with Waikato. *The descendants of Kokako are with both
Nga-Pnhi and Waikato. ^Koperu, killed at Mokoia, see p. 22. *Tawatawhiii, the
Poor Knights Islands, and where Nga-Puhi were defeated by some of Waikato
and Ngati-Paoa. ^Kaipiha, see p. 22, where, however, this incident is wrongly
referred to as a battle, Kaipiha was a man. ^Names of two of the chiefs killed
at Matakitaki. ^H(m-taewa, said to be emblematical for muskets; taewa^ an
obsolete word for an affliction. ^^Xwo tribes of Hokianga.



PoMiObE's FIBST EXPEDITION TO THE UrEWERA CoUNTBY — 1822.

The years 1821-22 were prolifio in Northern expeditions against the
Southern tribes. In 1822 the Nga-Puhi were to meet for the first
time, an inland tribe that had not yet felt the weight of their arms,
but which tribe in the years following immediately after this date,
began to play an important part in the struggle between North and
South. The Urewera, or Tuhoe, tribes occupy the mountainous
region extending inland from the eastern part of the Bay of Plenty,
nearly as far south as the present coach-road from Taupo to Napier,
and are bounded on the north by the territories of the Ngati-Awa,
Ngati-Pukeko and Whakatohea tribes, and on the east by those of the
Ngati-Porou and Ngati-Kahu-ngunu tribes, on the south by the Ngati-
Hine-uru and Ngati-Tu-whare-toa tribes, and on the west by Te Arawa
Ngati-Manawa and allied tribes. The Urewera tribes — for there are
many hapus amongst them — claim to be the direct descendants of the
original people occupying New Zealand before the migration of about
1850. They have been a warlike tribe of mountaineers, that have
held their broken forest-clad country from the earliest date, to the
exclusion of outsiders, (except on occasional forays) and have never
been permanently conquered. It was against these tribes that Nga-
Puhi now turned their arms.

There is some uncertainty as to whether the Nga-Puhi chief Pomare,
after the fall of the Totara pa at the Thames in December, 1821,
returned to the Bay, but in any case, it was during 1822 that he
appeared in the Bay of Plenty with a fleet of canoes and a large
force, bent on the usual errand of slaughter, man-eating, and slave-
hunting. As an adjunct to these objects was that of procuring heads,
for the trade in ** preserved heads " with white people was by this time



Digitized by



Google



WAH8 OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 99

fairly established. There is little doubt that Pomare had in view
likewise the obtaining of some revenge for the losses of his tribe
at the hands of Ngati-Pukeko and Ngati-Awa in the year 1818.
When writing of the two great expeditions of Hongi and Te Morenga
which took place in that year,'^ I had not sufficient information then
to fix the date of the fall of Okahukura, but recent enquiries show,
that during Te Morenga's expedition to the East Coast in 1818, he
landed at Whakatane, and at once attacked the Ngati-Awa people living
there. This tribe retreated before Nga-Puhi, as did their neighbours
Ngati-Pukeko. They took a course which led them via Te Teko,
where many others of the latter tribe were living, as well as in the
valleys of Bangi-taiki and Tarawera. The two tribes fled before the Nga-
Puhi guns up the Bangi-taiki valley, but determined to make a stand
at the Okahukura pa situated a few miles inland of the Confiscation
boundary, on a spur leading down from the wooded mountains on the
east side of the valley. Here Ngati-Pukeko under their chiefs Tai-
iimuroa, Tikitu, and Tautari, together with some of Ngati-Awa under
Te Eorapu, assembled to await the Nga-Puhi attack, which was not
long in being delivered. Notwithstanding the success which at first
attended the onslaught, and in which Tama-a-rangi, a priest or
matakits, and Te Huna-o-te-rangi of Ngati-Pukeko were killed, Nga-
Puhi were eventually obliged to retreat, due to succours arriving in
aid of the besieged, under the chief Kihi. In this retreat Nga-Puhi
suffered considerable losses, sufficient to cause their leaders — Te
Morenga and Eorokoro — to retire to their canoes at Whakatane.
With the Nga-Puhi force, were contingents of the Au-pouri and
Barawa tribes of the North. It is said that only 50 of Nga-Puhi
escaped — if so only part of Te Morenga's total force could have been
engaged at Okahu-kura.

At this time, the Urewera hapus named Ngati-Bongo-karae and
Ngati-Koura, were living in the neighborhood of Buatoki, some 16
miles inland of Whakatane, and near where that river comes out of the
gorge before taking its winding course through the rich valley extending
to its mouth. Here the people lived in fortified pas, the remains ol
which thickly stud the spurs of the wooded hills — they are very
numerous, denoting a large population in former days.

The alarm caused by the news of the muskets of the two Nga-
Puhi expeditions under Hongi and Te Morenga was very wide spread,
and affected the Urewera people, although neither of the above expedi-
tions had come into actual conflict with them. They heard for the
first time of their own countrymen using arms that could kill at a
distance.

• See this Journal vol. yili., p. 213.



Digitized by



Google



100 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

When, therefore, Pomare appeared off Wakatane in 1822 with his
fleet of canoes and numerous followers fully armed, the alarm was
spread and preparations were made for flight. The Ngati-Awa of
Whakatane gave the alarm, and commenced moving off, whilst the
Urewera hapiis^ Ngati-Eoura and Ngati-Bongo, under their chiefs Pa-
i-te-rangi, Te Ehutu, Matenga, and others, at once fled inland up the
valley. The Ngati-Awa followed as far as the neighborhood of Buatoki,
and then occupied the abandoned pas of the Urewera. When Nga-
Puhi arrived, a skirmish took place at Te Matai on the west side of
the river near the mouth of the gorge, in which Ngati-Awa were
defeated, losing a Ngati-Pukeko chief named Torona, killed, whilst
several prisoners were taken, amongst them Hohaia, a son of Mata-te-
hokia's. The Nga-Puhi then attacked the pas in the neighborhood,
and took those named Te Tawhero, Otamahaki, Te Hua, Waikirikiri,
and Waitapu, all situated near the entrance to the gorge. A great
many people were killed and captured. Amongst the Ngati-Awa chiefs
killed were, Eahukahu, Papata, and Hako-purakau (of Ohiwa) whilst
Ngahau was taken prisoner.

Ngati-Awa and Ngati-Pukeko now fled after the Urewera people,
up the Whakatane valley, Pomare with the Nga-Puhi following close
on their heels, killing many people before they reached a place of
safety in the mountains near Rua-tahuna. The principal chiefs of
Ngati-Awa at this time were, Te Hama-i-waho,* Te Ngarara, Tirau,
Te Hokowhitu, and Te Mau-tara-nui — a name we shall frequently
come across again as well as that of Te Ngarara. The sub-tribes, or
hapwt of Ngati-Awa and Ngati-Pukeko engaged in these events were,
Ngati-Wharepaia, Ngati-Ikapuku, Ngati-Mou-moana, Ngati-Paraheka,
Ngati-Whetenui, Ngati-Hokopu, and some of the Pahi-poto. The
Ngati-Awa people of Whakatane itself fled before Nga-Puhi in a
different direction, namely to Te Tiringa on the road to Te Teko where
the Ngati-Tapahi and Ngati-Hinenoa lived, and these people escaped
the persecution of Nga-Puhi.

Pomare returned down the valley before reaching Ruatahuna, laden
with the spoil of the battlefield, in the shape of provisions and <* heads,"
and from Whakatane took his departure for his home at the Bay of
Islands, much to the joy of the Ngati-Awa and Urewera, who then
returned to their desolated homes at Whakatane and Buatoki. The
latter tribe, however, had not long been settled at Buatoki when they
again had to flee inland, owing to a raid made by the Whakatohea
tribe, of Opotiki, who inflicted on them a severe defeat at Otairoa, and
carried away as prisoners many of the chief women of the Urewera
tribe. This event does not, however, belong to this story.

* Subseqaently killed in the war between Te Whakatohea with Ngati-Awa and
Ngati-Maru at Ohiwa about 1838,



Digitized by



Google



WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 101

MOKOIA,* ROTORUA, 1828.

At page 85 of this '' Journal " (vol. ix.) will be found an account
of the death of Te Pae-o-te-rangi and his party of Nga-Puhi, at the
hands of the Tu-hou-rangi branch of Te Arawa tribe. This event
occurred at Motu-tawa, the pretty little island in Roto-kakahi Lake, in
1822 ; but a few of Nga-Puhi escaped, and made their way back to the
Bay of Islands, where they spread the news of the disaster, causing
the whole of the Nga-Puhi tribe to determine on obtaining revenge so
soon as the proper season arrived. Te Pae-o-te-rangi was apparently
with Pomare after that chief left the Thames in disgust at Hongi
Hika's treacherous designs against Te Totara pa (see p. 80), and
appears to have accompanied Pomare to Tuhua, and then went on to
Tauranga and the Lake district with his own followers, and met his
death at Motu-tawa. Mr. Francis Hall states that it was Pomare*s
party that suffered at the hands of Tu-hourangi, but it is clear that
Pomare was not there himself — ^in fact, he went on to Whakatane, as
has been shown.

So serious a blow to the prestige of Nga-Puhi could not be passed
over, especially after the triumphs of the tribe over the Ngati-Paoa at
Mau-inaina, the Ngati-Maru at Te Totara, and the Waikato at Mataki-
taki. « Hence the people gathered at the Bay of Islands from far and
near, bent on inflicting a great defeat on Te Arawa tribe.

Mr. Marsden paid his fourth visit to New Zealand in this year,
arriving at the Bay from Port Jackson on the drd August, in the ship
<' Brampton," having on board the Bev. Henry Williams and his
family, together with the Rev. Wm. Turner, Rev. R. Hobbs and their
families, the two latter gentlemen belonging to the Wesleyan Mission.
From Marsden*s Journals we are able to obtain some approximate
dates of events of this year, and of Hongi *s doings in particular.
Hongi was at the Bay in December, 1822, and he was there again in
August, 1828. During the interim the Rotorua expedition had taken
place. The " Missionary Register," 1828, p. 612, says : ** Hongi aud
his people had proceeded towards the East Cape on another fighting
expedition, in February, 1828 ; '* so we may be safe in supposing that
Mokoia fell somewhere about March or April, 1828.

The expedition sailed down the East Coast from the Bay to
Tauranga, where Hongi persuaded some of the Ngai-Te-Rangi people
of that place to join him, under their chiefs, Koraurau,f Turuhia,
Werohia, Taipari, and Taharangi. The chiefs of Nga-Puhi were

* Tarakawa's aoooant of the taking of Mokoia— this ''Journal,*' vol. xtii.,
p. 242 — should be read with this. My account is from di£ferent sources, parts
from Petera-Te-Pukuatua, through Mr. A. Shand, in 1893.

t Eoraurau was subsequently killed at Tauranga.



Digitized by



Google



102



JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.



Hongi, Kaiteke (or Te Wera), Ururoa, Pomare, Te Koki, Tareha,
Tawai, Tawaewae, Tarapatiki, Te Mangi, Mango-nui, Moka, Korokoro,
and others. With this tana were also some of the Ngati-Tahinga
people of Waikato, under their chief, Te Ao-o-te-rangi, a fact which is
illustrative of the peculiar comhinations so often found in Maori
history, for it was only the previous year that Hongi had made such a
terrible slaughter of the Waikatos at Matakitaki. But, perhaps,
stranger still is it to find some of Ngati-Whatua in combination with
their ancient enemies, the Nga-Puhi. There were not many of them,
but amongst them we find the celebrated chief, Muru-paenga, together
with Marama and Te Ahu-mea. The names of these Ngati-Whatua
chiefs were supplied by Petera-te-Pukuatua, the principal living chief
of the Ngati-Whakaue branch of Te Arawa, and they are confirmed by
Ngati-Whatua themselves. Arama Earaka Haututu, in a speech made
in 1888, said that this expedition originated through the death of Te
Pae-o-te-rangi, and that Muru-paenga and Te Wera were the leaders.
Paora Kawharu of Ngati-Whatua explains to me the reason of this
combination of ancient foes : Both Muru-paenga and Pomare of Nga-
Puhi are descended from the same ancestor, Bongo, as shown in the
margin, and the name of the former's hapu (Ngati- Bongo) is derived
from the Bongo there mentioned. Thus Ngati-Bongo, Ngati-Manu

(Pomare's hapu)^ and
^f *" Te Ure-taniwha (Te

Wera's hapu), are all
connected. During
the interval of repose
between Matakitaki
and Mokoia, Muru-
paenga and his hapu
of Ngati-Bongo were
on a visit to Pomare
at the Bay of Islands,
and whilst there the
expedition was de-
cided on, and Muru-
paenga was persuaded
to join it. No doubt
his relationship to
Pomare was sufficient to insure the safety of himself and people against
their whilom foe, Hongi. But this truce was not of long duration,
as we shall see. It is, nevertheless, very strange to find members of
the Ngati-Whatua tribe in alliance with their ancient enemy, Hongi.
Muru-paenga had been the latter's bitter foe for more than twenty
years, and bad defeated Nga-Puhi in more than one enoounter. We



Moe-rangaranga = Nga-whitu



!



j



Pare= Waha (of Nga-Puhi) Tira-Waikato =Ripiro



Te Raraku



u-whi



Te Whaita^Maiao

I



Tu-whanga



Haki



Ahi-wera=Tuaea



Muru paenga =» Tangirere



Pomare 11.



W. & H. Pomare



Aotai==Kaha



Henare Bawhiti



Digitized by



Google



WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 103

shall see that a somewhat similar combination took place in 1826, but
with a different section of Ngati-Whatua. The combined forces of
this heterogeneous taiui numbered 600 topu^ or 1,200 strong.

From Tauranga the expedition passed on to the eastward, to Waihi,
the shallow harbour just to the east of Maketu. Here they entered
the Pongakawa stream, which flows northerly into that harbour,
through a swampy valley, its waters forming the outlet to Roto-ehu
lake ; the first few miles, however, being by a subterranean passage.
The stream, although deep, is narrow and tortuous, so that it must have
been a great labour to force the Nga-Puhi war-canoes up its course.
On arrival at the head of the stream, where the subterranean water
comes forth, the expedition cleared out the old path leading through
the forest to Roto-ehu, and then dragged their canoes along it to the lake.
From Roto-ehu there is a level valley joining the above mentioned lake to
Roto-iti lake, about a mile and a half in length. Along the path
through the beautiful forest there, the canoes were again dragged to
the shores of Roto-iti at Tapuae-haruru. Arrived there, it was all
plain sailing for the fleet, which passed along Roto-iti lake, and thence
up the Ohau stream into Lake Roto-rua, where the force camped near
the outlet.

The tribes of Te Arawa had gathered from all the district round
Rotorua, on the island of Mokoia, taking with them ^11 their canoes,
besides provisions for the anticipated siege ; for the news of the Nga-
Puhi advance had preceded them many days. Shortly before the
appearance of Nga-Puhi on the shores of the lake, a proposal had been
made by some of Te Arawa that the island should be abandoned ; for
the fear of the Nga-Puhi guns was great, and it was felt that« in case
of defeat, there would be little chance of escape. The majority of the
people were, however, defiant of Nga-Puhi, and it was therefore decided
to remain and defend the island, which was very dear to the people,
being associated with so much of their tribal history for 500 years past.
Accordingly, every preparation was made by the people for defence.
Spears were shaped out, taiahasy huatas, and other weapons made,
whilst the place was well provisioned. Mokoia is of considerable size,
somewhat more than a mile in its longest diameter, and therefore not
easily defended, although in those days Te Arawa was a very numerous
tribe. But they had very few firearms, and had to trust principally to
their rakau-maorif or native weapons. Some of the leading chiefs in
the defence were, Hikairo, Te Kahawai, Puku-atua, Unu-ahu, Tu-
makoha, Tu-hoto (the noted tohun^a, or priest), Riki, Te Kohuru, Te
Rakau, Te Korekore, Te Awa-awa, Haere-huka, Te Auru, Te Hotoke,
Te Kuru-o-te-marama, Moko-nui-a-rangi, Te Hihiko, and others.

For some days Nga-Puhi took no steps towards the attack, but
amused themselves in paddling round the island, and as they passed



Digitized by



Google



104 JOURSAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

the Arawa canoes, drawn up on the island, each chief claimed one of
them as his own, hy calling it after some part of his own body, thus
rendering it sacred to himself. Some of these canoes, it is said, were
taken back by the victors to the Bay of Islands.

On the third day Nga-Puhi landed their forces, and were opposed
by the whole strength of Te Arawa; but, just before landing, Te
Awa-awa, making use of one of the very few guns they possessed, fired
at, and hit Hongi on the helmet given him by George IV., and knocked
him over into the hold of the canoe — ^he was not hurt, however. On
landing, the fight lasted for some time with varying success, but in the
end the guns proved too much for Te Arawa, and they fled. Great
numbers were killed, and more taken prisoners, whilst many escaped
from the island by swimming to the main land, which, towards Te
Ngae, is not more than a mile distant. These people generally struck
out for the shore in bodies of fifty or more together. Seeing their
prey thus escaping them, several of the Nga-Puhi canoes gave chase, to
secure the fugitives as slaves. In some cases they succeeded, thus
securing a good many prisoners ; for they assured the swimmers that
their lives would be spared, and even helped them into the canoes, in
none of which were very many of the Nga-Puhi. As the number of
fugitives in some of the canoes increased, they were induced by their
numbers to attempt to reverse the order of things, and, in some casee,
turned on Nga-Puhi and despatched a good many of them with the
paddles, or anything they could find to hand, and then made their
escape to the main land, taking the Nga-Puhi bodies with them, to cu^
up and eat at their leisure. In other cases, when the Nga-Puhi canoes
came up to a body of swimmers the latter seized hold of the sides of
the canoes, and managed, in many cases, to tumble the Nga-Puhi
overboard, where they were killed ; and then the fugitives escaped to
the shore. It thus turned out that, though Nga-Puhi remained the
victors, they suffered considerable losses, and this led to their aban-
doning the pursuit.

The Nga-Puhi host remained at Mokoia many days, living on the
** fish of Tu," and making expeditions to the main land in pursuit of
those who had escaped, most of whom, however, got away to the
fastnesses and secret hiding-places known only to themselves.

It appears that Nga-Puhi at one time had the intention of taking
permanent possession of the Eotorua district, but on full discussion the
idea was abandoned. Many prisoners were taken, and carried back to
the Bay of Islands, some of whom were afterwards returned to their
tribe, others (women) becoming the wives of the northern warriors.

The Nga-Puhi force returned by the way it came to Waihi harbour,
where they camped for a few days before making their arrangements
to return home to the Bay, and to complete the peace they had made



Digitized by



Google



WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 106

with some sections of Te Arawa. Here the Nga-Puhi forces divided|
Pomare and Te Wera going on south, whilst the others returned home
to the Bay of Islands.

Mr. Marsden notes in his journal, September, 1828, that he witnessed
the return to the Bay of some of the canoes belonging to Hongi's expe-
dition, which were commanded by Tuturu, of Waikare. Both contained
d^ad bodies of people killed in the South. He describes the scenes of
woe which were to be observed so soon as the crews landed. Arch-
deacon H. Williams (in the ** Missionary Register, 1824, p. 410)
says that in the course of a fortnight subsequent to the 5th of Sep-
tember, 1823, Hongi returned from the war : ** Great numbers were
killed in this war, but I have not heard of any sacrifices since their
return. Hongi narrowly escaped ; he was struck thrice ; his helmet
preserved him once. He lost a very considerable force, and had all
his canoes burned." (I can find no account from native sources in
reference to the burning of the canoes.) About this same time also,
September, Marsden visited Tui's tribe at the Bay, and there found
that he, with his elder brother, Korokoro, and their uncle, Kaipo,
had been engaged in the late campaign. News had arrived that Eaipo
had been killed, and that Korokoro had died of a wound at Katikati,
and that Tui was then at a little island near the Thames, waiting an
opportunity to bring back his brother^s (Korokoro) body. Kaipo was a
young man when Cook first visited New Zealand. In conversation
with Waikato — Hongi's companion on his voyage to England —
Marsden learned that the latter was contemplating an expedition to
Taranaki. This, however, never came off. Tui took the name of
Katikati, from the fact of his brother's death having occurred at that
place. He was also called Tupaea ; he died 17th October, 1824.

There are several laments for those who fell at Mokoia, of which
the following (I think) is one, though it is not certain if Taiawhio fell
at Mokoia itself : —

HE TANGI, MO TAIAWmO.

Takoto ibo ki taku moenga,

Me he ika ora aa ki te iwi,

Ei a kontou E Here ! ma

E pnkai mai ra i Mokoia,

Na Te Whata-nni i hi te pakake,

Pae ana ko Te Waha kei uta,

He mango ihu noi.

Homai nga roro no Tahaknra,

Hei kai ake ma Bewharewha,

Haere wareware ko te hoa,

Eihai i kail a Te Waero,

Engari ano te marama,

Eke penn tonu ki mnga.

Na Te Wara nga mahara,



Digitized by



Google



106 JOURSAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

Pnhaina mai ki a Te *Paraha,
Arahina mai i Tanranga,
Te huna i Botorua,
Tena ano te homai n&y

Ei te putiki na Papa-wharanui,

Ki a Te Mata-kuri,
Hei tua i a Te PaeS
Hinga rawa ki raro ra.



As I lay me down to sleep,

To the people I seem as a straggling fish jast caught,

Thinking sadly of you all, Here !

That lie in heaps at Mokoia.

Twas Te Whata-nui^ that fidied the whale

When Te Waha was stranded ashore,

Looking like a big-nosed shark.

Bring here the brains of Tahakora,

As a dainty food for Bewharewha.^

My friend went off in forgetf ulness,

And tasted not of Te Waero.^

Bather does the moon,

Bise with taro- pounded like face ^

'Twas Te Warn originated the idea,^

Given to and elaborated by.Te Bauparaha,*

Then were they led here from Tauranga,

To overwhehn and obliterate Botorua,^

But finally the stroke fell,

On the " top-knot " of Papa-whara-nui»—

To Te Mutu-kuri,»

Who felled Te Pae-o-te-rangi,

And oauBed their utter downfall.

Notes.- -^ Te Whata-nui, of Ngati-Baukawa, who, with Te Bauparaha, gave
the advice (see p. 34) that led to the disaster at Mokoia, ^ Bewharewha. There
were leading chiefs of both Nga-Puhi and Ngati- Whatua of this name, but prob-
ably this is another man. ^ Te Waero was killed at Motutawa in 1822 (see p. 36).
He was a Kga-Pahi chief. ^ Eke penu in reference to the moon rise, I take to
mean its £aro-like appearance ; the face of the moon has just that look when full.
5 Te Waru, of Ngai-Te-Bangi, Tauranga, who from this appears to have originated
the idea of killiog Te Pae-o-te-rangi and party in 1822. <* As to Te Bauparaha's
part in these transactions see p. 36. "^ Beferring to the Nga-Puhi invasion guided
to Botorua by the Tauranga people. « xhe top-knot of Papa whara-nui—
emblematical for the chiefs of Tuhourangi tribe, of which, ^ Te Mutu-kuri was
chief at the killing of Te Pae-o-te-rangi in 1822. Papa-whara-nui was the mother
of Tu-hourangi, whose name is borne still by that division of Te Arawa.

Many, no doubt, were the scenes of woe on the return of the


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Online LibraryPolynesian Society (N.Z.)The journal of the Polynesian Society → online text (page 12 of 26)