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expedition from Botorua, but the following is worth recording as
showing the manners of the time : It appears that one of the Nga-
Puhi chiefs — ^whose name is not given — took two of the young Arawa
women who fell to his share amongst the prisouers as his concubines.
The native story (as told by Te Marunui, of Ngati-Manawa to Mr.
Best) is that when these two women were about to be delivered their



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.L TRIBES. 107

master said to them that if their ohildren proved to be sons he would
make both the women his wives, but if their offspring should prove to
be daughters, he would kill both mothers and children. When the
time drew near one of the girls, fearing the result, fled to the wilds,
and there gave birth to a daughter. She was so alarmed for the
safety of herself and child, that she dare not go back to the home of
her master, but took up her residence under a grove of karaka trees.
Being without clothing, the poor mother felt the cold very acutely.
She was seen by one of her fellow-prisoners, a female, who heard the
poor thing sing a touching waiata-oriori, or lullaby, and she retained
the words of it. On the third day the child perished, and on the fifth
the mother herself succumbed to the cold. This is her song : —

E HiDe ! Karanga kino taua ki te ao nei-e-i,

Ea uhi tana he whare rau karaka,

Tena E Hine ! te Piko Hawaiki,

I nga Dui ra-e,

A to tnpana i waiho i te ao,

Hei whakahau mo Hine ra.

Nei koa taaa te kiia mai nei,
Nakn i he, whai noa ko te are ra-e-
I poaa iho ai he tore taurekareka,
I puta ai ki waho -e-i.

Kaore E Hine ! he whetn o ranga,

Ko Maratea anake.

Nana Hongi-Hika i turaki ki raro ra,

Ka manawa reka ra te roa o te whenua,

Ka noho taua i raro i te raorao,

I te oneone i ariki ai te tangata.

Oma toDu mai te karanga o Hine,
Te honhanga pu i a Takahorea,
E ngana i te rangi,
Me he tane pea e mau ki to patu,
Tikina takahia te puke i Hikurangi,
I a Te Roki-mara, nana i homai,
Nga pn mahara i herea mai ai,
Nga toka whakahi o era whenua,
E noho nei ra matou ko o kuia,
I runga o Herangi, E Hine I ra.

E kimi atn ana, e rangahau atu ana,

He nriuri tangata, maoihi koe i uta,

Kite waka.

Tahuri to kanohi te puke i Te Aroha,

I to tane ra ko Herua-i-te-rangi,

Nana i titoko te kohu ki raro nei,

Ka tiinga Nga-Pahi, ka ea te mate ra-e-i,

Mokai a Te Eahu i te tua-one i waho ra,
I ro* to whakaheketanga,
Te horo i te hoaki.



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108 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

Ea kitea mai koe e te pani wahine,
Ma Pare-raatatn e taki ki te whare,
Kia tiponatia te kaka o te waero,
Kia whakahau koe ko te mnka i te kete,
Ea rarahu to ringa he hua-manehu-rangi,
Hei whakakakara mo to hika, E Hine ra.



THE YOUNG MOTHER'S LAMENT.

little maid 1 eril is the name we bear in this world, alast
Ab we shelter beneath the green karaka leaves.
Elsewhere there are, O little maid I in far Hawaiki

The great ones of noble descent,
Left by thy ancestors in this world,
To animate this little maid.

Now, indeed, is it said of as.
Mine was the fault ; *twas he that sought me,
And made of me — a slave — his wife.
Hence came thou forth to the world.

There is, O little maid ! no star above,
Comparable to Maratea^ alone.
Who, Hongi-Hika's pride laid low.
Causing joy thronghont the land.
Sit we thus lowly on the plain.
On the earth that made men lords.

Tremulous is the cry of the little maid,

At the salvos of Takahorea*s dreaded guns.

That disturb the very heavens.

Wert thou a man, thou wouldst seize thy weapon

And tread the hills of distant Hikurangi,

Where dwells Te Boki-mara, he who gave

The subtle counsel that firmly bound

The proud ones of those lands

Wherein we dwelt with thy ancestors,

Above in Herangi, little maid I

1 am seeking, I am searching,
Some common friend to save thee
From on board the lost canoe.
Turn thy gaze to Mount Te Aroha,

To thy lover there, to Herua-i-terangi,
Who compelled the war-cloud to the north.
When Nga-Puhi fell, and defeat was there avenged.

A slave is Te Eahu, on yonder beach.
At full-length was thy descent,
In the scaling, in the assault.

1 The introduction of the name of Maratea shows that this little song was
composed after 1828, for it was he who shot Hongi Hika at Margamuka, Hokianga.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 109

Thoa shalt be seen by the oompanj of women,

And Pare-rautntu shall lead thee to the home,

And fasten on the dog-skin garment ;

Thou shalt demand fine flax of the store.

And stretch forth thy hand for sweet-smelling herbs

To scent thy body— little maid !

In this year (1823) Messrs. Leigh and White, of the Wesleyan
Mission, desiring to establish a Mission at Whangarei, went thither ;
but they found, in consequence of the late wars, all the inhabitants had
been destroyed or had fled to the woods. The Bev. Mr. Leigh, in his
journal,''' says that the ship *' St. Michael '* called on her return from
Tont^a, on the 25th May, and in her he visited Whangarei, with the
above object in view. They were informed that only three years before
there were many thousands of people there, but the late war had so
reduced them that there were very few villages or people left. He
describes the ruins of villages, the general desolate appearance of
the country, and the few people left, who complained bitterly of the
tribes who had invaded them. This desolation was wrought by some
of the Waikato people, under Purehurehu, and by Te Rauroha, at the
head of Ngati-Paoa — so I think from Mr. Fenton's ** Judgement." In
this expedition Eaipiha was killed, and Eahungau taken prisoner.
Both belonged to the Parawhau tribe, whose home was (and is) at
Whangarei. It is said by the Maori accounts that Ngati-Paoa went
Ux as Whangaruru about this time, and killed some of the Nga-Puhi,
in retaliatiou for their losses. These expeditions are those referred to
by Mr. Leigh, probably.

Some time in August or September, 1828, Marsden records the
return of Bewa (also called Manu, and Bororoa, the brother of Te
Whare-rahi and of Moka-kainga-mata) from Waikato, where he had
been to make peace with that tribe. Bewa was said to have been the
most powerful of the Nga-Puhi chiefs after Hongi. It will be remem-
bered that after the fall of Matakitaki some of the women had been
saved especially to allow of a peace being made. This was apparently
taken advantage of by Te Whakaete and Te-Eihirini-te-Eanawa, sons
of those women, t It also appears that Te Eati, Te Wherowhero's
brother, was of the party who visited the Bay on this occasion, and,
as Marsden says, many other chiefs of Waikato. Bewa's daughter,
Matire-toha, was given to Eati as a wife, to cement the peace. They
apparently stayed at the Bay some time, and, as Mr. Fenton says,|
returned early in 1824. A Native account states that on the return of

* ** Bemarkable Incidents in the Life of the Rev. Samuel Leigh," London, 1852),
p. 176.

f John White, yoI. v., p. 175.

♦ Loo. cit, p. 70.



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no JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

Eati homewards he called in at Whakatiwai, on the west shore of the
Hauraki Gulf, and here — the opportunity being favourable— it was
proposed by Ngati-Paoa to kill him, but Te Hauroha interfered and
prevented it : but Eati was plundered. This seems rather improbable,
for, so far as we know, Ngati-Paoa were at peace at this time with
Waikato. In those turbulent times, however, a man's life was not of
much account, and the desire to wipe out some old grudge by the
killing of the offender, or even one of his tribe, was a ruling passion.

In September, also, Marsden records a conversation with Bewa,
who informed him that he had just heard that his brother had been
killed in war, and, if it turned out to be true, he would go and avenge
his death.



POHABB AND Tb WsBA-HaUBAKI's EXPEDITION TO THE SoUTH, 1828.

As has been stated (see p. 106) the Nga-Puhi force, after their
return to Waihi, from Rotorua, divided — Hongi-Hika and his party
returning home to the Bay of Islands, whilst Pomare and Te Wera-
Hauraki, with their particular portion of the tana, proceeded onwards
towards the east. The latter party was a very strong one, if we may
believe the Urewera accounts of their doings ; and it is from in-
formation obtained from that tribe that most of the incidents of this
expedition is derived. The expedition had more than one object in
view, outside the usual one of man-slaying. Pomare was taking
back to their tribe several of the Ngati-Porou people he had
captured near the East Cape in a former expedition, the date of which
is believed to be 1820-21. Te Wera, or Hauraki, had alike object,
for in his great expedition to the south in the same years he had
captured a Ngati-Eahu-ngunu chief named Te Whare-umu (not to be
confounded with the Nga-Puhi chief of the same name) at Nuku-
taurua, Te Mahia Peninsula, when he took that place with great
slaughter. Te Wera returned from this latter expedition to the Bay
on the 19th April, 1821, having been absent 16 months (see p. 21),
and so far as can now be made out, Pomare was with this expedition
for part of the time, but returned to the Bay after the siege of Te
Whetu-matarau pa at Eawakawa, near the East Cape, when the
prisoners, alluded to above, were taken.

The expedition, after parting from Hongi at Waihi some time in
July or August 1828, sailed along the coast and entered the Whaka-
tane Biver, where their arrival caused great alarm to the Ngati-Awa
tribe there living, for the people had a very lively recollection of
Pomare*s foray of the previous year (p. 98). The Ngati-Awa gathered
in their pa of Puke-tapu, situated just above the modern township of



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. Ill

Whakatane, and a little to the south-west of the Wairere waterfall.*
They were a numerous people in those days, and had villages and
cultivations on the flat where the township now stands, dating from
the arrival of the Mata-atua canoe, which formed part of the fleet
that arrived here from Hawaiki in about the year 1850. A large
village stood below Puke-tapu pa, close to the rock called Tuawhake,
which afterwards — in pakeha d^ys — formed the wharf here ; and Ngati-
Pukeko had also a large village just inland of the rocky pinnacle called
Pohatu-roa, which juts out into the river at the south end of the town.
This village was named Wharau-raiigi, and the following ** saying "
has reference to the different dispositions of the two tribes inhabiting
these two villages : —

He korero riri kei Wharaa-rangi,
He ta matau kei Otuawhake.

Anger prevails at Wharaa-rangi,

Bat binding on fishhooks at Otuawhake.

Opposite the township, on the sand hills facing the ocean is the
ancient burial ground of Ngati-Awa, called Kopiha, about which is
the following ** saying " : —

E Ta ! ko Kopiha whanaanga kore tenei I

O sirs ! This is Kopiha without relatives !

The meaning of which is, that strangers arriving from Matata
along the coast would wait there to be ferried across the river, but no'
one would fetch them or acknowledge them so long as they infringed
the tapu of the burial ground.

Whakatane is full of places connected with the arrival of the
Mata-atua canoe. In the channel of the river, well inside the mouth,
is the rock called Toka-a-taiau, said to be the anchor of the canoe.
To the eastward of the Wairere Falls, on the very top of the hill, is
Kapu-te-rangi, a very ancient pa, said to have been the home of Toi,
the ancestor of the aboriginal tribes of New Zealand, and whose
descendants in the sixth or seventh generation welcomed the arrival
of the two shipwrecked strangers — Taukata and Hoake — from
Hawaiki, who brought to the aborigines of New Zealand the know-
ledge of the kumara. Nearly opposite the mouth of the river is
Orahiri, a pa built by Bahiri, of the imigrants of the Mata-atua
canoe, who afterwards migrated to the north. Shorewards of the
Toka-a-taiau, is the pebbly beach on which the Mata-atua canoe flrst

^Tradition says that it was at this Wairere that Ngahue obtained the Moa,
which he preserved in calabashes, and took back to Hawaiki (Rarotonga) with him
long before the migration to New Zealand, in about the year 1350.



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112 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

landed on the shores of New Zealand, and inland of it was the cave
of Muriwai (now covered by a landslip), the sister of Toroa, captain
of the Mata-atua canoe, and which lady is the ancestor of the
Whakatohea tribe of Opotiki. Near here atso stood Tapapaku-rau,
the whare-maire, or ** house of learning" of Toroa of the Mata-atua,
in which was taught the sacred knowledge of history, genealogies and
karakiay brought over the seas from Hawaiki. This seat of learning
was afterwards removed to Maire-rangi, a place near Te Earaka, below
Whana-mahihi, seaward of Bua-tahuna in the Whakatane Valley, in
the days of Wharaki-wananga, who was a lineal descendant of Tane-
atua, the priest of Mata-atua canoe. Here the learned priests Tama-
tuahuru, Tao-kaki and Te Ahi-raratu taught in after days the mysteries
and history of their tribe.

A few yards north-east of the stream that comes down from the
Wairere Falls, and forty or fifty yards inland of the present road,
running parallel to the beach, marked by a pine tree, is the grave of
poor James Fulloon, murdered by the Hauhaus in 1865.

But to return to Pomare's expedition. Puke-tapu jpa, in which
Ngati-Awa had gathered, was of no great strength, and fell an easy
prey to the Nga-Puhis with their guns. After the usual feasting on
the " fish of Tu,*' the Nga-Puhi host divided up into several parties
in order the more effectually to harry the country. Jloka. with one
party, proceeded up the Waimana Valley into the Urewera country,
where he fell on some of the Ngati-Awa, who were fleeing to the
Urewera mountains for safety, and defeated them at Te Wharau
(? Tawhana).

Te Morenga followed up the Wai-o-tahe Valley from Ohiwa, in
chase of some of the Whakatohea tribe of that locality ; whilst
Titore, proceeding to Opotiki, passed up the Wai-o-eka Valley, driving
the Whakatohea before him to the mountains, and another force pro-
ceeded into the Urewera country by way of the Rangitaiki Valley and
the Horomanga River.

But the main party, under Pomaie, Te Wera, Parahaki, and probably
Titore, also advanced up the Whakatane Valley by way of Ruatoki, the
Urewera people living there fleeing before them to the mountains of
the interior. With them were some of the Ngati-Awa tribe, who had
fled from Whakatane and its neighbourhood. On arrival of the Nga-
Puhi at Waikirikiri, near the entrance of the gorge, they camped
there one night, and in the morning heard cocks crowing at a place
named Te Hua. From this incident they knew at once that they
were near the dwelling place of either Te Mai-tara-nui, or Piki of
of Ngati-Koura, for it appears that the latter, and probably Te Iripa,
Te Mai-tara-nui' brother, had visited the Bay of Islands with one of



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 118

the previous Nga-Puhi expeditions (Tamarau says with Hongi's
expedition in 1818), and had been presented by Pomare with some
fowls and Indian corn —the first to reach those parts. Piki, however,
was absent at this time at Hauraki.* On the way further up the
valley, the Nga-Puhi overtook some of the Ngati-Awa tribe, and
managed to kill one of their chiefs named Te Awe-o-te-rangi, besides
Tai-timu-roa and his son, Pahu-nui. This occurred at Tuna-nui some
miles up the river, and the chiefs killed served the usual purpose of
a feast for Nga-Puhi,

The Urewera had retreated to the wild country about Maunga-
pohatu and Lake Waikare-moana, leaving the settlements about
Rua-tahuna undefended. The Nga-Puhi force proceeded up the
Whakatane Valley to the open country at Ohaua-terangi, and there
camped. Te Mai-tara-nui, who at that time was one of the principal
chiefs of both the so-called Urewera and Ngati-Awa, was at Maunga-
pohatu, together with the bulk of the Urewera tribe, when news
arrived of the advance of Nga-Puhi to Ohaua. He at once despatched
a party of scouts, six in number, under his brother, Te Iripa, to
ascertain the strength, and to learn who the Nga-Puhi leaders were, if
possible. Te Iripa cautiously approaching, looked down on the invading
force, from the forest-clad hills, and recognised Pomare amongst thenu
He then went back and reported to Te Mai-tara-nui, who was anxious
to proceed at once and meet Pomare, but the tribe strongly objected,
so he sent instead a party of chiefs to meet the
Nga-Puhi force. This party consisted of Te Iripa, Paora-
Eakaure, Te Whetu and Te Hiko. In the meantime, Pomare
and party — which numbered 200 strong-;— had advanced up the
Whakatane Valley to Bua-tahuna, and there occupied the Kakatahi
village, on the Manawaru hill, a kainga celebrated in the annals of
Tuhoe-land. This place is situated on a high mountain overlooking
the vale of Bua-tahuna, just to the east of the present village of
Mata-atua. It was a place of great mana formerly, where high
council was held by the Urewera mountaineers, and arrangements
perfected for their numerous forays into the open country beyond the
limits of their own highlands. The Urewera were desirous of making
peace with Nga-Puhi, and hence the embassy of the four chiefs. On
approaching the village, the party came across the Nga-Puhi sentries.
They were asked who they were, and Te Iripa (some accounts say Pae- tawa)
replied that they had been sent by Te Mai-tara-nui to visit Pomare.
The word was then passed along from camp to camp, to the place where

*There is some oonfasion in the Urewera histories of these times, which I
have in vain endeavoured to clear up bj the help of Bakuraku, Tama-i-kohli,
Tamarau and Tutaka-ngahau, some of whom say Te Mai-tara-nui had visited the
Bay before this.

8



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114 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

Pomare was, at the far end, " E ! Ko Te Mai-tara-nui /" ** I Here
is Te Mai-tara-nui." The envoys were now introduced to the
presence of Pomare, who again repeated the question, '' Who sent
you?" Said they, '* We were sent hy Te Mai-tara-nui." "Fetch
him here," said Pomare, and after a time the envoys returned with
their message.

Te Mai-tara-nui now, with an accompaniment of chiefs befitting
his rank, proceeded to Manawaru, where a formal peace was made
between him and Pomare, and the Nga-Puhi never returned as
enemies against the Urewera, though, as we shall see, they came
back on anothelr occasion as their friends and allies. The Nga-Puhi
force now went on to Maunga-pohatu with their new friends, where
the usual feasting, &c., took place in accordance with Maori custom.

After some time messengers were despatched to Moka, Te Morenga,
and the leaders of the othei; expeditions, to return and assemble at
Puketi, in the Whakatane Valley, as peace had been made, and then
Pomare and his party started back for Whakatane, accompanied by Te
Mai-tara-nui, and some of the Urewera, in order to cement the peace
With the other Nga-Puhi chiefs. From Maunga-pohatu, the party
went down the Whakatane Valley (or as some say, via Te Whaiti and
Xe Teko*), and finally reached Puketi, where had assembled the 600
men of the other divisions of Nga-Puhi. On arrival, the Nga-Puhi
forces divided into eight matuas, or companies, under their respective
chiefs, ready to receive the visitors. As Pomare's party drew near, he
said to Te Mai-tara-nui, '* Kia kaha koekiU what i a Te Hihi ; ki U
mau i a koe^ ka mate a Nga-Puhi — koia hoki te mana o Nga-Puhi"
" Be very active in chasing Te Hihi ; if you catch him Nga-Puhi
will be humiliated, for he is the power of Nga-Puhi," meaning that
Te Hihi was a noted brave, and their swiftest runner. As is usual
on such occasions, the tangata wero^ or spearsman — in this case Te
Hihif — advanced at a trot towards the visitors, grimacing and dancing
as he came along, having two hamanu, or cartridge-boxes, in front,
and another carried saltire-wise over his shoulder. In his left hand he
trailed a gleaming bright musket, and in his right the light spear to
throw at the visitors, who were all kneeling on one knee, arms in
hand ready for the charge. On reaching within about ten yards of
Pomare's force, the latter said to Te Mai-tara-nui, '' That is Te Hihi,
your man, chase him!" Te Hihi cast his spear, and turned to the
right! ^^ ^^1 flight towards his own party. At the same time, Te

* Possibly this was the party that went to Horomanga. It is said they
procured canoes at Te Teko from Ngati-Awa, and proceeded thence down the
Orini Biver to Whakatane.

t Probably Te Hihi-o-tote, a noted Nga-Puhi warrior.

{ It is an evil omen to turn to the left on such occasions— a korapa.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 116

Mai-tara-nni darted after him at his very best pace. Just before Te
Hihi reached his party, Te Mai-tara-nui overtook him and struck him
on the shoulder with his spear — but not heavily — amidst the cheers
(%m$re) of the whole of Nga-Puhi. Pomare cried out, " Nga-Puhi E !
to mate I to mana, kua hingaT ** Nga-Puhi ! thy defeat ! thy power
has fallen !''

The usual war dances, speeches and feastings ensued, and then was
a binding peace concluded between the Nga-Puhi and the Urewera
tribes, never to be broken.

Te Mai-tara-nui and his party now returned to Maunga-pohatu,
where we most leave him for a time, though we shall meet him again
the following year.

But Pomare and Te Wera had not yet accomplished the object of
their voyage. The Nga-Puhi force — 800 strong — embarked at Whaka-
tane and proceeded along the coast to the eastward. They put into
Opotiki, and here some of them —it is said under Marino, Te Wera's
nephew, of the Ngai-Tawhaki hapu and Bewa — made an excursion up
the Otara river with the view of attacking the Whakatohea tribe, some
of whom were then living in their pas named Te Ika-ata-kite, Te Toi-
roa, Te Horomanga and Pa-inanga, situated about seven miles up the
river, and near the end of the fertile plain of Opotiki. These pas were
all taken with considerable slaughter. Mr. J. A. Wilson, in his
interesting work abeady quoted,* says, ** About 1828 they (the Whaka-
tohea) were attacked by Nga-Puhi imder the celebrated Hongi. Their
pa, Te Ika-ata-kite, was taken, and a blue cloth obtained from Captain
Cook was carried away, besides many captives.*' According to the
information I received, Hongi himself was not present, though it is
true he was the leader of the expedition, of which Pomare*s and Te
Wera's forces formed a part.

From Opotiki the Nga-Puhi force passed onward to the north-east,
along the beautiful shores of the Bay of Plenty, with its rich-coloured
cliffs clad with innumerable pohutukawa trees, and its fertile strip
of terrace land lying between the top of the cliffs and the wooded
moimtains behind — a strip of very fertile country, which is at this day
covered with Indian com and kumara plantations belonging to the
Ngai-Tai, Whanau-a-Apanui, and other tribes. At Marae-nui, some seven
or eight miles eastward of Opotiki, the Nga-Puhi attacked the Whaka-
tohea people living there, and slaughtered a good many of them.
This was, I believe, the second time the Marae-nui people had suffered
through Nga-Puhi's lust of man-eating.

From Marae-nui the Nga-Puhi expedition passed on to Te Eaha
point, the full name of which is Te £aha-nui-a-Tiki-rakau. Here

• The life of Te Wabaroa, p. 16,



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lie JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

they attacked the Whanau-a-Apanui tribe, who were living in the
Toka-a-kuku and other pas in that neighbourhood, and though some
of the local people were killed, Nga-Puhi suffered a defeat, losing one
of their chiefs named Marino, who was Te Wera*s nephew. In the
year 1886 Te Wera took ample revenge for this loss.

The fleet then passed on to Whanga-paraoa, a place celebrated in
the Maori annals as the gathering place of the fleet that brought the
immigrants from Hawaiki in about the year 1850. This was after the
dispersal of the fleet by a storm at sea. Here the canoes Anally
separated, each one proceeding to a different part to settle. Pomare
and Te Wera fell on the Whanau-a-Apanui people here and killed one
of their chiefs named Te Pakipaki-rauiri. Starting again they rounded
Cape Runaway and then coasted along to Te Eawakawa Bay,


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