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where they landed in order to allow Pomare to carry out his intention
of returning the lady, Te Bangi-i-paea, to her people, the Whanau-a-
Tu-whakairi-ora, a branch of the Ngati-Porou tribe there living. She
had been taken prisoner by Pomare on a former raid, together with
many others of the Ngati-Porou tribe, when Te Whetu-matarau pa
was besieged by Nga-Puhi. From information recently gathered, it is
ascertained that this event occured in all probability during the
southern raid of Te Wera, Titore and Pomare in 1820-21, but when
writing the account of the proceedings of that year I had not the
information for fixing the date, so now added the particulars that were
told me on the ground in 1899 by Te Hati-Te-Hou-ka-mau and others.

Te Whetu-mata-rau.

Te Wera's first expedition returned to the Bay of Islands in April,
1821, having been absent for sixteen months, so it would probably be
in the middle of 1820 that they arrived off Te Kawakawa Bay. As
the Nga-Puhi fleet approached, there was much constercation amongst
the people of the place, for they had already become acquainted with
the nature of the Nga-Puhi expeditions in 1818, when both Te
Morenga and Hongi had passed along the coast devasting the country
and killing or taking prisoner every one they came across. The
people hastily provisioned their pasy Okau-whare-toa, immediately
above the mouth of the Awa-tere River, on the east side — a pa of no
great size, situated on a broad spur that comes down from the wooded
mountains above, and also their other stronghold, Te Whetu-mata-
rau, a much stronger fortress, on the west side of the river, and the
summit of which is about 700 feet above the sea. This place is very
strong by nature, being surrounded by inaccessible cliffs, excepting in
one, or perhaps, two places. ' It is about 10 acres in ext'Cnt on topf
and nearly flat. Here the people had cultivations of kuntara, &c.,
whilst a spring of water rises quite close to the top. Very little work



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 117

in the way of scarping and pallisading would make the phioe im-
pregnable, and guch Pomare found it.

Nga-Puhi first turned their attention to Okau-whare-toa pa, which
fell to their arms, and a great slaughter followed, whilst numerous
prisoners were taken. Amongst the latter was Bangi-i-paea, a woman
of very high rank, who afterwards became the wife of Pomare, and
went back to the north with him. She already was married to Toko-
mauri, and their descendant was the well-known chief, Henare Potae*
as will be seen below : —



1. Ngungu-o-te-rangi. ^ ^^„ . . ^^^ t Ist. Te Whakahara
I 2.RaDgi.|.paea= { gnd. Toko-mauri

Hine-mati-oro I

Te Mate-rone = Te Potae-aute
I

Henare-Potae=:Te Pora-kahu-kino



Wiremu-Potae = TeRina-awheawhe



Te Uranga



Nga-Puhi then attempted to take Te Whetu-mata-rau, but its
impregnable cliffs presented a much more formidable task than Okau-
whare-toa. They tried to take the place more than once, but
always failed, whilst the besieged amused themselves by rolling
down stoues on the beleaguers. Seeing that the pa was not to be
taken easily, Nga-Puhi occupied themselves in eating up the enemies'
stores of provisions on the Araroa Flats below the pa, where the
present village of that name now stands. My informant, Hati, had
forgotten most of the incidents of the siege, but he says his people
remained cooped up in the pa for nine months, whilst Nga-Puhi
lived on their cultivations below. It is probable that the siege did not
last so long as this, but it certainly was of some months* duration.

Tiring of this inaction, and provisions becoming scarce, Pomare
decided to try what strategy would effect. Nga-Puhi now made all
preparations for departure ; the canoes were launched and provisionedi
and to the great joy of Te Aitanga-a-Tu-whakairi-ora tribe, the fleet put
to sea, and gradually disappeared behind Mata-kaoa Point, some eight
miles to the north-west. Here they were lost to view from the pa^
apparently on their way back to the Bay. In the meantime, so soon
as Nga-Puhi had gone, all the people of the pa descended to the flats
below to gather in the little food left by the invaders, and soon



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118 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

scattered to their ordinary homes amongst their cultivations, congratu-
lating themselves on their escape from their savage foes.

But Pomare had other objects in view. After rounding Mata-
kaoa Point the fleet anchored and remained there — some say one
night, some three— and then returning to Te Eawakawa in the dark,
landed just before daylight, and there falling on his unsuspecting
enemies, slaughtered immense numbers of them, and took many
prisoners, who were carried away to the Bay of Islands.

The morehu, or survivors, of Te Aitanga-a-Tu-whakairi-ora, fearing
further hostile incursions of Nga-Puhi, now abandoned the Eawakawa
district as it had become a most undesirable place of residence, being
so open to attack by sea, and retreated to the Taitai moimtains, inland
of Waiapu, where they lived for some years in the fastnesses of that
broken country.

On Pomare's return to the Bay in April, 1821, with his vast
number of prisoners and his new wife, Rangi-i-paea, he became — as
my informants say — desirous of introducing the Gospel to his late
enemies and of making peace with them. Such is the Ngati-Porou
story, but, judging by Pomare's subsequent adventures along the
coast — at Whakatane, Te Kaha, Ac— it was not the Gospel of peace
he had become enamoured with, at any rate so far as others outside the
Ngati-Porou were concerned.



Pomabb's Peace with Ngati-Porou.

We will now return to the further continuation of Te Wera*s and
Pomare*s adventures. It would probably be about the month of
August or September, 1828, that the fleet appeared off Kawakawa,
Bangi-i-paea. Pomare's captive wife, being of the party, and who, the
native story says, he intended to return to her tribe, after using her as
a peacemaker between his tribe and hers.

On arrival, messengers were sent off to Taitai to ask Te Aitanga-a-
Tu-whakairi-ora to come down and make peace with Nga-Puhi. After
a time they agreed and came — says my informant — about 4,000 in
number. Arrived at, or near, Araroa, they pitched their camp not
very far off from that of Nga-Puhi. Pomare now sent Bangi-i-paea
and another woman to the party to arrange a meeting, the Nga-Puhi
remaining in the background, but quietly advancing after their
emissaries. As soon as Ngati-Porou saw how few in number Nga-
Puhi were, the memory of their late defeat at the latter*s hands, and
thinking also the opportunity of obtaining some utu for their losses
had come, ousted all ideas of peace. Consequently Ngati-Porou arose
and made a sudden attack on the Nga-Puhi force. ** But what could
Maori weapons io against the guns *' ? said my informant. Ngati-



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 119

Porou again suffered a defeat, and then hastened off as fast as they
could go to their fastnesses at Taitai.

Pomare appears now to have gone on with the rest of the Nga-Puhi
fleet round the East Cape to Waiapu. Here Te Wera, with his own
immediate hapu — Te Uri-taniwha — proceeded south to take hack his
prisoner, Te Whare-umu, to his tribe living at Te Mahia peninsula,
whilst Pomare, Rewa, and other Nga-Puhi chiefs turned back and
again landed at Te Eawakawa Bay. It appears that Pomare was still
desirous of making peace with Ngati-Porou, notwithstanding the
previous failure. He now selected Taotao-riri, a trusted warrior of
Nga-Puhi, and sent him inland to Taitai, with his own wife, Rangi-i-
paea, as emissaries to open the way. As these two drew near to the
settlement, Ngati-Porou, on learning who the warrior was, decided to
kill Taotao-riri. But as the fearless Nga-Puhi chief, with white
plumes in his hair, armed with a musket and two cartridge-boxes*
advanced boldly with his companion into the village, their animosity
changed to admiration at his daring. They also had in mind that he
was under the protection of their own chieftainess, Rangi-i-paea.
After a time, Ngati-Porou were induced to believe in the bona fides of
Pomare's offers of peace, and a large party accompanied Taotao-riri on
his return to Te Kawakawa, where a peace was formally made between
the two tribes, which had been at enmity for nearly 20 years. To
cement this peace, Taotao-riri was married to a Ngati-Porou lady
named Hiku-poto, and — says my informant — their grandson is now a
native minister living somewhere in the neighbourhood of Mahu-
rangi, north of Auckland.

Nga-Puhi now returned to their canoes at Te Kawakawa-mai-ta-
whiti,"^ and then sailed for their northern homes at the Bay of Islands.
With them went several of the Ngati-Porou as guests, to learn of the
new religion, and see the wonders of the mission stations there. One
of these Ngati-Porou people was an old chief named UenukUi
another was Taumata-a-kura, a man we shall come across again in the
continuation of this narrative. It was he that introduced dbristianity
amongst this branch of the Ngati-Porou, but not for several years to
to come. Uenuku and Bangi-i-paea, after the death of Pomare in
1826, returned to their home at Te Kawakawa, bringing with them
several of the Nga-Puhi people to reside with them.



*Te Eawa-kawa-mai-tawhiti — E awakawa from Tahiti — is an interesting name.
Near ther e is a river called Pana-ruku, identical with the name of the Tahitian
Biver, Pana-ru'a, on the west side of the latter island, and in the district where
dwells Te Teva clan. I have already indicated in " Hawaiki " that it is probable the
migration of 1850 came from that part of Tahiti to New Zealand. These names
are a confirmation of that indification.



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120 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

The exact date of Pomare's return to the Bay oannot be fixed, bat
from other ciroumstances it is probable that it was Janaary or
February, 1824. The expedition, described above, was the last made
by Nga-Puhi from the Bay against the Ngati-Porou of the East Cape.
Before this there had been several, for the Ngati-Porou country had
been for many years a kind of man -hunting ground of theirs, during
which Nga-Puhi inflicted terrible losses on these tribes, in retaliation
for their killing a girl of Nga-Puhi, left near the East Cape by the
brig " Venus." in 1806,



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TRIANGULAR TEETH AMONGST MAORIS.



(By the Late F. E. Clarke.)

}MU8T confess that my ignorance of the rarity of ** triangular "
teeth in the Maori, allowed me at the time I first saw them to
pass over what seems to have been an ethnological curiosity worth
further inquiry. But this was caused by an ingrained idea that such
form of teeth was not unusual in the Maoris employed in the old
** South Seamen " as harpooners, Ac. If my memory is correct, such
is referred to in ** Typee " or ** Omoo," and certainly in ** Moley
Dick/* and has been mentioned to me by old whalers (Peter Oldham
and Aleck Beadon) years ago. Besides, a certain amount of familiarity
with *' triangular teeth '* in the Eroomen and casual African coalers in
the Cape de Verdes (in the middle fifties, when a child there) caused no
astonishment at the sight, when my son, who was with me at
Kawhia, directed my attention thereto.

My acquaintance with the matter I will now detail : —
In the early part of 1895, taking advantage of a general holiday
and an excursion trip thereto, my son, Norman, {atat then thirteen and
a half years) and I placed our cruising Rob Boy canoe on the Gairloch,
bound for Kawhia Harbour, with the intention of having a thorough
exploration of all the nooks and crannies about the harbour and
streams running thereinto. Taking the canoe was a lucky incident in
this case, as there is no better introduction to the heart of a civilised
or natural savage at a waterside than a type of small boat within their
comprehension, but not beyond their knowledge — and so it proved in
our case. We were almost f6ted by the natives we met, and it was an
opportunity, if I had been better acquainted with their folk-lore than
I was, to have procured plenty of valuable information. Undoubtedly,
our boat obtained us much better treatment than was accorded others
who were there at the same time, and enabled me to partially dip into
subject matter and sites, which I am certain further investigation would
have led to many interesting discoveries. It led to the seeing the first
of the old Maoris thus : — We were proceeding down the inward shore
of the harbour, towards the Wai-hara-keke, when we sighted a large

9



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122 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY,

canoe labouring along in the then heavy wind and rough ** jobble."
They came towards us to have a look at the straige craft, and we had
to give them an exhibition in the way of paddling rings round them,
&c. We were then going on our journey, but this they would not
permit. We must go along with them ; go ashore and get-some pears,
and the canoe had to be shown to some one. This I could not fully
understand at the time. After the small crowd ashore had seen the
boat, and all its fittings had been explained to them, we wanted to go
away, but we were again prevented. ** Not yet," was cried. So I
stopped, and whilst explaining '^ watertight bulkhead fittings ** to
another, my leg was slyly pinched by my son, and I then looked up to
see No. 1 of the three- pointed toothed individuals — a very old, middle-
sized, but evidently, originally, thick-set Maori, heavily tattooed over
the face and other parts of the body, which were allowed to be visible,
and who had evidently rigged himself up in his best cloak, necklace
and adornments for the occasion. He, of course, did not know a single
word of English, and my Maori is very attenuated, so that the whole
explanations had to be gone through again in pigeon Maori and sign
language. He undoubtedly had three-cornered teeth — " shark
teeth " I have always been accustomed to call them " — but whether
filed or pimched, I do not know, though I had the opportunity of
looking into his mouth at a distance of , at times, not more than a
foot. If I had known the rarity of such an occurrence I should un-
doubtedly have assured myself more. I understood, I think, from
him, that his name was '* Eona," and that he, as with most of the
very numerous Maoris round the harbour then, were down for the
sake of drying the makawhiti and kanae fish, and giving their wahinei
a good feed of patiki.

No. 2 occurrence was as follows : — I was camped then just a little
way in the mouth of Rakau-nui Stream, having got permission to fix the
tent close to the semi-natural, semi-artificial caves — a very convenient
place, as being formerly tapu ; there were no natives there after night-
fall. In giving me permission to camp there (in any cases where I
have had to deal with aborigines, either in Australia or here, I am
always particular to ask if there is any likelihood of interference with
vested rights before doing anything, even if I kuow it can be done vi
St armis, or in a milder way, without permission), the natives said,
** You camp there, if you like, but at night the * taipo * is always
about.'* • After becoming acquainted with the men, one of them told
me the following reason why they did not care about stopping at these
caves. Of course, with my limited knowledge of Maori, and the
reciter's limited knowledge of English, some discrepancy may have
arisen in the tale, but I understood it as follows : — His grandfather
lived at the caves when Te Rauparaha was living in the district, and



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TRIANGULAR TEETH AMONGST MAORIS. 128

he oame down and surprised them in the cave. There was an escape
oatlet provided (opening about a chain or so away round the corner,
allowing anyone to drop out on to the rocks, six or seven feet, at low
water, or into the water when tide is high) through which the resi-
dents of the caves were endeavouring to escape. The favourite wife
of the grandfather, who was enceinte, was leading. From her cir-
cumstances and the passage being small, she stuck, and force being
applied to drive her through, resulted in matters being made worse ;
therefore, they had to cut her open, and then pull her back, as Te
Bauparaha's men were killing behind, and so the remains were passed
backwards, allowing the others to get out. As an indignity, Te
Bauparaha*s men eat what was left of the favourite wife and
Goesarianly operated-on infant. Since then, my narrator told me, the
caves had been abandoned as dwelling places of the Maori, and were
originally tapu. My countenance exhibited, I expect, an expression of
incredulity, because my narrator said, *' My father is alive, my grand-
father is aUve — would you like to see them ?'* I said that I would ;
80 he said he would bring them to me in a couple of days. This he
did. The father was a hale, stout man ; the grandfather very wizened
up and heavily tattooed. As a pet, he had with him a very young,
long, red-haired pig. I could not understand a word he had to sayi
and his father and grandson had evidently great difficulty at times to
understand him. But the tale was gone over again with due assenting
word^and gestures. This old fellow's teeth were also ** shark-shaped.**
He also took the greatest interest in the canoe and ''fixins," mosquito-
proof tent, &c., and he evidently had with me his first drink of coffee.
Whilst he was at my camp a party came up the river in a boat from
the settlement at Powini, amongst them two fat men, one inordinately
so. As it was a splendid sandy beach in front of my camp and high
water at the time, they pulled in to see how I was getting on (one of
them being an excursionist), and to have a bathe.

When the very fat man was gambolling in the water and dis-
playing his sedential rotundity, I jogged the grandfather quietly in
the ribs, smacked my lips and rubbed a similar portion of my person
to that which our fat friend was so lavishly displaying. The flash
of amused and gratified light which lit up *^ our grandfather's*' eyes
and face was amusing. The grandson's name was Taki-ari Te-kou,
and he was then living at Motu-karaka.

The third individual was a very old man — I understood one of
the original chiefs — then stopping at the Maketu kainga. He was a
very light-coloured Maori, and had a magnificent sample of the high-
dome shaped head. He was pretty well tattooed from head to foot —
as his only garment, a calico sheet, gave us many opportunities of
observing — as he used to come over and sit on his '' hunkers " along-



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124 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

side me whenever I came on shore. We would mntoally admire and
try to understand one another, and with him also I noted there was
« difficulty in talking between him and the present Maoris. He had
the shark teeth, with very thin lips, and a much thinner nose than
either of the other two old fellows. He, I believe, died very shortly
after I was up — at least I think it must have been his death I saw
recorded in an Auckland paper in Eawhia news — as it said the guns
were fired all round the harbour to note the intelligence, which was
expected. His heart was very weak when I was there, because he
went down twice like a log when we were near him, but he refused all
assistance when he came to, waving the surrounding people away in a
grand manner.

Mr. Morpeth told me he saw one of the *' shark- toothed '* when he
was up at Eawhia about a year ago. Also Mr. Holdsworth and a
friend with him "unearthed" another individual, I believe, on the
last excursion a few months ago. I have looked forward since my
trip to another one there. I promised the Maoris to go up the next
year at the same time, because they were going to sbow me several
things no other white man (so my guardian angel Ra-tohi told me)
had ever seen, but unfortunately in the following May I had another
attack of la grippe, the sequeloe of which put a final touch on my
heart, and I am afraid has doomed me to a very inactive and exertion-
less life for the future.

I am certain from what I saw of the remains of stone fixings on
some of the caves in the hill tops about the Harbour, much interesting
ceremonial information is to be gathered by a Maori expert
from some of the very old feUows left — that is, if the right way
is taken to obtain it. Of course my conjectures may be wrong,
but that is my impression.

[We shall be 7ery glad if any other of oar members can support the late
Mr. F. E. Clarke's observations. We have never seen anything of the kind amongst
the Maoris ourselves. Mr. Clarke was well known as a scientifio observer, and it
is not likely he would be mistaken. — Editobs.]



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TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS.
POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.



A MSSTiNO of the Counoil was held in Wellington, on the 9th July, 1900.

A resolntion was passed that Mr. N. J. Tone should be Acting Treasurer, and
Members of the Society be requested to send subscriptions to him.

The following new members were elected : —

309 Bev. A. Macintosh, Honolulu

310 J. P. Cooke, care of Alexander A Baldwin, Honolulu

311 W. Hoare, H.B.M.»8 Consul. Honolulu

312 James Coates, Inspector National Bank, Wellington
3)3 F. Y. Lethbridge, M.H.R., Feilding, N.Z.

The announcement of the deaths of Dr. Hyde and of the Hon. A* Wide-
man was received with regret.

The following books, pamphlets, (fee, were received :

992 Revue de vAcole d'Anthropologie, Pant, 16th April, 1900

993 La Qeog^raphie (Bulletin de la SocUtide Paris). 16th April, 1900.

994 Journal of Royal Colonial Institute, May, 1900

995 „ „ „ June, 1900

996 Journal BuddUt Text Society. Calcutta. Vol. vii, part i.

997 Bulletin de la Sociiti d'Anthropologie de Paris. 1899. Fasc. 3

998 Records of the Australian Museum, Sydney. Vol. iii. No. 7

999 The Geographical Journal, London. January, 1900

1000 „ „ „ April, 1900

1001 Transactions Wisconsin Academy. Vol. xi.

1002 Atoll of Funifuti. Australian Museum. Part x.

1003 Arckivisper VAntropologia. Italy. Vol. xxix, Fasc. 2

1004 Ver Orient wid Europa (Oscar Montelius). Heft. i.

1005 Science of Man. Sydney. May 21, 1900.
1005-08 Na Mata, Fiji. April, May, June, July, 1900

1009-14 Arch, and Ethn. Papers Pedbody Museum. Vol. i, parts i to vi.

Ibl5-17 O U Sulu Samoa. March, May, July, 1900

1018-24 Annates de la Fac. des Sciences de Marseille. Tome x, 7 parts



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NOTICE TO MEMBERS.



The arrangements made by the Council for conducting the
business of the Society, pending the next annual meeting are as
follows : —

That Mr. N. J. Tone, will act as Treasurer in con-
junction with Mr. Tregear. All communications
connected with money matters should be addressed
to him, Box 218, Post Office, Wellington, or
office of the School Commissioners, South British
Buildings, Lambton Quay, Wellington.

That Mr. S. Percy Smith will conduct the Joubnal,
and with Mr. Tregear act as joint Hon. Secre-
taries. All communications other than connected
with finance should be sent to Mr. Smith at Post
Office, New Plymouth.



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FOLK-SONGS AND MYTHS PROM SAMOA.



By J. Pbaseb, LL.D.



** LE TALA lA PiTI-AU-MUA " — A TaLA.

The Story about Fiti-au-mua,

[Tex following Samoan tradition was collected by the Bev. Thos. Powell from
Tofo, in March, 1871, and, like the others already published in this Joubnal, was
translated by the Bev. Geo. Pratt and Dr. Eraser.— Editors.]

Intboduotion. — The incidents of this story again, are valuable because of the
view they open up to us of Polynesian customs. A husband and wife, here called
Yeu and Yen, rent some land from Mata*afa, of Fitiuta, a place in the Mann*a
group. Eastern Samoa, and their tenure is the first fruits of the land. This form
of holding is exceedingly ancient and appears to have existed everywhere ; many of
the land usages in Britain are founded upon it, and show themselves to this hour
in curious ways. One of the chief crops in Samoa and the rest of Polynesia is the
taro^ the arum esculentum of the botanist, and Yeu on his farm cultivated a variety
of it, of which the native name is *"ap«," probably the 'ape-gataUiy a kind of arum
costatum {ta*amu). The farmer had destined one specially good specimen of this


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