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Ki taka kai kapaa, a t

Nana i aura, e 1

Nana i tekateka — e !

Kia tu ki te riri i



My plume of heron's feathers 1

My sprig of sweet- scented maurea I

Now dead and gone.

Beyond the lakes,

My cloud-like one !

'Twas he that]^broke their power,

'Twas he that urged on,

To arise in war.

We will now return to the doings of Te Wera and Nga-Pohi at
Poverty Bay. .



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N,Z. TRIBES. 149

Te Kani was anxious for the help of Nga-Puhi against Ngati-Porou,
who were then besieging one of the pas of his people at Uawa, and
especially desirous that Nga-Puhi should assist in the search for his
grandmother, Hine-raatioro (the " great queen** of the Missionaries),
who had been within the pa when the siege commenced. In accord-
ance with custom^ she had been taken away by some of her tribe for
fear she should fall into the hands of the enemy. She had been
lowered down by a rope from the pa to the seashore, and there some
few of her people had carried her off in a canoe to a place of safety.
At the time of Te Wera*s arrival at Poverty Bay, it was not known
whether she had reached a place of safety or not, hence the anxiety of
Te Kani. Te Wera consented to this request for aid, but declared he
must first* keep his promise to his prisoner, Te Whare-umu, and
return him to his home at Nuku-taurua, Te Mahia peninsula.

So Te Wera proceeded on his way, and finally returned Te Whare-umu
to his people at Nuku-taurua, and then, on their invitation, took up
bis permanent residence there, becoming during the next few years a
rallying point for all the people of that district and indeed for all the
East Coast tribes as far south as Wairarapa. For those were troublous
times, and the warlike incursions of Ngatl-Toa (Te Rauparaha's tribe)
and of the Ati-Awa refugees from Taranaki, driven to migrate to
Eapiti and Port Nicholson by fear of the Waikato tribes, had spread
the alarm to Wairarapa, when many of the people of that district fied
northward to Te Mahia for safety. The Here-taunga, or Napier,
district was also in a very disturbed state, owing to the warlike
incursions of the Ngati-Tu-wharetoa tribes of Taupo, and the Ngati-
Baukawa tribes of Maunga-tautari, near Cambridge. This latter tribe
seems to have determined on permanently occupying Here-taunga, but
were finally expelled by the local tribes with the aid of Te Wera.

It was about the end of 1828, or beginning of 1824, that Te Wera
cast in his lot with the tribes of Te Mahia, marrying other wives from
the people of that place, in addition to his Arawa wife, Te Ao-kapu-
rangi, the lady who saved her people at the seige of Mokoia, as related
by Tarakawa at page 249, vol. viii., of this Journal. One of the
reasons why Te Wera thus abandoned his home in the north, which
was at Ahuahu near Waimate, was in consequence of the quarrels
constantly occurring between him and Te Hotete, Hongi's father. On
the death of Te Ao-kapu-rangi, many years afterwards, her grand-
daughter Rangi-wawahia, composed the following lament : —

Tb TaNOI mo Tb Ao-KAPU-BAlfai.

WhakaroDgo ! whakarongo ana
Maua ko taringa,
Ei Dga rongorongo tana,
E piki mai i Hautere— e — ^i,



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160 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

KoNga-Pahipea?

Ka tanaku kei raro,

Te tihi ki Mokoia— a—i,

Takoto mai ra- -e —

E te kiri-kahurangi i au — a~i —

E tu, E Whae ! he maihi whare-nui

No Tama-te-kapaa —

No to whanaa-e —

Kia whakapata koe,

Te mana o Hotu-roa ;

E tu ana koe,

Nga waka taurua,

I a Tainui, i a Te Arawa.

Na Bangi-tihi koe,

He hekenga iho ra,

No Tama-te-kapua.

Kia pohiri koe te tini o Te /^wa,

Eoia i to " whare whawhao " e— ei —

Ea puta te tangata,

Ea ora ki te Ao— e — i,

Houhia e koe ki te rongo,

Uhia e koe te kahu waero-nui

Ei'runga o Rotorua,

Eihai i takahia, a,

I hoki mai, E Ao !

Ei runga ki a Tai-nui c-

Te waka o Ta-rongo—o—

Na Bau-kawa koe^ra — e.

Thb Lament fob Te Ao-kapu-bakoi.
Hearken ! Let as listen —
Me and my ears,
To tlie rumours of wars
That come upwards from Hautere,
Maybe, 'Us Nga-Puhi ?
That are orashing down,
Like those who fell on the simimit of Mokoia.
Thou liest there 1
O thou exalted one 1
Thou didst bestride, Mother !
The barge-board of the great house.
Called *' Tama-te-Eapua "— i
The house of the family,
And there proclaimed
The power of Hotu-roa.*-*
Thou art descended,
From those of the double canoes,
From " Tainui" and *' Te Arawa,'*
Thou art from Bangi tihi,

^ Referring to the action of Te Ao-kapu-rangi standing on the roof of the great
house uamed Tama-te-kapua at Mokoia Island, where she called to her the fugitives
from the weapons of Nga-Puhi, and thus saved many lives.

>Hotu-roa, captain of the Tainui canoe, from whom Te Ao-kapu-rangi
descended, ai well as from Tama-te-kapua, captain of Te Arawa.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 161

The descendant

Of Tama-te-kapna.

There thou beckoned the many of Te Arawa ;

Hence the saying '* The brim-full house."

Men then came forth

And were saved to the world.

Then thou made the lasting peace,

And the " dog-skin " garment of safety

Bested over all Rotorua.

Never was that peace broken, nor,

Did the enemy ever return, Ao !

To trouble Tainui —

The canoe of Tu-rongo.

Thou art descended from Bau-kawa.^

We must now leave Te Wera at Te Mahia for a time, and relate
some events that occurred in the adjacent districts, which eventually
brought Nga-Puhi into contact with many of the Hawke Bay and
adjacent tribes, though at first sight it would seem extraordinary that
these Northern tribes should have concern in occurrences taking place
so far from their Northern homes. It will be necessary to go back a
few years and show how events led up to Nga-Puhi taking part in the
end, and in doing so, the reader must take the dates given as
approximate, for in that part of the country there were no white
people to note them, and Maoris have little or no idea of time, though
they can generally give the proper sequence of events.



Death of Whati-ubu and Te Oho-icauri, 1819.

The Ure-wera tribe, through causes which do not belong to this
story, arose in their wrath and expelled the Ngati-Manawa tribe from
their homes at Te Whaiti and Galatea. This humbled tribe took
refuge with that branch of ^the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu tribe, which lived at
Te Putere, on the upper Waiau Kiver, one of the main branches of the
Wairoa that falls into Hawke Bay. On their way to Te Putere, a
woman named Whati-uru, who was from Waikato, and who had been
staying with Ngati-Manawa when they were expelled, died as the
migration passed Te Waiwai, a place in the Esk Valley. Her body
was taken on to Te Putere, and there buried. I fear my readers will
be much horrified at what then occurred, but this story seeks to
pourtray Maori life as it was before the introduction of Christianity.
The Ngati-Kahu-n^unu hosts of the expelled tribe dug up the body,
cooked, and ate it !

Next, a member of the Ure-wera tribe, directly after the above
event, being at Mohaka, in Hawke Bay, the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu chief,
Te Kahu-o-te-rangi (the Hawk of Heaven), set upon him and killed
him. The man's name was Te Oho-mauri.

^ The ancestor of the Ngati-Bau-kawa tribe.



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162 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

As my learned informant says, Ngati-Kahu-ngunu had thus given
two takes, or causes, to two very war-like tribes to induce them to seek
revenge.



Death of Ti-waewae, 1819.

Apparently, however, Ngati-Kahu-ngunu did not consider themselves
in danger, for they forthwith proceeded to embroil themselves with
another powerful tribe. It appears that a principal chief of the
Wairoa, Hawke Bay, at this time was Te Kapua-matatoru (the Dense-
cloud), and his tribe was in the habit of snaring birds, preserving them
in their own fat (huahua), and then taking them to their chief.
Amongst the people who engaged in this work was a man of note
named Ti-waewae, who, unfortunately for Ngati-Kahu-ngunu, had
married a high chief tainess of the Ngati-Kaukawa tribe of Maunga-
tautari, near the present town of Cambridge. On one occasion, a
tribute of six tahdy or calabashes, of preserved birds was presented to
Te Kapua-matotoru by Ti-waewae, who, together with the exiled tribe
Ngati-Manawa, had obtained them at Maunga-haruru, near Tutira,
inland of Moeangiangi, on the shores of Hawke Bay. Te Kahu-o-te-
rangi (who had recently killed the Ure-wera man) felt hurt that this
present was not given to him, as he claimed them of right. He
consequently relieved his injured feelings by killing Ti-waewae,* the
husband of Te-Whata-nui's sister, and thus gave offence to the head
chief of the Ngati-Raukawa tribe, which position Te Whata-nuif held
at that time. In thus doing, says my informant, Ngati-Kahu-ngunu
had incurred a third take, or cause for revenge.

This event lead to some fighting, in which, I believe, the Ure-wera
took part, and Ngati-Kahu-ngunu suffered in two skirmishes — at Te
Paruru and Ku-maka — about which we have no particulars.



Te Iho-o-tb-Rei and Kakoa-nui, 1820 ?

The three takes which Ngati-Kahu-ngunu had against them, were
not long in bringing about the usual result of such indulgenoies.
Each of the tribes of Waikato, Ngati-Kaukawa, and the fighting
mountaineers of the Ure-wera Country, were in duty bound to take up
the cause of their fellow tribesmen.

Waikato, on learuing of the lad-pirau, or eating of the dead woman,
assembled and started for the purpose of obtaining a full revenge.
They were joined m route by Te Whata-nui with the Ngati-Raukawa
tribe ol Maunga-tautari, and proceeded to Taupo. Here Te Heuheu

* Other aooounts say that Te Mai-tara-nui, a high chief of the Ure-wera, also
took part in this killing.

t Te Whata-nui^s other name was Tohe-a-Pare.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 1«8

and some of the Ngati-Tu-wharetoa allied themselves with the force,
for although they were not immediately interested in pmiishing this
particular branch of Ngati-Eahu-ngunu against whom the allies were
marching, they had a take against some of their relatives for people
killed by the southern Ngati-Eahu-ngunu on the Bua-taniwha Plains,
as will be shown later on. This force of warriors marched by way of
the Wai-punga river and Tarawera, on the present Napier- Taupo road,
and then fell suddenly on the Ngati-Eahu-ngunu pa of Te Iho-o-te-
Rei, the little island in Ahuriri harbour close to the modem village of
Petane. This was taken by storm and many people killed, amongst
them Eumara and Te Ito-o-te-rangi, of Ngati-Eahu-ngunu.

In the meantime the Ure-wera, not to be outdone by the other
tribes, arose, and passing out of their wooded mountains came upon
Te Putere district, where the kai-piraa took place, and there took
Eakoa-nui, a pa belonging to Ngati-Eahu-ngunu, killing Maturi and
Haua, chiefs of that tribe.

After these events, and a meeting between the Ure-wera and
Waikato taum, each tribe returned to their homes. These events
occurred, says my informant, before the taking of Te Boto-o-Tara by
Te Heuheu, Te Whata-nui, and others.

We must again shift the scene from Hawke Bay itself to Te-Boto-
a-Tara, the lake near the present Native College of Te Ante, for,
according to my informants, the second siege of that place falls in
here, and that occurence is connected with our story.



Tk Boto-a-Taba.

Before relating the circumstances which led to Nga-Puhi appearing
in this part of New Zealand, it may prove interesting to state the
origin of the name Te Boto-a-Tara, as it is connected with very early
times in New Zealand. The translation is : *< The Lake of Tara,"
and it was named after a famous ancestor, of whom, however, very
little is known. His name is also seen in Te Whangani(i-a-Tara, the
native name of Port Nicholson, where the City of Wellington stands.
Both of these names having the active form of " of," t.«., "a,** show
that Tara is accredited with the formation of the lake and the harbour,
or that he discovered them. The genealogies show that Tara lived
about the time that the fleet of canoes arrived in New Zealand
(circa 1850), and it is believed he was the ancestor from whom the
ancient tribe of Ngai-Tara, or Ngati-Tara, derive their name.* This
tribe formerly inhabited the districts around Wellington, but were
forced by the incoming Ngati-Ira and other northern tribes to migrate

* Tara was the son of Whatonga. A genealogical table before me shows that
he flourished nineteen generations ago.



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154 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

to the South Island many generations ago, and the tribe is no longer
in existence.

The native tradition as to Te Boto-a-Tara is as follows : —
** The name of Port Ahuriri is * Te Whanganui-o-Rotu * (orOrotu),
and Ahuriri is the name of the mouth of that harbour where its waters
rush out into the ooean. Here-taunga is the name of the main land
adjoining the harbour. This is the origin of the name Te Boto-a-
Tara : Tara was the first to arrive at Te Whanganui-a-Tara, or Port
Nicholson, and there are very many traditions about him. In the
days of old, before Eahu-ngunu came to Ahuriri from the north, from
Te Au-pouri (North Cape)* the country was occupied by Tara, and
Eahu-ngunu and his people intermarried with the descendants of Tara.
In those days Tara was an exceedingly tapu man, and moreover very
greedy, and preserved all the lakes Boto-a-Tara, Poukawa, and Te
Boto-a-Eiwa for the sake of the wild birds and fish, which he ap-
propriated to his own use. When the ducks and other birds were fat
in their season, Tara's people caught large quantities of them for his
eating. Te Boto-a-Kiwa he used to preserve for his own bathing, and
here he performed his ablutions, for he was very tapu, and no man
might eat of the birds, etc., caught in waters where he had bathed, so
he retained this one lake for bathing in. It was in consequence of his
incantations that no birds or fish would live in Te Boto-a-Eiwa, even
down to the present time, or at least to the days when the mana- Maori
overspread the land.

<< In the days when Tara lived in the Here-taunga district, there
was a famous taniwha, or monster named Awarua-o-Porirua, that
dwelt at Porirua, near Wellington. Once upon a time this taniwha
and a friend of his started on their travels, coming northwards by way
of Wai-rarapa, until they arrived at Te Boto-a-Tara, killing many
men and eating them on their way. They came by way of Porangahau,
and at that place fell in with the original people of the country, the
people * who grew up there,' and who owned these islands before the
arrival of the Maoris here. These people were called Bae-moiri, or
Upoko-iri ; they arose in wrath at the incursion of the two taniwhas,
and gave them battle, killing one of them, whilst A warua-o- Porirua
fled for his life, and escaped to Te Boto-a-Tara ; his friend was eaten
by the Bae-moiri people.

* This statement, as to the celebrated ancestor of Ngati-Eahu-nganu coming
from so far north, will probably not be accepted by that tribe. Bat Colonel
Gudgeon has pretty clearly shown that Eabu-ngunu's father, Tamatea, did migrate
in early days from the neighbourhood of Mangonui. No ancestor of the Maori
people has led to more discussion thau this same Tamatea. The intermarriage
of these northern Ngati-Eahu-ngunu with the original people of Te Boto-a-Tara
referred to is probably that of £Laha-kura-nai, son of Kahu-ngunu, of the former
tribe, with Ta-te-ihonga of the original people.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 165

" When Awarua-o-Porirua arrived at Te Roto-a-Tara he com-
menced to eat the birds, eels and fish which Tara had strictly preserved
for himself. Tara was very much exercised at this unwarrantable
proceeding, and he made up his mind to destroy his taniirha enemy,
and so prevent him from interfering with the mau (productions) of
the lakes. So Tara assaulted the taniwha and defeated him, but
whilst they were engaged in their fight the monster, with its tail,
lashed the sands and gravel of the lake together in a heap so that it -
became a sandbank, and eventually an island, in the very place where
the taniwha' s cave was originally situated, which is now called Te
Awarua-o-Porirua. On his defeat, the taniwha returned to his own
home at Porirua, near Wellington.

" In after times the Pane-iri* people dwelt at Te Roto-a-Tara, for
it was their own country, and then came the descendants of Eahu-
ngrmu, who, after a time, claimed for themselves the exclusive rights
to the productions of these lakes, which led to fighting, and then the
Rae-moiri people came to the assistance of the Pane-iri. The
descendants of Eahu-ngunu had the intention of ousting the true
owners of the soil together with the Pane-iri tribe. They besieged the
pa in the lake, and took it from the Pane-iri people, whose chief at
that time was Tanguru. The latter attempted to escape on a small
moH, or raft, but being encumbered with his heavy clothing — parawai,
kai(aka, and tt>puni mats — he sank. When the people of Kahu-
ngunu saw him drowning they fetched a marau-tuna, or eel rake, and
dragged for and secured his body, and eventually buried it in the sacred
cave of his ancestors. The particular people who rescued the body of
Tanguru are called to this day Ngati-marau, from that circumstance.

*' Some of the Rae-moiri and Pane-iri people after this fled the
district, whilst some remained and live there still."

Such is the Maori story of the Te Roto-a-Tara, down to the early
years of this century. The island, which was formed in the struggles
between Tara and the taniwha ^ subsequently became a pa of consider-
able strength, which has often been besieged, and sometimes taken.
We have seen (at page 87 of this volume) that the Ngati-Whatua and
Waikato raid, called ** Te Amio-whenua," took the pa in 1820-21,
and that was probably the third time it had fallen. We will now give
the native account of some of the later sieges which properly belong
to this narrative, as Nga-Puhi were engaged in the operations.

The Wab at Te Roto-a-Tara (Kahu-ngunu) 1819 ?
The following is a translation from a native account : —
" The first battle in which Kawatiri engaged was the wharua at Te
Roto-a-Tara at Te Ante ; which is a land of hillocks, with one hill

* Now called Ngati-Upoko-iri.



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166 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

near the lake. The outlet is close to that hill, the waters joining the
Waipawa Biver. The island in the lake is called Te Awarua-o-Pori-rua,
and on it is the pa of Te Roto-a-Tara, which was occupied by the
hapus of Eahu-ngunu. There have been many laiuu that have
assaulted that pa, and many battles have been fought on the shores of
the lake. In the days when Eawakawa was alive, he was the head
chief of the pa, and at that time it was besieged by Ngati-Paoa, of
Hauraki, in the district of Nga-Puhi (sic), who were accompanied by
Nga-Puhi in the expedition against the pa."^- The Ngati-Paoa taua
was in consequence of a maU-huangn, or family quarrel at their own
home. They did not wish to fight against their own relatives to obtain
revenge, hence they came to a distant land to kill, and thereby assuage
the angry feelings of the heart," (a proceeding which was entirely in
accord with Maori custom).

" The taua of Ngati-Paoa and Nga-Puhi came by way of Pa-tetere,
to Taupo, and by Bua-hine and Manawa-tu, by the mountains, and so
out to Te Bua-taniwha. As they came along they killed and ate their
men (that they caught). Then they assaulted the pa at Te Boto-a-
Tara. At that period the men of the pa were away at Wai-marama
catching fish. The pa was assaulted, and the principal chief, Eawa-
kawa, was killed, together with all the old men, invalids, women, and
girls. The pa was not taken with the knowledge of the people,
because they were in a state of false security. The Ngati-Paoa and
Nga-Puhi crossed the lake by mokis. and then fell on the people in the
night, so that not one of them escaped.

** The tavxi returned by way of Ahuriri and Petane to their homes,
killing as they went.

*' This defeat was avenged by some of the hapus of Ahuriri, who
went on a tawa to Hauraki, and as far as the inland part of that
district." (There is no further record of this expedition.)

Death of Nahu, 1820?
'< It was some time after this taua that Nahu was killed, who was a
very old man ; he was killed by the weapon {mate-a-rakau}. It was
near the time when the spirit should have left the body. He was a
parent of Uine-i^pikitia. Wanikau, the man who had the arrange-
ments for the tangi for the dead, declared that the eels, fish, and birds
of Te Boto-a-Tara, Te Boto-a-Eiwa, and Te Pou-kaw(^ should be tapui
and he set up posts by the sides of those lakes to rahui or preserve
them, and painted (whakawahi) them with kokowai (red ochre). But

* Korokoro, of Nga-Pohi, related to Ngati-Paoa, was visited by the latter tribe
(Te Haupa's) in September, 1819, to ask him to go soath on an expedition. Koro-
koro returned to the Bay, January, 1820. It is possible that this was the party of
Nga-Puhi referred to above, though it is said that Tangi-te-ruru was the Hauraki
ehief who wenfc north to fetoh Nga-Puhi.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 167

that gluttonous man of Eahu-ngunu, Mau-taki, did not consent,
because there would be no food for him during the period of reserve,
and hence he broke down the posts and burnt them, at the same time
cursing Wanikau, saying, ' Those posts that are burnt are the bones
{koiwi) of Wanikau.* Wanikau was very angry at this curse on his
bones, so went to Taupo to fetch a party of revenge. Then Ngati-Tu-
whare-toa, Ngati-Pehi, and Ngati-upoko-iri, responded to his call, and
arose and came by way of the Wao-nui-a-Tane, killing as they came,
until they reached Waipawa. Then they besieged the pa on the
island in Te Roto-a-Tara, that is, Te Awarua-o-Pori-rua, but they could
not manage to cross the lake to it.*

'' The taita now left some divisions to beseige the pa whilst one
went to Maunga-wharau, near the forest to the west, at Wai-marama,
because there was a fishing village of the people of the pa at that place.
The taua surprised that village, and a fight took place which resulted
in the flight of the tauay which lost Manu-whiri, the younger brother
of Te Heuheu of Taupo, Tawake, a great chief of Taupo, and Rangi-
marama. the younger brother of Pehi-Turoa of Whanga-nui. The
defeated tatta came back and joined those who were beseiging the pa at
Te Roto-a-Tara.

'* When the besiegers learnt of the losses at Maunga-wharau, Te
Heuheu, who was the commander of the taua, ordered them to arise
and return to their homes. At dawn of day tbe tana started for home.
In the meantime those in the pa had heard of the defeat of the taua at
Maunga-wharau. Now Te Heuheu's head was grey, and as the taua
arose to start home, the people of the pa called out to them, '* Oho !
tena hoki to upnko hina te tau haere na ! '' " Oho ! there goes thy grey
head I ** Te Heuheu replied not a word, but waved his hand behind
bis back, which meant presently he would return and kill them all on
account of those words."

Tk Aratipi and Maunga-wharau, 1820 ?
** The whole of the taua now proceeded to Maunga-wharau, and at
Te Aratipi attacked that pa, and probably on account of their grief for
the chiefs who had been killed, they were very brave and thus defeated
the people of the place. Great numbers of the braves and chiefs of
Ngati-Kahu-ngunu fell there, and then the tana waited to eat the ** Fish
of Tu."i After this they returned by way of Rua-hine mountains. But

* Bawiri-Uepo, an old man of Tanpo, says the chiefs of Taapo engaged in .this
taua were Te Heuheu, Te Whakarau, Tauteka, Te Bangi-monohunehu, Te Biu*
pawhara and others.

t It was here that the Taupo people secured the celebrated meres named Pahi-
kaure and Eai-arero, the former of which is still in the possession of Te Heuheu-
Tureiti of Taupo. They knew well these meres were there, and made every effort to
tfoare them, which they did,



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158 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

some of those at Maunga-wharau escaped and joined the others
at Te Boto-a>Tara, where every one set to work to strengthen their pa,
the timbers for which they brought from the forest at Te Ante.'*

Te Roto-a-Taba (Kau-papa), 1822.


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