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I have had considerable difficulty in fixing the date of the fall of
Te Roto-a-Tara to Te Heuheu, but from a consideration of evidence
from outside, came to the conclusion it must have been towards the
close of 1822. I am aware that it has been indicated as occuring in
the year 1832, but that is impossible. The Maori history continues : —

** When Te Heuheu arrived at Taupo, he sent away messengers to
Ngati-Maru of Hauraki, to Ngati-Raukawa of Maunga-tautari, to
Waikato, and to Ngati-Maniapoto to come to his assistance. This was in
the days that Te Rau-paraha had not left Kawhia for Otaki.*
Messengers were also sent by Ngati-Tuwhare-toa to Waikato, to Ngati-
Pehi, to Ngati-Uru-makina, to Ngati-Te-Rangi-ita, to Ngati-Rau-hotu, to
Te Rauponga-whewhe of Taupo, and also to Nga-Puhi, who were stay-
ing as guests at Hauraki at that time. This force assembled at Taupo,
and then started, coming by way of the forest so that it might be
hidden and not seen by the spys. The taua came out at Waipawa and
Rau-kawa (inland of Te Aute College), and killed all they came across
in those parts.

** At this time Pare-ihe was the supreme chief at Te Roto-a-Tara,
and he was a man possessed of great knowledge of good government
for the people. During three months were he and his people besieged
in the pa, without its being taken. Then the taua made a causeway
(whata-kaupapa) out from the shore on the eastern side towards the
pa, so that they might thereby reach it. The timber for this was
brought by the tana from the forest at Te Aute. When Pare-ihe saw
what the taua were about, he directed that a tower should be built to
command the causeway, at a considerable height above it, so that
stones might be cast and spears thrown at the taua.

** It was Te Ara-wai, son of Tu-korehu of Taurangawc. (of Waikato
really), who was killed by a stone thrown from the tower. His head
was split open, which caused his death. So the people of the pa
continued their defence bravely, until one day the taua managed to
throw some fire from the causeway, which set fire to the roofs of the
houses in the pa. Pare-ihe now assembled all the people at the west
side of the />«, whilst the other side was burning. The taua now
assaulted the pa by way of the causeway, and then Pare-ihe and his

* Te Ran-paraha left Kawhia about September, 1821. He had been to see Te
Whatanui about January, 1822. According to Rawiri Uepo, of Taapo, Ta-korehn
was with this expedition, no doubt leading his own people, the Ngati-Mania-poto«



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 16«

people dashed at them, when a fight took plaoe, resulting in the
retreat of the taii/7., which was chased into the water, where many were
killed. Numbers were killed on both sides.

** At night Pare-ihe and his people abandoned the pa, crossing the
lake by the western side, and then retreated to Poranga-hau, whilst
the taua took possession of the pa and consumed those whom they had
killed, and proceeded to preserve the heads of their friends who had
fallen, but only the heads of the chiefs, not the younger (or common)
people. They also took the bones away to their own homes.

** The taua then started for their own homes, Te Heuheu returning
by way of Pakipaki and Port Ahuriri, the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu people of
Te Pakake pa crossing him and his party over Te Whanganui-o-Orotu.
Te Pakake pa was situated on the sandy island where the Bpit Railway
Station now stands. Then Te Heuheu returned to his home at
Taupo."

I regret that I cannot state which of the Nga-Puhi chiefs it was
that accompanied this ope from the Thames, but it probably
was some of Korokoros relatives, for his hapu was the only one
at peace with the Thames people at that period.

It is clear from what followed during the course of the next few
years subsequent to Te Heuheu's capture of Te Boto-a-Tara, that the
incursion of these northern and inland tribes caused very great alarm
in the Hawke Bay district, and engendered the idea of migrating
from their homes to a place of safety. As we shall see, this took place
to a large extent not long afterwards.

Te Weba gobs to Hebe-taunoa, 1824.

We have seen that about the end of 1B28 Te Wera arrived at, and
agreed to settle down at Te Mahia peninsula with the Ngati-Eahu-
ngunu tribes of that part. . The local tribes of Ngati-Hikairo, Mgati-
Bakai-paka, and others, were brought in by his emissaries from the
mountains and from VVai-kawa (Portland Island), and all gathered
together at Te Mahia to meet the chief Te Whare-umu, whom Te Wera
had just brought back after his captivity at the Bay of Islands. The
news of the fall of Te Boto-a-Tara to Te Heuheu had spread thither
and caused much alarm, for it was anticipated that the death of Te
Arawai at that pa would lead to further and more extensive incursions
of the Taupo, Waikato, and other tribes, in which the people of Te
Mahia would become involved. Hence these people were very glad to
secure sa able an ally as Te Wera, and his well-armed Nga-Puhi.

Te Whareumu now persuaded Te Wera to cross Hawke Bay with
a large party, with a view to ascertaining how matters stood at Here-
taunga. This must have been in the early months of 1824. The
party landed at the mouth of the Tukituki river, and then moved



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IW JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

inland to near the present settlement of Pa-kowhai. In the meantime,
Pare-ihe, the chief of Ngai-Te-Whatu-i-apiti, who had suffered so
severely at the hands of Te Heuhea at Te Boto-a-Tara, hearing of the
friendly relations subsisting between Te Wera and the Mahia branches
of Ngati-Eahu-ngunu, decided to try and obtain Te Wera's friendship
also. After consulting his tohunga, Te Ngdi, and finding the omens
propitious, he proceeded with his tribe to meet Te Wera at his camp
near Pa-kowhai. After many speeches, Pare-ilie sung his tait, or song,
to the assembled Nga-Puhi (see page 68), which is said to have been
greatly admired by Nga-Puhi, and after further talk it was agp*eed that
Pare-ihe and his people should remove for a time to Te Mahia, for
rumours of a fresh incursion by the Taupo and Waikato people were
then current. Te Wera therefore departed for his home, whilst Pare-
ihe first proceeded to Te Pakake pa^ situated just inside Port Ahuriri,
to try an i persuade the people there to follow his example and remove
to Te Mahia. But the people thought they were safe on their little
sandy island and refused to go, so Pare-ihe went on and rejoined Te
Wera at Te Mahia.

Te Pakakb, 1824.

A very short time after Te Wera and Pare-ihe had met at Te Mahia,
the news came that Te Pakake had fallen. The following is a native
account of this affair : —

** The Waikato and Hauraki tribes, together with some of Nga-
Puhi (? which Nga-Puhi) and Ngati-Raukawa, of Maunga-tautari, now
assembled at Taupo, and from there returned to Ahuriri, and besieged
the pa of Te Pakake in revenge for the death of Tu-korehu*s son, Te
Arawai, killed at Te Boto-a-Tara. After Pare-ihe had visited Te
Pakake, the people set to with a will to fortify their pa so that it
might not be taken. That pa, Te Pakake, is an island, but at low
water it can be reached from the mainland by a sand-bank stretching
out from the east side of the harbour. The island is situated on one
side of the mouth of Ahuriri Harbour (the spit on which the railway
station is built). This spit was the place where the people gathered
mussels in former days.

** On arrival, one part of the taua occupied that sand-spit, and
during the night time they used to attack the pa. Eawatiri was one
of those in the pa ; but the tatta could not for some time gain any
advantage. One night some of the young men of the pa took a fast
canoe {waka-napi) and paddled off to the north end of Te Whanga-
nui-o-Orotu towards Petane,* and awaited there the advent of some of
the enemy who were coming to join the others. Here they overheard
some of the taua say the newcomers were expected the following

* Petftne is a modem name (Bethany). Its original Maori name was Kai-arero.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 161

morning, and were coming overland via the Petane Beach, and that
they intended to attack the pa of Te Pakake on the north side. The
scouts now returned to the pa, when a number of young men assembled,
and taking canoes returned to the place which the others had visited,
where they also heard some of the Uiua talking of the expected
reinforcement. Kawatiri was with this party, which waited in ambush
for the taiM to come along. It was quite dark when they arrived.
Kawatiri stood behind some scrub and saw the foremost of the enemy
appear. He was an old man. They engaged in single combat, but
through the quickness of Kawatiri he killed his man.

" After the young men had returned to the pa with the spoil they
had taken, the people of the tana, who occupied the point where
mussels were gathered, went inland of the harbour to a place where
raufn) grew, and there made molds (or rafts), which they brought down
the Ngaru-roro River and then paddled along in the sea to the
entrance of Ahuriri. The taita now embarked and assaulted the pa of
Te Pakake. It was just at daylight that the pa was stormed, and then
the people of the pa were defeated and a great many killed. Children
at the breast were cast into the sea and were washed about by the
waves, just like porpoises, whilst many adults were dashed on the
shore by the waves.

*^ Those who escaped the massacre fled inland to the Buahine
mountains, whilst the tatm stayed at the pa and consumed * the fish of
war,' and afterwards returned to their homes.'*

At Te Pakake the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu tribe lost a great many
killed, among them Te Wha-ka-to of the Wairoa, whilst at the same
time many people of rank were taken prisoners. The well-known chief
Te Hapuku was captured, but subsequently made his escape and joined
the tribes at Te Mahia. Tiakitai and Tomoana were also captured
there. Te Koare of the Wairoa was another chief captured, but Te
Heuheu gave him his liberty, and on the return of Te Koare to his
home he sent twenty men with a mere as a present to his captor.
Tareha, another well-known chief, arrived off Te Pakake in a canoe
from the Wairoa just after the pa had faUen, and so was able to
escape. The enemy also lost some people of consequence, and amongst
them an uncle of Te Warn, Te Umu-kohu-kohu (younger brother of
his father Te Utanga), the principal chief of Ngai-Te-Rangi of Tauranga.

Amongst the laua that took the pa were a few of the Arawa tribe,
Tuhoto, the noted tohmiya, being one. But, notwithstanding his
priestly powers, he submitted to being bounced out of some spoil he
had secured by one of the Nga-Puhi chiefs.

After the fall of Te Pakake there was a further migration of the
tribes living in the Here-taunga district to Te Mahia^ but some of the

X8



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162 JOURNAL OF THE POLYVSIAH SOCIETY,

people remained in their old homes, and in course of time Te Pakake
pa was again occupied by them.

We have seen, a few pages back, that Te Wera and Pare-ihe had
returned to Te Mahia, and shortly after came the news of the fall of
Te Pakake. Other events took place in the Wairoa District shortly
afterwards that brought the northern Nga-Puhi on to the ground,* but
before relating them it is necessary to continue the story of the doings
of Nga-Puhi in the north, so that a proper sequence of events may be
maintained.

Peace between Waikato and NoA-Pum, 1824.

It will be remembered that after the siege and fall of Matakitaki to
Hongi-Hika in May, 1822, t some women were left in the pa to open
the way to peace, should Waikato desire it ; and moreover (Captain
Mair informs me) two young Waikato chiefs — Te Kihirini and Te
Kanawa-te-whakaete — who had been taken prisoners, were returned by
Hongi to their people, with this object also in view. These young
chiefs with others proceeded to the Bay of Islands for that purpose,
where the peace was ratified by a marriage between two high chiefs
of the opposing tribes. This was a frequent practice in old days. It
is believed to have been in the early part of 1824 that a party of Nga-
Puhi visited Waikato to cement the peace between Hongi and Te
WherowheroJ. Mr. Fenton says :|| " The Waikato party accompanied
by the bride (Matire-toha, Rewa!s daughter) and sixty Nga-Puhi chiefs,
under Rewa and others, started away from the Bay by direction of
Hongi to return the visit of the Waikato chiefs to the Bay, and com-
plete the peace by formally reinstating the tribes of (Lower) Waikato
in their usual residences. When the party arrived at Takapuna
(North Shore, Auckland) they were met by Apihai Te Kawau at the
head of all the Ngati-Whatua sub-tribes — Te Taou, Ngaoho, and Te
Uringutu — who- treated them courteously and supplied them with food
from Okahu (near Orakei), where at that time they were sojourning.
The Taou people took the Nga-Puhi party up the Wai-te-mata River,
and then across to Ongarahu, their settlement near the sand-hills of
the West Coast, where they entertained them for three days. The
Nga-Puhi party then returned down the river to Te Whau, dragging
their canoes over the neck there into the Manukau Harbour, and
thence, pursuing the route formerly traversed by Hongi {via the
Waiuku and Awaroa Streams), they passed up the Waikato River.

** At Weranga-o-Kapu, an island in the Waikato River below
Tuakau, they saw a party of Ngati-Paoa under Eohi-rangatira (the

* The death of Te Rangi-wai-tatao.

+ See page 96.

} See p. 109. || hoc, ciU, p. 70.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 168

chief who escaped from the massacre at Mau-inaina in 1821) and
Paraoa-rahi living in a pa ; and, after arriving at the pas of Waikato
on the Mangapiko Biver, a branch of the Waipa (at the site of
Matakitaki, taken by Nga-Puhi in 1822), they found another party of
Ngati-Paoa, part of the original inhabitants of Mau-inaina. The
Waikato chiefs of the pas were Te Kanawa and Te Roherohe (? Te
Pohepohe) and the chief of the Ngati-Paoa was Te Bauroha.

" The Nga-Puhi chiefs remained two years at this place and then
returned to their own country. At the end of the year 1824 Te Taou
and Ngaoho hapus of Ngati-Whatua were living at Te Rehu (not far
from the lunatic asylum, Auckland,) and at Horotiu (Commercial Bay
formerly, now reclaimed, the present site of Fort Street and Custom
House Street, Auckland,) and some at Okahu."

The " OoQUiiiLB *' at the Bay, 1824.

In the same year, 8rd April, 1824, there arrived at the Bay the
French frigate " La Coquille," commanded by Captain Duperry, the
history of whose voyage has been written by the celebrated Dr. P.
Lesson, the distinguished naturalist, and brother of Dr. A. Lesson, the
author of several works on Polynesia. From Lesson's account we
derive a few items bearing on this history. Taiwhanga,"*" one of
Hongi's celebrated warriors and father of Sydney Taiwhanga, the well-
known Member of Parliament in later years, was a passenger in the
** Coquille " from Sydney, as well as the missionary, Mr. Clarke, and
so soon as they anchored in Paroa Bay they were visited by Tui, Koro-
koro's. brother, who was then chief of the tribe residing at Kaouera
(? Kahuwera). On the 5th April they were visited by Hongi, whom
Lesson describes in full. From the fact of Hongi being at
the Bay at this time, and from the events of next year, we must
conclude that Polack is wrong in stating that Hongi left in this year
for the East Coast and was away two years. Lesson remarks that
Hongi •* had never learnt to speak English, and has not even acquired
the famous * God-dam,' the first word in the language according to
Beaumarchais." On the 10th April Lesson notes that Tui had gone

* Taiwhanga lived at Ealkohe, on the road from the Bay to Hokianga. He
was a great toa, or " brave," and accompanied Hongi on many of bis expeditions.
The Bev. W. B. Wade, in the account of his *' Journey in the North Island of New
Zealand,'* pnblished at Hobart in 1843, says that in January, 1838, he stayed
a night at Taiwhanga's home, Kaikohe. He was baptized by the name of Bawiri or
David, and at that time was a oonsisteut Christian, a fact that is also mentioned
by Bev. H. Williams. That Taiwhanga in f(»rmer days •' cherished the widow and
the orphan," a quotation from Mr. Wade's book will show : *' He was formerly
called Taiwhanga, and used to figure amongst the foremost of the bloodthirsty in
their perpetual wars. In one of hia fights he slew a chief, whose widow and three
young children he secured as prisoners. Having barbarously killed and eaten the
obildren in the presence of their own mother, he made her his wife t "



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164 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

to Eororareka to join Pomare, who was about to carry the war ** to
lapou at Ox Bay *' (Uawke's Bay), and that they were to start
directly the ** Coquille " left.* Lesson gives us a very fair description
of the Maoris, and from it \ve learn that the word Pakeha was in use
at that time for a European. The " Coquille " left the Bay on the
17th April, 1824, for Kotuma island.

Tboubles at Whanoarei, 1824.

Mr. Fen ton says that in 1826 (which must be read 1824) that a
party of Te Uringutu hapu of Ngati-Whatua, under their chief Hakopa
Paerimu, who with Kuka Taurua were making a fishing visit to Motu-
tapu Island, near Waiheke Channel, were attacked by Te Rori and
many of them killed, amongst whom was Piopio-tahi, a relative o^
Paerimu's, and twenty women were captured. I cannot ascertain
where Te Kori came from, but it could scarcely be Te lion Taoho of
Kaihu, who is nearly related to Ngati-Whatua. ^' Apihai-te-Kawau
with the tribe Ngaoho, and Te Waka-ariki with the Taou tribe (both
of Ngati-Whatua), arrived at Motutapu in the night time, and were
urged to renew the contest with Nga-Puhi, but declined, and retired
with Te Uringutu to the Kumeu River, upper Wai-te-mata.*' It was
necessary that this blow should be avenged, however, and therefore
soon after ** a party of revenge was despatched, composed of Te Taou
and Ngaoho, accompanied by Kuka Taurua and Te-Ao-o-te-rangi, at
the head of some Ngati-Tahinga of Waikato, and they advanced to
Whangarei where they planned and executed a very successful surprise
against the Para-whau tribe, a branch of Nga-Puhi, who, being from
their position accessible and handy, seem to have been selected as
objects of attack whenever an tUu account wanted a victim to balance
it. Many men were killed and forty women taken prisoners, with
whom the taua returned to Kumeu.''

The Maori account differs a little from this. It says that some
time after the return of Ngati-Whatua from the great Southern
expedition in 1822, some of them went to Mahurangi to live, where
they were attacked by Te Tirarau of the Para-whau tribe of Whanga-
rei, and were driven to Motu-tapu, where they were assailed by Te
Rori of Nga-Puhi, and again beaten. After this an expedition of Taou
went north in canoes to Mahurangi to seek revenge for their losses,
and after dragging up their canoes on a wahi-tapUy or burial-place,
attacked the Para-whau, killing a number of men and bringing back
forty women as prisoners. *' After this came Te Ika-a-ranga-nui."
The probability is that the taiui did go to Whangarei, for Bishop

* *' Voyage autour du Monde,'* BruBseUs, 1839. The *' Coquille" was sabse-
quently re-named '* L' Astrolabe." This expedition of Pomare's was to join Te
Wera and aid fciie Urewera in their war on the Wairoa.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. IW

Williams says, p. 60* : '* The people of Bream Bay (Whangarei), who
were Hongi's allies, felt insecure in their position, which was a sort of
borderland between the hostile tribes ; and through fear of the Thames
natives they came to live at the Bay of Islands. Rangi was a chief of
some rank in this tribe (Te Para-whau), and he with his small party
took up their abode about a mile from Paihia, where they came under
the frequent attention of the missionaries. This was during the year
1824."

These Northern expeditions occurred, it is believed, early in 1824,
for it is said a short time after them *^ Te Taou, Ngaoho, and Te
Uringutu hapm, to the number of two hundred, settled permanently
at Okahu, Wai-te-mata, and made the place the headquarters of the
tribes. They had been living here tibout a year when the battle of
Ika-a-ranga-nui took place (Feb., 1826). From the time of the battle of
Mau-inaina (in November, 1821,) the Tamaki District had been
entirely abandoned '' (as a permanent place of residence).

Ngati-Whatua in thus playing a principal part in the defeat of Te
Para-whau at Whangarei were only increasing the debt of utu which
they owed Nga-Puhi, which, added to the signal defeat they gave the
latter at Moremo-nui in 1807, aroused Hongi*s wrath to the highest
pitch, and moreover Te Tirarau and the Para-whau tribe had also suffered
80 severely at their hands that it became necessary to obtain an ample
reveuge. This was secured at Te Ika-a-ranga-nui in the following
year, but before describing that great battle we must return south to
Hawke Bay and relate the cause of Pomare's expedition, which
Dr. Lesson states (above) was to start from the Bay about April (or
May), 1824.

Death of Te Toboa and Ranoi-wai-tatao, at Te Waiboa, 1824 ?

More than one instance is known in Maori history of an attempted
introduction of a somewhat different belief to that usually current. It
is probable that at the time we write of (about 1822-24) the knowledge
of the introduction of Christianity into the North, and some idea of
the new tenets, had spread to Waikato and other parts. The Ngati-
Paoa tribe of the Thames had more than once visited the Bay of
Islands between the years 1816 and 1820. They were related to
Korokoro, the well-known Nga-Puhi chief, and could thus do so in
safety. Moreover Marsden had visited the Hauraki tribes in 1816.
From Hauraki the news would easily spread to the neighbouring tribes
of Waikato. It is in the natural course of things that the knowledge
of doctrines varying from the old Maori beliefs must have given rise to
some doubts in the gods of old. However this may be, we find at this

• »♦ ChriBtianity amongst the Maoris."



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188 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

time a prophet arising in Waikato, named Te Toroa, who introduced
a new god named Wheawheau, and with a form of ritual which has
been described as something akin to the Hauhauism of the sixties.
Pull of zeal for his new god, Te Toroa came to introduce it to the
knowledge of the Ure-wera tribe of Bua-tahuna, who declined to have
anything to do with it and passed him on to the Ngati-Kahu-ngunu of
tiie Wairoa.

Ngati-Kahu-ngunu, who had lately suffered at the hands of Waikato,
(at Te Pakake) saw here a chance of obtaining some utu and at the same
time of serving the gods. Ranga-ika of the orthodox faith arose, and
by killing Te Toroa, secured both ends. In doing so he also gave
another take to the Ure-wera tribe by killing their clansman Te Bangi-
wai-tatao at the same time. This occurred at a place called Orangi-
moa, at the Wairoa.

Te MAU-TABA-Nm GOES TO Tai-a-mai, Bat of Islands, 1824.

The Ure-wera tribe had now several takes against Ngati-Kahu-
ngunu, some of which had only been partially repaid. It was obvious
to all that the Wairoa tribes were getting too bumptious, and must be
put down, but it is clear from what follows that the Ure-wera doubted
their own power to effect this alone. It must be remembered that
Ngati-Eahu-ngunu is one of the largest and most powerful tribes in
the country.

Some desultory fighting now appears to have taken place about
Waikare-moana Lake and near the Wairoa, but not sufficient to satisfy
the Ure-wera chiefs, especially Tipihau. In order to raise a war-party
on a larger scale, he conceived the idea of enlisting other tribes in their
quarrel, and especially some of those who had acquired muskets. The
many warlike expeditions of Nga-Puhi on the East Coast had induced
a wonderful belief in the power of these weapons, and the successes of
the Northern tribe was the theme upon which each warrior dwelt at
every gathering. But first Tipihau had to rouse his own tribe to a sense
of the importance of his project. With this object, taking advantage
of the visit of Te Mau-tara-nui* to Maunga-pohatu, he adopted an old
Maori custom, and sang a song, which in this connection is called


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