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he did so he was allowed to live. But should he deny the theft then
was he surely slain, his wairua being destroyed by the awful arts o|
the priest.

Himiona left his wife Eumara at Whakatane and crossed over to
the Turanga side, when he became attached to a woman of that place.
His wife heard of this and instantly visited an old woman named
Riperata, at Bangitaiki, who was famed as a wise woman and a worker
of the milder forms of magic. The old lady told Eumara to return to her
in the evening. When she did so, Biperata conducted her to a stream
when she was told to take off her clothing and enter the water, where
the aged one sprinkled water over her client's body and repeated an
invocation known as an atahu, which same has the effect of securing
for one the affection of a desired member of the opposite sex to the
petitioner, in fact a love charm. The old woman then saw the wairua
of Himiona standing by his wife's side, she said, '' Beturn to your
home, in a week your husband will be with you." The old woman
then sent a miromiro (a bird, the wren) to bring the erring husband
back. The bird flew to Turanga and entered a house wherein Himiona
and others were sitting and perched upon his head, whereon his love
for his first wife returned to him and he arose up and at once started
for Whakatane, and rejoined his former wife where I trust they will
continue to live in peace, as they are now doing.

Bites, such as the foregoing are always performed after sunset or
at dawn of day, as the wairua is said not to travel in the day time, or
not to be accessible.

Again — one Maehe Te Bupe, of the wandering Sons of Awa, stole



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SPIRITUAL CONCEPTS OF THE MAORI. 187

some eels from an eel-basket, the owner of which put the matter into
the hands of the tribal priest. He took with him the ahua or
resemblance of the stolen goods, in the form of a piece of the eel-
basket which was laid on the ground in front of the priest, Te Ao-katoa
by name — with the remark — ** My eels have been stolen." Then the
wairua of the thief was seen by the priest, standing by the side of the
ahua or material token of the semblance of the stolen eels. The
priest said — *' Here stands the man who stole your property. His
appearance is thus — the pakiwaha is his only tattooing, his hair is
curly.'' The eels were demanded of Maehe who denied all knowledge
of them. The priest then bewitched him so as to cause him to
become quite foolish. All he did was to wander about clutching at
the air with his hands. This state of things continued until he
confessed the theft and restored the stolen property, or made reparation
in some manner. The ahua here is a medium between the priest,
stolen goods, and the thief, and through it the latter is affected.

Haruru is the name of an incantation much used by the high
priests of old in order to destroy the wairua of enemies, their bodies
being, of course, affected through the wairua.

When a priest wished to slay a person by means of witchcraft he
had several methods to choose from, a commonly used form was that
known as the Raa-itL A hole is dug in the ground by the priest who,
taking a cord in his hand, standing over the hole, and allows one end
of the cord to hang down in the hole. He then repeats an incantation
to cause the wairua of the doomed person to descetid by way of the
cord into the hole, where it is destroyed by means of another potent
incantation.

To conclude these anecdotes we will give a very modem specimen.
In October, 1897, a topic of great interest among the natives of this
district was an occurence which is alleged to have taken place at the
native village of Pa-karaka, near Botorua. As Ngati-Tu were lounging
about the marae one day, a strange native rode up, and dismounting,
came forward and shook hands with the people. He carried in his
hand a fine looking gun, the stock of which was inlaid. He enquired
for a person named Tara-pounamu who was then pointed out to him.
He handed the gun to Tara, saying that he had been sent by Harehare
of Ngati-Manawa to bring to him this present. Tara put the gun in-
to his house and asked the stranger to stay to dinner but he declined
and left the place, by the road to Galatea. Tara thought he would now
have a look at the gun but to his astonishment it was nowhere to be
foimd. A man was sent in pursuit of the stranger on the Galatea
road, but he was not seen, and the roadman stated that no person had
passed that day. Tara wrote to Harehare who denied all knowledge
of the affair. Not yet satisfied, Tara visited Harehare who repeated



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188 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

his former statement. Ngati-Tu then earner to the conclusion the gun
carrier was a wairua or spirit, yet he shook hands as in the flesh. I
saw them a week or so after the affair is alleged to have occurred and
they were troubled as to what the matter might portend.

*^ If, when you are sleeping, your wairua discovers that some person
is endeavouring to bewitch you, then so soon as you awake you must
go and stand before the tuahu (sacred place of a village). And you
must be very careful to stand facing the direction in which the person
lives who is meddling with you. Then you must stretch forth your
hand and repeat : —

" Whakataha ra koe

E te anewa o te rangi e tu nei !

He tawhito to makutu

E homai nei kei taku are

Na te tapu ihi, na te tapu mSna

Hina (hinga ?) ki maa« tokoto ki raro

Ei to kaawhaa ariki."

Avert thee then,

thou paralysing power of Heaven !

Supernatural power of old, is they witohoraft,

That thou appliest to my organs,

By the dread topu, by the all-powerfol lofm,

Fall (thou) in front, prostrate below,

To thy kauwhau-ariki.

After this you must recite the tuaimu* (an incantation to weaken
the power of an enemy) : —

*' Te imu kei te ruhi,

Te imu kei te ta,

Eei te anewa

To ringa i tu, to ringa i pe,

Pepehi nuku, pepehi rangi,

Bere taka o rangi ki waho.

Kaki whatiia

Tuku tona, heke tonu te ika ki te Po.

He ika ka ripiripia, he ika ka toetoea,

He ika ka haparangitia

Muimui te ngaro, totoro te iro

Mau ka oti atu ki te Po,

Oti atu ki Po-wherikoriko."

The rite to effect exhaustion,

The rite to efifect the kiUing

With the paralysing power,

Thy hand be wounded, thy hand be rotten,

Press down earth, press down sky.

Headlong falls thy prominence.

* A number of rites and ceremonies are included under the name imu or umu.
The Native oven, or umu^ played an important part in many rites, the origin of
which ifl obscure, — Ep,



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SPIRITUAL CONCEPTS OF THE MAORI. 189

Broken neok,

Away, descends the victim to Hades,

A victim that is slashed, is torn in shreds, *

A victim that is uprisen.

Gather the maggots, spread the maggots,

Begone for ever to Hades,

Begone to the Hades of blackness.

Should a person desecrate a sacred place of the tribe, such as the
tudhu or ahi taitaiy he will certainly be afflicted by the gods in a most
grievous manner, and if he desires to save his life, he had better hie
him to the priest who will, after sunset, take him to a stream and
cause him to stand therein naked. The priest will pull up a stalk of
fern (takaka rarauhej and dipping it in the water, sprinkle some drops
over the man*s body, at the same time repeating a karakia to cure him
ue.f to cause the gods (demons) to release their hold upon him.

While such rites as these are being performed it is most imperative
that all the people should remain at home and not move out, otherwise
their wairua may pass into the stream wherein the ceremony is being
performed. If so, those wairua wHl assuredly be destroyed by the
spells of the priest.

Hau, apa-hau.

The hau of man appears to be the vital essence or life principle.
One native gave the explanation that it is the ahua of the man.
The term ahua means ''personality,*' or ''semblance/' or "like-
ness." Some of the meanings assigned to the word hau in Williams*
Maori Dictionary are as follows : — " Wind, dew, eager, famous, sacred
food used in the ceremony of taking off to/m, something connected
with a person on whom it is intended to practise enchantment, such as
a portion of his hair, a drop of his spittle, anything which has touched
his person, which, when taken to the priest, might serve as a connecting
link between his incantations and his object.**

However, none of the above quoted meanings meet the case. The
name of the article to serve as a medium between a wizard's spells and
the object, has always been given me as ohonga, or by Tuhoe as Iwhana^
but that is not the person*s hau, it is the ahua or representation of his
hau. The hau of man cannot leave its physical basis, the body. If
taken by the arts of witchcraft, the body perishes, it cannot exist without
the hau. Thus the hau is a most essential essence or element. I have
known the hau to be described as the intellectual spirit by a Maori
scholar. In witchcraft, the taking of a person*s liau, or semblance
thereof, enables the wizard to destroy the wairua of the said person,
according to the natives. But if the taking of his hau^ will cause
death, why slay the wairua ? It is necessary to destroy both the hau
and the wairua in order to cause death. As yet I have not received

16



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190 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

any satisfactory reply to this query. At one period of my enquiry
into these matters it seemed to me probably that the taking of the hau
was not fatal in its consequences, but that the taking of the hau (by
the agency of the ohonga) enabled the priestly ^u-taker to have power
over and to destroy the wairua. Yet a person's wairua may be
absent from his body, as in dreams, without any injury occurring to
him. It now seems to me that a person may be destroyed through
either of these elements, the hau or the wairua. If the medium
(olionga) of a person's hau be taken, by superior priestly craft alone can
he retain life, neither his wairua nor yet his mauri can retain life in
his body.

The authority before quoted gives '' prestige, fame, renown," as
the meaning of hau. The word inana bears those meanings but hiu
means more than that, it is not the same as mana. Hau is used in
an anagogic sense. It is an ichor or essence which pervades and
vivifies the system. It is non-visible, intangible, and yet can be con-
veyed by the hand, as we shall see anon. An European scholar to
whom I applied, gave me Aau=/m^ma= breath, but pneuma would
more probably apply to " manawa,'* At the same time it is probable
that we find here the connection between hau and manawa, Manawa
in the Maori (N.Z.) dialect means breath, while hau means wind.
But. in far Polynesia we find what were probably the original
meanings of hau both used t.^., wind and breath. In the Mangareva
dialect hau means *' to blow, as the wind " and also '^ to breathe." In
Samoa sau {=^hau) ** to blow a trumpet." In other isles hau means,
** king or high chief," and " a god." In Marquesan hau means <' air "
and it also bears the same meaning in New Zealand.

Although the word hau has innumerable meanings assigned to it in
various Polynesian dialects, yet we may fairly assume that, *' wind "
and <' to blow," *^ breath " and *' to breathe " are all meanings of an
ancient origin. And here I must stop on the roadside, for what I
would say has already been treated of by several writers, by none more
clearly than Professor Max Mtdler in his lectures on " Anthropological
Religion." He there gives the probable origin of man's belief in his
spiritual nature, early man noted that the dead no longer breathed,
and surmised that some invisible spirit must have left the body.

In Tonga and elsewhere hau meant ** king " or '' supreme chief."
The Mckori of New Zealand has preserved a very ancient word, namely
hakuy signifying king. It is only noted in the old karakia. Possibly
the k has been dropped by other branches of the Polynesian race
Here it occurs in karakia, as — " Koia Id nya haku &c "

I have heard it stated by natives that the lower animals possess a
wairua but that no inanimate object is endowed with it, yet it is some-
times assigned to inanimate objects. But in the case of the hau we



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SPIRITUAL CONCEPTS OF THE MAORI, 191

note that both animate and inanimate objects are endowed with the
same. Thus we hear of the hau of the land, of a forest, of a tree, of
the kumaray &o. The word hau is also applied to the branches used in
the raurau ceremony, and, as we have seen, sometimes used to denote
the object used as a medium when stolen property is to be restored.
In these two cases hau seems to be equivalent to the ahua or semblance.
The ohonga used as a medium in taking a person's hau is the passive
agent, the incantation which destroys the hau, and through it the
physical basis, is the active agent. This is sympathetic magic, worked
on the supposed vital connection between the object and subject — as
explained by Mr. Clodd in " The Story of Primitive Man.*'

When Maui deskoyed the children of Mahuika, who represented
the primal fire of the andent Ynxcld^ it was Hine-nui-te-Po, goddess of
Hades, who essayed to avenge the death of bar sister's progeny, and at
the same time baulk Maui's attempt to gain eternal life for maiL She
therefore sent Eahukura (the butterfly) to obtain from Maui's person
an ohonga to act as a medium, through the agency of which her ma^o
spells might destroy the daring and meddlesome Maui, one time demi-
god of the primal Hawaiki. But Eahukura was baffled, and then
Hine sent Waeroa (the mosquito), but Maui heard the hum of this
coming messenger and slew the same. Then Tuiau (the midge) was
sent and death was the lot of Tuiau. Then Namu the silent sandfly
was despatched, and Namu succeeding in taking from the body of Maui
a small drop of his blood, hied back to dread Hine of the Bealm of
Death who, through this material emblem of the personality of Maui,
doomed him and all mankind to death. Hence death is known
throughout the world, and all men are caught in the fatal snare of
Great Hine of the Night.

I have a note to the effect that the material medium taken from a

person becomes an ohonga"^ when the appropriate incantation is repeated

over it. When this ohonga is obtained the priest ties it to a piece of a

shrub, (the karamuramUj the branches of which were used in many

sacred ceremonies by the Maori). He then carried it to the ttidhu or

sacred spot (altar) of the village and where the emblems of the gods

were invoked. Here an incantation was recited over it to cause the

subject to waste away and die. When taking this ohonga from the

person a karakia must be quietly repeated. Some of these are of

considerable length but I beg to recommend the following for

brevity : —

*' Hopu ringa o Ta, mauri o Tu.*'

Should a person be talking to me and I think that he is trying to
bewitch me, I take the hau of his voice, i.e., I take it with my voice,
by redthig the necessary karakia (incantation or invocation) ios that
purpose.

* Ohonga, cf., oho in oko mamnt,Qh€T€re and oho rangi.



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192 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

The word tdtdhau means to talk m one's sleep, i.e., to utter non-
sense not intelligable to a listener (e kunanu noa iko ana te waha). I
have wondered whether this word is derived from td, to breathe and
hau in either of its meanings, as before given. The term kohati is
applied to a person who is always singing, which is an aitua (evil omen)
for )iim. Tihau means to utter a deep-toned wordless oall, to attract
attention. The prefix '' tt ** in the Tuhoe dialect is often a causative
prefix,* thus tihau =whakahau = to give tongue or shout, if we assign
the meaning of " breath '* to the word hau.

When the Tuhoe and Ngati-Whare tribes were quarreling over
Te Whaiti lands, an old woman of the former people made some
Maori belts of flax fibre for one of the roadmen's wives (an European).
The latter was specially requested not to allow any member of Ngati-
Whare to touch the belts, lest they should take the weaver's hau and
thereby work her harm.

In the days when the world was young, the oflfepring of the Sky
and Mother Earth, viz., Tane, Tu, Tangaroa, &c., dwelt in the land of
Auroroa, at far Hawaiki. It was there that man was born into the
world, and evil first was known. Tane and his brothers quarreled and
each endeavoured to destroy the ?iau of his brothers.

When a novice entered the school of carving, or weaving, &o., in the
days of old, the first karakia repeated, to engage the attention of the
scholar, was the following: —

" Ea ma Bua, ka ma Bua ki te hihiri
Ea ma Roa i te rarama
Ea ma taka haa ta, ka ma taka hau korero
Ea ma taka hau i taea e te ata hapara.*'

The Hau in Divination rites.

Before going to war in the old times, two important ceremonies,
termed waitaua, were performed. One took place before the war party
left home and the other one just before giving battle. The priest
formed two small mounds of earth, in each of which he stuck a branch
of the karamuramu shrub. One of these was termed the tira ora (wand of
life) the other was the tira mats (wand of death). By means of karakia
the priest would cause the wairua of those doomed to be slain, to hover
over the mound and wand which represented death.

The ceremony known as Raurau is performed before marching to
battle and, if conducted by a competent priest, will furnish information
as to what the loss of each of the opposing sides will be in the coming
battle. The method followed is this — The plaza of the village is
swept clean, the people collect and the priestly matatuhi (seer) forms a
mound of earth for each hapu or sub-tribe of his people about to
engage in combat with the enemy. He also forms a mound for the
* And also in many other dialeots of Polynesia, espeoially in Barotonga.— (En).



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SPIRITUAL CONCEPTS OF THE MAORI. 198

enemy. In each mound he sticks a branch of karamttramUf called a
hau. He then lays down another such branch at each mound, which
branch is supposed to represent the striving of the hostile party to
overcome the hau of the mound beside it, which Juiu again represents
a certain tribe or sub-tribe. Each hau or branch stuck in the mounds
is green, and covered with its green leaves. The priest then bids the
the people assembled to cover their eyes or look away from the hau while
be repeats his invocations. His first words, addressed to the branches
dying by the mounds, are — " Ara to hoanri! Ida maial kia kaha! kia
toa! Ida uaua! km indnal kia tika! ("Behold thine* enemy! Be
brave ! Be strong ! Be courageous ! Be strenuous ! Be powerful t
Be accurate !")

He then repeats over them the invocation termed mata-rakau, the
generic term being hoa. On the completion of his biidget of knrakia
the priest bids the people look at the Aau, when it will be found that
many of the leaves have fallen off and are lying on the mound.
According to the. number of leaves that have thus fallen from the
different hauy the augury is drawn as to the result of the coming battle.



Hauora, The first ceremony performed over a newly-born child
was the tu-ora. This endowed the child with life, vigour, &c., and the
hnu'ora i.e., the hau of life or living /win. The karakia of this rite
instilled strength, mental and physical, into the child, also power and
prestige. *^ Ara mai te hau o te ora " is a line from a karakia which is
used to revive or cure a sick person, or one who is afflicted by the gods
for having desecrated a sacred place.

A peculiar custom obtained in ancient Maori-land, which had for
its object the retention of the hau of the tribal lands and of the people
thereof. Now land is said to have no manaj yet the hau of land seems
to more nearly equal '^rndna '* than does the human hau. The hau of
land is its vitality, fertility and so forth and also a quality which we
can only, I think, express by the word prestige. The material object
that holds or represents the hau of land, &c., is termed a mauri. Casual
enquiry among the average class of natives would lead one to the con-
clusion that the hau and mauri of land, and of other things inanimate,
are one and the same thing, but I believe the mauri to be the material
emblem or representation of the immaterial hau.

For the above purpose it is the htu ora that is taken, whereas the
nhonqa is taken as a medium through which to destroy life, hence it is
sometimes termed the hau mate or hauoi death. Here one might well
believe that hau retains its old Polynesian meaning of <* breath '' and
so hau ora = the breath of life and luiu mate = the breath of death.

This hau ora however must be taken. It is sometimes represented
by a portion of the hair of the chiefs of the land, or the ahwi



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194 JOURNAL OF THE P0LYHE8IAH aOClETY.

(semblance, emblem) of that hair. This is taken to the Aharewa, a
form (dMdku{fSGe €mte)^ ^ere it is concealed or *< planted," as a native
would say. Sometimes it is tied to the peg or pole which is the
Ahnrewa, and the waka or receptacle in which the atua (god or demon)
is hidden or contained. This pole or stake is usaally carved, and in-
vocations for the purpose of divination are addressed to it, for the atua
resides in it or manifests itself therein. The Ahurewa, is now as it
were, imbued with the hau of the land and the men thereof, and the
one task remaining is to guard the Ahurewa and prevent it being
tampered with by an enemy. For, mark you, land may be bewitched
as well as man, and should the hau of land, or its mauri, fall into
hostile hands, that land will be rendered infertile by potent incantations.
But if the hau of land, or man, be carefully guarded, no act of makuta
(magic) can effect them.

One day, when I had recited a karakia to old Ngahoro of Ngati-
Mahanga, he said — ** E ! He hau ora te tangata net ki tana karakia '* —
meaning that I recited it distinctly, dearly, and making no errors.

Ika-furapuba and Taitai.

The ika-purapura seems to bear much the same meaning as mauri,
i.e., the niauri to guard the hau of land or home and of the men.
The term may be translated as meaning '^ seed fish," although the
word ika has other meanings than *< fish *' but which are not given in
our Maori dictionaries. Another expression I have heard ia ^* te pura-
pura ora,** i.e., the living seed or seed of life. It is used in reference
to the childrea of a slain person growing up to take his place or avenge
his death. This is a more intelligible expression to the European
mind than ika-purapura.

The ahi taitai is a sacred fire at which rites are performed that
have for their purpose the protection of the life principle and fruit-
fulness of man, the land, forests, birds, &c. It is said to be the tnauri
or hau of the home. This fire is kindled by the priest and over which
he roasts a bird, usually a rearea. A portion of the roasted bird is
eaten by the priest, the balance being suspended over the sacred fire
for a time, when it is taken down and buried as an ika-purapura or
taitai. It then represents the hau of the tribesmen and of their home
and lands. The karakia for this rite is " T^ here o Maui.** If there
be not a priest of sufficiently high rank to eat the portion of the bird
offering, then it is impaled upon a tree, that Tane, the tutelary deity
of forests and birds, may absorb it. The semblance (ahua) of man
and land is absorbed by the bird which becomes an ika-purapura. The
ahua of the land is sometimes a stone or branchlet or leaves of a tree,
the leaves would be placed under the stone in a secret spot.

The u'httta puaroa was a sacred post or pillar set up at the tuahu or



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SPIRITUAL CONCEPTS OF THE MAORI. 195

sacred place of a settlement. The ahua of man and land would be
deposited thereon and would serve as a mauri to preserve vitality in
men and land. After a time they would be taken down and buried to
serve as an ika-pmtxpura, to preserve the seed of life to land and man.
It would almost appear that the mauri preserved life or fertility as a
kind of talisman, but that the ika-purapura renewed the same vitality.

In building a house of importance in the days of yore, the natives
would usually make a human sacrifice, which would be buried at the
base of the central post of the house, when it was known as a whdtu.
After some seasons have past, the bones might be disinterred and taken
to the tudhu to act as an ika-purapura or maneay then no wiles of


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