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12 WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N,Z. TRIBES.

ship of Te Eahakaha, who fell on Te Pona*s paorty in the night (moon-
light) and killed 80 of them, but few escaping to carry back the news.
It is not quite clear from the conflicting accounts preserved, but
probably Wai-tarehu, of the Boroa tribe, was killed in this affair.
Pa-hakehake is situated a few miles south of Moremo-nui, on the coast.

These events occured about 1806, and on the whole Nga-Puhi had
gained the advantage. As Carleton says, these successes gave Pokaia
a great name as a warrior, and therefore when he proposed a further
campaign against Te Roroa, he found plenty of people willing to follow
him, and amongst them Hongi-Hika, who was now beginning to come
to the fore as a leader. In addition to this, the Nga-Puhi defeats at
Wai-tuna and Mata-raua had to be wiped oat, and in 1807 they made
a great effort to do so, with what result will now be shown.

It is said by Nga-Puhi that their southern neighbours had a
** saying,*' or whakatauki^ which referred to the dread inspired by the
former in their wars. It is as follows : —

Ea tere te Tai-tapu, Should Taitapa's flood arise,

Ka tere te Whakarara, And Whakarara's current foam,

Ea tere ki Hokianga^ In swirling oarrents at Hokianga—

Ei te tai i turia ki te maro-whara ; The sea with war-belt girded ;

Tana okuinga, ko Para-whenna-mea. As the deluge will be the effaoement.

Taitapu and WhakarSra are two rooks in Hokianga, against which
angry currents swirl, that are death to all canoes that come within
their influence. Para-whenua-mea is emblematical for the traditional
deluge of the Maoris. The " floods,*' &c., mentioned in the *• saying "
are used for the tribes.

MoBBMo-Nxn, 1807.

The date of the battle of Moremo-nui between Nga Puhi and Ngati-
Whatua, is fixed by the following : Marsden, in writing of it, in more
than one place, says it occurred two years before the taking of the
** Boyd " at Whangaroa in 1809. Major Cruise learnt from the
natives (probably from Tui who could speak English) that the great
battle took place twelve years before 1820. Te Puhi-Hihi, of Kaihu,
Kaipara, told Mr. C. F. Maxwell that it took place two years before
the '* Boyd," though, at the same time Te Bore-Taoho feels sure it
took place after the " Boyd." We shall be very near the mark in
fixing it at 1807. The following table shows the connection of some
of those to be mentioned shortly. It is an Uri-o-Hau line, a branch
of the Ngati-whatua tribe : —



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WARS OF HORTHERH AQAIHST SOUTHERN H.Z. TRIBES. 18

Bangi-ta-ke = Waiiaia

I

Tareha
(^) Paehawa = Kainga



(^) Kiri-whakairo = Banginui
Hautntu = Waiariki (^)



Kahu-pupara = Awa Nganaia Hekeua Tao-maui C^) = Mara

^1 I I

I Paikea |

Hautntu = Whau (^) | Te Toko-o-te-rangi = Kiriora

I Eramia |

A. K. Haututu |

Tina = Mahu



it



Te toko

Connected as the two tribes of Nga-Puhi and Ngati-Whatua were
by inter-marriage, the news that Nga-Puhi contemplated an expedition
against Ngati-Whatua on a larger scale than usual, would soon reach
the ears of the latter. That this was so, the following incident
obtained from Mr. J. White, will show.

In the times we write of there lived on the Northern Wairoa, a
chief of Te Uri-o-hau, named Te-Toko-o-te-rangi, who was a first
cousin to Paikea-te-Hekeua, the late chief of that hapu, Te Toko
was visited by Marsden in 1820, when on his second visit to Eaipara,
and he was then living on the Wairoa. He seems to have been — as
many chiefs were in those days — a Tohunga, and of course a believer
in the power of the Maori atuas, as will be shown, but evidently did
not place so much faith in his particular attuxs as in those of Nga-
Puhi. The Maori story* relates that, ** In former days Nga-Puhi
often went to war with Ngati-Whatua, and in consequence of their
frequency, a chief of Eaipara named Te Toko made a journey to
Eaikohe, to consult an old Priestess who lived there, and to obtain
from her an atua to help his tribe against Nga-Puhi. After passing
the night at Eaikohe, Te Toko made known his object to the old
Priestess, who gave him a Hei or Tiki to be worn on the neck, it was
made of RaU'kawa\, carefully bound up in AtUe bark. Te Toko asked
" How shall I use this atua?'* The Euia replied, ** Do this : When
you reach home command thy people to build a carved house in which
to keep the atua. Then make a copy of the atua^ let it be an image of

• From Te Popoto hapu of Nga-Puhi.

t A name for one of the species of green jade.



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14 WARS OF NORTHERN AQAIN8T SOUTHERN N Z. TRIBES,

a living man ; make it out of a large tree, the height whereof shall be
three maro (about 18 feet). One end of the Tiki shall be carved m
the semblanoe of a man, the other end shall be sharpened so it may
be forced into the ground. Let it stand upright when set in the
ground, so that all may see it from the moras of the pa. The top
part must be the height of a man, and let the nwko be fully carved
(moko'tukupu), with eyes of paua shell. Thou shalt form an image of
a child in the arms of the Tiki, and let some lizards (mokomoko) crawl
on his legs, on his sides, and on his hands and breasts. At the back
of the Tiki, make a receptacle with a cover, and therein deposit the
atua which I have given thee. Let the handle of the cover be carved
in the shape of a lizard. When the Tiki is completed, all of ye — ^men,
women and children — shall set to and build a carved house. When
this is finished, let the Tohunga go inside and there sit in the right
hand comer as ye enter, with his lace turned to the window, and then
recite his kawa (or incantation) for removing the tapu from a new
house. Let him recite the Karakia which is called '* Whakatau," as
follows : —



Muukwa mai ! Tataa mai I
E ta te riri ; e tu te nguba,
E ta, tupa ninihi,
Tu, tu, tupa rere i,
Ta, tapa kokota,
Kokota i wbea ?
Kokota i raro i aka taha.
Ka ngarae Ta ki te rangi
Te whakarangona mai ai
Ki taka haa-taaa.

Papa te whatitiri i runga te rangi
Ka rarapa te uira, mai te rangi,
Te whakarangona te Ati-Tipaa—
Te Ati-Tahito—
Te Tipoa-horo-noku
Te Tipaa-boro-rangi,
Horo a ata.

Takina te manu,

Takina te poa ki Barotonga,

O— il

Takina ki Hawaiki,

Bongo te po, rongo te ao,

Te oea riri, te nea nguba,

Te waewae riri. Wbakahume,

Tama ki tona wbenoa papakura.

Te tangi wbakamatako,

Kia ngakia te mate o Ta-wbakararo,



Breatb fortb ! ooant it oat !
Arise in war ! arise in rage !
Arise! step stealthily.
Arise ! arise ! with flying step,
Arise, with oroaobing step,
Croaohing wither?
Croaching beneath my sides.
Ta, with anger, shakes in the sky
Listening here to me.
To the warlike spirit in me.

Load crashes the thonder in the sky ;
Flashes the lightning from the heavens,
Where, heard are the powerful hosts, —
The ancestral hosts of old —
The earth swallowing monster.
The sky swallowing monster.
Swallowing the land.

Offer np the bird,*

Offer at the pillar at Barotonga

O— I!

Offer it at Hawaiki,

Listen the dead, listen the living,

With anger shaking, with stormy raging

With warlike feet. Gird then

The son in his bright land.

A fear inspiring wail

To avenge the death of Tu-whaka-raro.



* Probably a human victim referred to as a bird, a oommon designation in
central Polynesia.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 16



Tangi amaama Id ona toahine,
. Nanai, roroa, a Wai.
E kore e taea te riri,
Ko Whakatan anake te toa,
E ngana ed te tangi a te wahine.
Bokohia hokahuka,
Tapata ki te tai,
Hangaia ake ko tona ihn,
Tiro ake ko tona hoe,
0~i!

Hekeheke iho i runga i ona aito,

Ea rarapa ki te rangi,

Mau o rongo keo,

Te bono o Whakatan,

He poke tahna,

Tuku atn Whakatan,

Ki roto ki te whare, tona tino,

Ka whakapnngawerewere.

Tn tara wananga te toa i tai nei,

He toa ! he rere I

He ngaro ki roto te matiknkn

Tenei ahan e Tipua I

Tete te niho i te pou o te whare,

Whakatan ! hikitia to tapnwae

Ta ana i waho,

Me he kahni manu,

Te rakaa a Whakatan,

He mnmu, he awha tai,

Penei tai wheneke, whanana,

O— i!

Ena makawe te ngakinga o te toto,
Te iramntn o Tn-te-Eahn,
Nan mai e waha i takn tna,
Ea whano tana ki to matna,
Manawa i tauria e Paka-whara,
Ea riro i a koe na !
Te horo o Bakai-Dui,
E tu nei, e noho nei.
Ana i te riri, ana i te ngnha,
Whiria te kaha tnatini mou.

He kontn whenna.
He take whenua,
E kore e taea te riri.



With sobbing cries to his sisters.

The great, the tall ones of Wai-(rerewa)

None can prevail in war,

Whakatan alone is the brave.

To persist in the appeal of the mother.

Plnnge deep in the foaming (waves)

Launch forth on the sea.

Striking up at his nose.

Then glancing at his paddle,

O—i!

Guided from above by his omens.

That flash out in the sky,

For thee is the piercing fame.

The binding charm of Whakatan,

To harry the heaps (of dead),

Let Whakatan go on,

lato the house, his body,

Like unto a spider's.*

Incantations reciting, is the brave at th

A courageous one ! A swift one ! [shore,

Small enough to hide under a finger nail.

Here am I, O Monster I

Grinding my teeth at the pillar of the house,

Whakatan ! uplift thy steps.

And stand outside,

Like a flock of birds.

The weapon of Whakatau, [pest at sea.

Is as the humming of the storm, the tem-

Like the rising new-bom tide.

6— i

The avenging of blood has been striven for,

(By the) nephew of Tn-the-hawk,

Gome then, be carried on my back,

Let us go to thy parent.

Well was the assault made by Paka-whara

Now hast thou secured it I

The fall of Kakai-nui

That stands there, that remains there,

Doomed to anger, doomed to rage.

Plait then a rope of many strands,

A point of land — f
A root of land — f
Cannot be conquered.



* The valiant hero Whakatau is said to have been very small in stature, and
that in the expedition to avenge the death of Tn-whaka-raro, he sat in the fore
part of the canoe, ** hidden like a spider.*' Hence the reference in the tau above.
It is also said of him (metaphorically) that he could be hidden under the finger,
nail.

t In other words, disaster due to the powers of nature cannot be overcome by



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16 WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES.

Ko Whakatau anake Bat Whakataa alone,

Te toa i tamana Whiti-roaa, Was the brave who bound Whiti-roaa.* .

Haramai te toki ! Bring hither the axe !

Haumi — E I Bind it on !

Hoi— E ! Gather it !

Taiki— E ! »' »Ti8 finished I "

The above karcUcia is very old, there is little doubt it was brought
over by the Maoris from Hawaiki. It embodies the tau or war-song
of Whakatau, when he attacked the Poporokewa people, and burnt
their town at Te-Uru-o-Manono, long before the fleet of canoes came
to New Zealand. f It is said here to be a kawa-whare, or incantation
to remove the tapu from a new house, but it is used, I think, also
before going to war ; perhaps it served a double purpose in this case,
seeing the object with which the house was built. It is full of
allusions to Whakatau's exploits all through, though veiled in sym-
bolical language. I may say here, that in the above and many other
translations of old compositions to follow, I have done my best to give
some idea of their meaning, but feel that probably I have often missed
the inner meaning — for the difficulties are great in all such poetry.
The present generation of Maoris can give little help, — ^they have
themselves lost the meaning.

** Directly Te Toko reached his house on the Wairoa river, all his
people set to work to make the Tiki and build the house exactly as the
old Priestess had directed. On completion, they proceeded to the
woods to catch birds, and to the rivers for fish, and collected {ka ami)
Kwmaras, Rot, Pohue, Tawa and Hinau berries,! and lastly quantities
of dried shark. This food was set out as a Hakari, or feast. When
cooked it was stacked in two rows as high as a man. Then the people
assembled, standing outside the pile of food, whilst the Tohungas
went backwards and forwards between the rows, where the people
could hear them ** telling" (tatau) of events to come, for they could
see the spirits of the Nga-Puhi people who would be killed by Ngati-
Whatua after the feast. When this was over, the chief Tohunga
called to those sitting around the rows of food, " Tenal Tongia T
— " Drag forth !'* Then each one of the assembled multitude simul-
taneously stretched forth his left hand towards the food, and took a

* In this name I see a reference to the people of Ata-Hapai, who. by the
Samoans were called Tonga-Fijians, t.«., the Polynesians of the Fiji group of thos<)
days to which the people attacked by Whakataa belonged.

f In this Journal, vol. viii., p. 15, the incidents connected with Whakatau's
deeds are shown from Barotonga traditions to have occurred in the Hapai Group,
circa 876.

{ Sweet potatoes, fern-roots, oonvolvulous roots, Tawa berries (dried and
cooked,) Hinau berries made into cakes.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 17

whilst Te Waru had only his spears and patus. Te Warn made the
first charge, accompanied by a volley of spears, and one of Te Morenga's
chiefs was wounded. He then gave the order to fire, and 20 of Te
Waru's men fell dead, and amongst them two chiefs, one named Nuku-
panga, father of Te Waru,(?) and the other Hopu-nikau. Directly
their two chiefs fell, Te Waru's party fled from the field of battle. Te
Morenga ordered his men to halt and not follow the flying enemy.
He was content with the sacrifice already made, seeing that two chiefs
had already been killed, and he did not desire to shed more blood.
His allies, however, were not satisfied with this leniency ; a council of
war was convened by the chiefs, who blamed the conduct of Te
Morenga for not having profitted by the advantage which they had
gained. They contended that even if Te Morenga was satisfied with
the death of the chiefs as payment for his niece, nevertheless Te Waru
ought to be chastised for his insolent language at their first interview,
and they demanded that the attack should be immediately renewed.

" Te Morenga desired first to know the disposition of Te Waru, his
father (?) having been killed, and fancied he would easily consent to
terms of peace. For this reason he went forth from the camp in
search of Te Waru, who had fled with his warriors. Te Morenga came
across the wife and children of Te Waru and about 80 of his people,
all of whom he conducted into the camp, assuring them of their safety.
He demanded of them where they kept their stores of potatoes. Te
Waru's wife showed them the place, and from there they obtained
some. On Te Morenga asking if Te Waru was now disposed to make
peace, he was told that he was not.

" The day following, whilst the Nga-Puhi chiefs were assembled in
their camp they perceived that Te W^aru had rallied his forces, and
was descending to encounter them. They immediately flew to arms,
and in very short time a great number of the enemy were killed by the
muskets, and the rest put to flight, Nga-Puhi following them up.
Many of the fugitives jumped into the sea and were drowned, whilst
nearly 400 remained dead on the battlefield, and 260 were made
prisoners. Of this number, 200 were divided amongst the Bay of
Islands people, and we saw them disembark at Rangihoua on the 2nd
March, 1820. Sixty-five of the prisoners remained as the share of the
Whangarei chiefs.

'* Te Waru was thus completely conquered, and fled to the woods
with the few people who remained to him. After the battle, Te
Morenga went in search of him, and having found him in the end, a
conversations ensued between them. Te Morenga demanded if Te
Waru would surrender, and reminded him of the insolent language
which he held at their first interview. Te Waru, recognising that he
was conquered, replied that he had no idea muskets could produce such



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18 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

an effect, and up to this time had rather under-valued them as instru-
ments of war, but he asserted that it was impossible to resist them,
and, in consequence, he would submit himself. He asked Te Morenga
news of his wife and children, and, on learning of their safety in the
Nga-Puhi camp, he acceded to Te Morenga's desire that he should
accompany him thither to receive them back. On their arrival, he was
reunited to his family. Te Waru remarked that the death of his
father (?) had rendered him very sad, and asked Te Morenga to give
him something in compensation for his loss. Te Morenga gave him a
musket, which, with other presents received, seemed to satisfy him.
Afterwards Te Waru retired home with his family and friends.

*' Te Morenga told me that they remained three days an the field of
battle feasting on the flesh of those who had been killed, and sub-
sequently made sail with their prisoners and Te Waru*s canoes for the
Bay, where they arrived three days after the * Dromedary,' on the 2nd
March, 1820.

'* I may be permitted to remark that I noted the particulars of that
affair whilst I was sitting on the heights (above the scene), and that
on my return to the * Coromandel * I revised my notes with Te
Morenga, in order to report the facts after his own expressions as
accurately as possible.*'

Such is Mr. Marsden's account of Te Morenga*s raid on Tauranga,
and allowing for his inability to understand all that Te Morenga told
him — though it is said the latter could speak English, learnt on his
visits to Port Jackson and on whalers — it is probably correct in the
main. It rather appears as if Te Morenga*s other expedition in 1818,
in which he killed Te Tawhio, had got confused with this account,
where Te Morenga refers to Te Waru's ** father " having been killed.
However, this may be, there is one incident that Marsden omits, which
is worth repeating, as it throws quite a strong light on the chivalry of
the old Maori, and reminds us of the knight errantry of the Middle
Ages. I take this story from Mr. J. A. Wilson's *' Life of Te Waharoa,"
and it refers to that part of Te Morenga's history, where he relates
how he went in search of Te Waru after his second defeat.

Mr. Wilson says: ** Again Nga-Puhi invaded Tauranga and en-
camped at Matua-a-ewe, a knoll overhanging the Wairoa river, a mile
and a-half from the Ngai-Te-Rangi pa, Otumoetai. Such was the
state of affairs when, in the noontide heat of a summer's day, Te
Waru, the principal chief of Ngai-Te-Rangi, taking advantage of the
hour when both parties were indulging in siestas, went out alone to
reconnoitre the enemy. Having advanced as far as was prudent, he
sat down among some ngaio trees near the beach, and presently
observed a man, who proved to be a Nga-Puhi chief, coming along the
strand from the enemy's camp." (Mr. Wilson does not give the N^a-



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 19

Puhi chief's name, but it was Te Whare-umu, a well known chief.)
'^ The man approached, and turning up from the beach, sat down
under the trees, without perceiving the Tauranga chief who was near
him. Instantly the determination of the latter was taken. He sprang
unawares upon the Nga-Puhi, disarmed him, and binding his hands
with his girdle, he drove him towards Otumoetai. When they arrived
pretty near the pa^ he bade his prisoner halt ; he unloosed him,
restored his arms, and then, delivering up his own, said to the
astonished Nga-Puhi, *Now serve me in the same manner!' The
relative positions of the two chiefs were soon reversed, and the captor
driven captive entered the Nga-Puhi camp, where, so great was the
excitement and the eagerness of each to kill the Ngai-Te-Bangi chief,
that it was only by the most violent gesticulations, accompanied with
many unmistakable blows delivered right and left, that the Nga-Puhi
chief compelled them for a moment to desist. * Hear me,' he cried,
* hear how I got him, and afterwards kill him if you will.' He then
made a candid statement of all that had occurred, whereupon the rage
of Nga-Puhi was turned away, and a feeling of intense admiration
succeeded. Te Warn was unbound, his arms restored ; he was treated
with the greatest respect and invited to make peace — the thing he
most anxiously desired. The peace was concluded ; the Nga-Puhis
returned to the Bay of Islands ; and, though in after years they
devastated the Thames, Waikato and Botorua districts, yet Tauranga
was unvisited by them until 1881, when they attacked Maungatapu."

KoBiwHAi's Death, 1820.

Some time during Hongi's absence in England, probably about the
end of 1820, an expedition of Ngati-wai, a subtribe of Nga-Puhi,
sailed down the East Coast from the Bay, under Eoriwhai and others.
Somewhere on the coast near Mahurangi, they desecrated the graves
of some of the Ngati-Rongo people of Ngati-Whatua tribe by throwing
the bones about. On learning this Ngati-Whatua gathered together
to the number of 50 and attacked the Ngati-wai, and although the
latter were the stronger party, numbering 200 warriors, Ngati-Whatua
were victorious, and succeeded in killing Koriwhai. This fight occurred
at Eohuroa (or Koheroa), a place situated between Mahurangi and
Pakiri. There is a place called Eohuwai in the Pakiri Block. This
death was said to be one of the principal causes of Te Whare-umu's
expedition to Eaipara in 1825, Eoriwhai being a relative of Te Whare-
umu's.* It is possible that Eoriwhai's death is referred to by Cruise
when he mentions that news of a Nga-Puhi defeat had reached the
Bay in December, 1820.

* From Rev. Haaraki Paora.



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20 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

Mr. John Webster, of Hokianga, was kind enough to make some
enquiries for me about Te Koriwhai's death, and he furnishes the
following from the people of Lower Hokianga. This account does not
quite agree with that given by the Rev. Hauraki Paora : — ** Koriwhai
is said not to have been killed in battle. He was at Eohuroa, in the
Eaipara District, and came by his death there through foul play at the
hands of a party of Ngati-Maru tribe of Hauraki, and to avenge his
death the whole of the Nga-Puhi warriors proceeded to Hauraki,
under Te Morenga, Te Ngarehuata and Uri-ka-puru, and Mauinaina
and Te Totara fell, a Ngati-Maru chief named Te Eea being killed."
These two seiges did not occur, however, till 1821. It is likely enough
that some of Ngati-Maru assisted Ngati-Whatua to kill Te Koriwhai.
Te Puhi Hihi also told Mr. C. F. Maxwell that Ngati-Maru helped to
kill Te Koriwhai.

Mr. Webster also got the following lament for Te Koriwhai, which
was composed by a brother of Te Hape, a well-known chief of Ngati-
Korokoro, of Hokianga. The poet was also a tohunga : —

Tau o Mawete,

Tangi noa ana te ahi paoa-roa,
Na Matatahuna ki Pata-hope ra,
Ka rere Atutahi, ka kaa Mata-riki,
Mata-roa, Mata-rohaki, Mata-waia»
E tangi ana koe ki te u o tai,
He kore kai mau-e-
Tena te kai, kei hamama,
Eia whangaina koe te ahi-poto,
Kai a te po, te whare o Moetara,
Whare kokonga pouri, te mate o Tu-whakaroro,
Ka he ra koe ki te umu manga na Buatea,
Te wai kaakau o Omanaia.
Mihimihi te tai-e-
Te tai o Mataa-po.

Ka ngaro te pakibi nga taumata huinga te Tupua,
Waiho te hemorere ka makaia,
Nau 1 kau atu,

** Te moana tapokopoko na Tawhaki."
Ka u ki Pa-tene,

Te whakaaro koe te korero nui na Mnuwhena,
Nana i man mai te whaka-topuni,
Ka a ki Niu Tireni.
Man atu Paraha ki te atawhai-e-
Kia amoamo i te toki a te po,
Kia kakahuria ki tona kahu pupara,
Whakatangi ra i tou puariki whenua,
Whatitiri ka papa i runga te rangi,
Ka tab ana ra kontou te ahi a te Tupaa,
Matenga pai e mate ana ki te whare,
Na te mate kioo, ka tini ki te po, mano ki te po-e-
Na te turoro.
Na te pata a Whiro, nana i homai nga mate ki a tatou,



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 21

He kotahi-e-taua, me tapa nai koe,

£ tae taua, te motu ki Maharangi,

BoIk) o Hauraki,

Te ara i haere ai o Tupuna,

Whakataka te tna i Te Wairoa,

Te ara i haere ai o matua,

Tangi te mapn-e-

Ea hoki te manawa o Tu,

Okioki te riri-e-

Me tukutakn koe, nga wai e rere,

Baro te Kirikiri.

Konta ko Marae-roa, te Potiki-a-Bangi,

Kia papatu ko te wai-tohi-mauri,

Eia tupn ai ra,

Ka kawai o Hokianga e Tama ! -e-.

In April, 1821, the ** Church Missionary Proceedings" note that
Titore returned to the Bay after a 16 months' campaign on the east
coast, and on the 19th April the Rev. J. Butler says: — ** We were



Online LibraryPolynesian Society (N.Z.)The journal of the Polynesian Society → online text (page 3 of 26)