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visited (at the Kerikeri, Bay of Islands) by a chief jiamed Hauraki, or
Te Wera, whose place is at Okura, seven miles down the river. He
had been away a long time on an expedition towards the South Gape
of New Zealand. The chief place of action seems to have been a
district called * Enamatteeora/ about 400 miles from the Bay.'* The
name given to this district is clearly a mistake ; it is intended for
Hine-mati-oro, the name of the great chieftainess of the Te Aitanga-a-
Hauiti, who lived near Tologa Bay. **He has brought back 40
prisoners, several of whom were in his canoe ; they were men of noble
stature, and appeared rather dejected. Several women that he had
taken were also in the canoe, one of whom (who was a chief's
daughter), he had made his wife. (Probably this was Te ao-kapu-
rangi, of Maketu). Her father had been slain in battle, and his head
was in the canoe with several others. When it was held up as a
trophy, the poor creature lay down, covering herself with a mat."
On April lith, Mr. Francis Hall writes : — ** We were informed that a
lot of the Rangihoua people with several chiefs from the neighbour-
ing districts, who have been on an expedition to the south east for 16
months, have come back with several prisoners and many heads. They
have made dreadful havoc, and destroyed whole villages. Titore was
one of the party." This statement in reference to Titore conflicts
with Cruise's account, for he says : — " June 11th, 1820 — Titore (or, as
he calls him, Tetoro) left for the Thames, evidently bent on
mischief," and on the 12th August, 1820, he notifies the fact of
Titore's return to the Bay from the Thames.* We do not know any
particulars of this lengthy expedition from the Maori account.

'This disorepanoy may arise through the similarity of names of two Nga-Pahi
ohiefs of that period — Titore and Te Torn. Possibly it was the latter Cruise refers
to.



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22 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.



Te Morbnoa's Expedition to Tamaki, and Death of Eopebu, 1820-21.

In Mr. Fenton's *' Orakei Judgment/* he notes that a party of
Nga-Puhi, in the year 1821, touched at Tamaki Heads on their way
to Maketu.*' I think this is probably Hauraki's expedition above
referred to, but that the year is wrong, it should be 1820. Mr.
Fenton also adds : — ** Another party under Koperu came down from
the Bay in canoes, and attacked Mau-inaina, on the Tamaki, but
were repulsed by Ngati-Paoa, assisted by Apihai Te Eawau and his
Ngaoho people of Ngati-Whatua. Apihai Te Kawau came from and
returned toMangere on the Manukau.'*

The above expedition was that under Te Morenga and others,
which, according to Mr. Francis Hall, returned to the Bay on the 29th
July, 1821, just two days before Hongi's return from England. Mr.
Hall says: — "We hear Te Morenga's party have returned from the
Thames (all Hauraki, Wai-te-mata, &c., was the Thames in those days),
after taking vengeance on Hinaki's people, who had killed Te
Morenga*s brother some time since. They killed and ate many, and
brought home many heads, besides prisoners. They made their attack
in the night, when all were at rest, or Hinaki's people, who are very
numerous, would have been too many for them.**

The Rev. Mr. Buddie, in his lectures, (see ** Karere Maori, p. 78,
1851) says: — ** A man called Koperu, of the Nga-Puhi, was on a visit
to Ngati-Paoa at the Tamaki, at a pa where Panmure now stands,
called Mau-inaina. Tini-wai, for some cause or other, by singing
a song, induced Te Paraoa-rahi to kill Koperu. They often
conveyed their wishes in this way. Paraoa-rahi understood it and
killed him instantly." Arama Karaka Haututu, a well known chief of
Te Uri-o-hau, one of the branches of Ngati-Whatua, speaking at a
meeting held at Aotea, Kaipara, in April 1888, said : " Ko Mokoia^ na
Te Morenga^ na Takiy na Te Un-kapana; te putake, ko Koperu, He
kohuru na Paraoa-rahi, waiho a Hong5 hei hapai,'* ** Mokoia was
(assaulted) by Te Morenga, by Taki, and the Uri-kapana hapu of
Ngapuhi ; the reason was because Koperu had been killed by Paraoa-
rahi ; it was left to Hongi to avenge this.** We do not know the
particulars of Te Morenga's expedition beyond the above, or whether
Koperu was killed during it or previously. At any rate this death was
one of the reasons of Hongi 's raid on the Tamaki at the end of this
same year, the other reason specially mentioned in the Maori accounts
was the death of Te Raharaha, of Whangaroa (H. Williams), at the
hands of some of the Ngati-Whatua. Judge Gudgeon tells me there
was another cause, as follows : After the battle of Kaipiha, the Nga-
Puhi people returning from Hauraki, called in at Whangarei, and there



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 28

dug up and ate the potatoes planted by the Parawhau tribe. This, in
the opinion of tht^t tribe, was done purposely to incense them against
Ngati-Paoa. Shortly after this, Ngawaka and Koperu with many
Nga-Puhi went to make peace with Ngati-Paoa and Ngati-Maru, and
they were accompanied on this expedition by Iwi-tahi of Te Parawhau.
When the two parties met, the usual war-dance took place, and Te
Iwitahi, to satisfy his sense of injury at the potato episode, shot one
of the Ngati-Paoa people. In some way Nga-Puhi succeeded in
smoothing over this difficulty for the time, and a peace was made
between them and Ngati-Paoa. Then Iwitahi, being somewhat strong-
headed, insisted on entering the pa of Mauinaina, and was there killed
and eaten.

Rev. H. Paora says Koperu was killed dinring Hongi's absence in
England, or in 1820. Hongi returned from England by the ship
" Westmorland," with Mr. Kendall and Waikato, 11th July, 1821.

On August 10th, 1821, Mr, Butler notes : News has just arrived
that a chief named ** Lalala " ( ?Raharaha) has just been killed and
eaten together with his wife and several other chiefs by the Kaipara
people. The natives are in all quarters preparing for war." I believe
Te Raharaha was killed at Pataua, a little north of Whangarei. Mr.
Butler continues : " August 28rd. A party of natives from Hokianga
came this morning to join the great expedition now fitting out to
revenge the death of * Lalala."* Again, September 2nd, he notes:
"The armament now fitting out will consist of 2,000 men, more
formidably prepared for destruction than any former expedition.
8rd September. Another division of the crews leave to-morrow to
join the main body. The natives have been casting balls all day in
Mr. Kemp's shop." One the 4th September he writes : ** Four large
and beautiful canoes mounted with from 60 to 70 men each, rowed up
and down the river for exercise and to show their skill. Hongi was
dressed in his scarlet uniform. There is an old priest goes with him
(probably Kaiteke). We think they will have at least 1,000 muskets
with them."

The Rev. J. Butler says : ** On the 5th September, 1821, Hongi,
Rewa and several of their friends set off for the Thames on a war
expedition ; indeed the natives for 100 miles round are already on their
way, Hongi, Rewa and Waikato bringing up the rear. The place of
general assemblage is Whangarei, about 100 miles from the field of
action. There has never been anything like such an armament in
New Zealand before ; Tui and Titore and their friends are all engaged
in this general onset. I asked Rewa if they intended to save anyone
alive. He replied, ** A very few, if any, would be spared, and these
would be women and boys." Little boys would in some measure be
spared, as they would be brought up as slaves, and without knowledge



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24 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

of father or mother, and without animosity against their masters.
I enquired if there were any particular chiefs that they wished to kill ;
he named eight : Hinaki*, Totahi, Te Kawau*, Eaiwaka', Muru-
PaengaS Matohi*, Patehoro and Tyheah (? Taiaha), with all their
people. Mr. Marsden and myself in our journey to Mokoia, Manukau
and Kaipara (in 1820) went through the district belonging to these
people and were treated with great kindness by them."

This great expedition was directed against the Ngati-Paoa people
of the Tamaki, whose principal places of residence were Mokoia and
Mauinaina



Fall of Mau-inaina at Tamaki. — November, 1821.

It has been said that Hongi went to England in 1820 for the
express purpose of obtaining arras*, wherewith to combat his enemies
of the Ngati-Whatua, who had beaten Nga-Puhi in the battle of
Moremo-nui, in 1807, and also to strengthen himself against his other
enemies of the Hauraki Gulf. So far as England was concerned^ he
was not "very successful, though he was loaded with presents of other
sorts, which his friends there thought would be useful to him. In
Sydney, however, he was able to gratify his desire for arms to a con-
siderable extent, by exchanging his presents for muskets and powder.
At Sydney he met liinaki, the chief of Ngati-Paoa from Mokoia, and
Te Horeta, of Coromandel.t The three chiefs returned to New Zea-
land together, arriving at the Bay of Islands on the 11th July, 1821.
Whilst at Port Jackson, Hongi composed and sung the following song,
expressive of his intentions towards Te Hinaki : —

Ko te hanga, ko te hatiga e tohea,

Iri toki, ko Wero, kei Ware-kuku,

To kiko putanga a hau ki Eohunga,

E wai, e waiho te ngohi nei, rere Tuiikakoa,

E waiho te hanga nei.

I ki a Korohiko, ka kiokio to mata titiro,

To matamata, ka kai o reke,

1 Hinaki, principal chief of Ngati-Paoa of the Tamaki.

* Te Kawau, principal chief of Taou hapu of Ngati-Whatua.
^ Kaiwaka or Te Hau pa, principal chief of Ngati-Paoa.

* Murupaenga, chief of Ngati-Hongo hapu of Ngati-Whatua.
^ Matohi, a principal chief of Te Koroa, of Kaihu, Kaipara.

*Hongi'8 particular weapon was a musket called "Patu-iwi," which he always
carried with him. It is now deposited in the Auckland Museum.

fit is said by D'Urville, in his extracts from the *' Missionary Register,*' that
the chiefs who met Hongi in Sydney had been conveyed thither by H.M. store
ship ** Ooromandel," and yet the *' Coromandel " was at Mercuiy Bay ? in August,
1821.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 25

Eo Te-Kangi-houwhiri koe,

Nga tangata pan rawa koa te pukenga,

Na Tara-mai-nuka, pipi te are ko to bono,

Te paire a watea-e-,

Eia kotia ko poro-kaki-nai,

Eotia ko te pa tata, e ta mai nei,

Eahore koe i kite i te tara kino nei,

I te pokopoku, i te hanehane matemate,

Ei te kete waiho noa ai, Ho*ano,

Me tataii ki a wai-eha,

Me tatari ki a wai-eba,

Eia wbakaki Taare-kaki-rouroo.

Hoani Nahe, of the Ngati-Maru tribe of the Thames, supplies me
with the following in regard to the doings of Hongi on his return : —
It was on account of Nga-Puhi's losses at the battle called the '* Wai-
whariki,** fought at Puketona (near Mr. Ed. Williams' residence, on
the road from Waitangi to Ohaeawae, Bay of Islands, about 1795) in
the days of Maori weapons, that Hongi determined to attack the
Ngati-Maru at the Thames, now that he had procured arms. He
deliberately informed Hinaki and Te Horeta of his intentions when
they met in Sydney, on Hongi 's return from England with the guns
and powder he got from King George. Te Horeta and Hinaki had
gone across to Sydney on a visit when they met Hongi. On their
return to ther Bay they were Hongi*s guests, and on one occasion he
set before them a bucket of milk, knowing that they w.ould not touch
it through its unpleasantness (being unfamiliar to them)% Hongi said
to them : *' Te Horeta ! and Te Hinaki ! behold some food ! It is
milk of a cow — an animal of the pakeha*s. It is a good food — drink
it." Neither of them were, however, equal to the task, for they were
strangers to such things, and felt a disgust towards the milk. When
Hongi saw that neither of them would touch it, he drank the milk
himself at a draught. This was intended as a test of them. If they
had been able to drink the milk, Hongi would not have prevailed
against Iheir tribes. Had Horeta known this, he and his friend would
have drunk the milk, but it had been karakia by Hongi, so that they
should feel disgust at it. After Hongi had finished the milk, he
exhibited to his guests all his guns and powder brought from England,
arranging the former in rows, and giving each its name, saying : —
•' E inara ma I friends I Te Horeta I and Te Hinaki ! Behold I
this gun is * Te Wai-whariki,' this is ' Eaikai-a-te-karoro,' this is
**Wai-kohu,' this is * Te Ringa-huru-huru,' this is * Mahurangi,*" thus
naming all the battles in which Nga-Puhi had been defeated.

On the 5th September, Hongi appeared at the Bay from his home
at Waimate, bent on obtaining utu for some of his losses through the
Thames tribe, and after reviewing his fleet and putting them through
several manoBuvres he left the same day for the general rendeevous.



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26 JOURHAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

** Each canoe was manned by from 50 to 60 warriors, and they forced
their vessels through the water at an extraordinary pace. The place of
rendezvous was to be Whangarei. Never in New Zealand had such
an armament been seen before. It was dreadful to hear the threats of
these warriors of what they intended to do, in massacreing, destroying
without mercy, all they met with. Hongi left the Bay with 2000
warriors (some accounts say 8000), amongst whom were over 1000
armed with muskets, and the fleet was composed of more than 50
canoes.*' All the people round about the Bay joined in this expedi-
tion, besides some from Hokianga, the names of Muriwai and Putu-
one, of that place, being mentioned ; and Hongi's companion in his
English voyage, Waikato, was of the number, as well as Te Morenga
and Taki, with the Uri-kapana people.

On passing Pataua, Hongi apparently was desirious of proceeding
against some of the Ngati-Whatua, who were staying in that neigh-
bourhood, with the intention of obtaining some utu for the death of
Te Baharaha, but finally postponed his purpose to another oppor-
tunity.

From the rendezvous at Whangarei, the fleet passed on to Tamaki,
on their way killing some people at Te Weiti, who were probably some
of the Ngati-Whatua. In the meantime, Te Hinaki had reached his

home at Mokoia, on the Tamaki, the

Pukepo present village of Panmure, where he,
r Te Bauroha and Kohi-rangatira made

Te Pata Te Rape every preparation possible to receive

Te Whakpakonga *^®^^ redoubtable enemies. No doubt
I there were other great chiefs of Ngati-

Te Hinaki p^^^ ^^ the pas of Mokoia and Mau-

Harata-Patene inanina, but no record of them is

obtainable ; indeed, not many inci-
dents of this seige and capture, which had such momentous results, have
been retained. The seige occurred in the month of November,
according to Maori accounts, 1821. On the arrival of Nga-Puhi, they
overran the country in their search for food, killing all the stragglers
they came across, and then sat down to beseige the pa.

It appears from an account obtained from the Nga-Puhi people by
Mr. John White, that Ngati-Paoa had little hope from the first of
prevailing against their powerful and well armed foes. They there-
fore collected their most valuable possessions and took them as a peace
offiering to Hongi. These presents were duly received by Nga-Puhi,
but they showed no sign of moving oflf from the position they had
taken up. There would seem to have been an interval now, when for
a brief space the fighting ceased, but the people of the pa remained in
dread as to what course Nga-Puhi would pursue, but this time of
suspense was not of long duration.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 27

Mr. C. 0. Davies, in his " Life of Patu-one,** the celebrated Nga-
Puhi chief of Hokianga, says : *' We are told that Patu-one accom-
panied Hongi on his expedition against the Ngati-Paoa of the Tamaki
district, at which place, after considerable fighting, the enemy was
routed by the Nga-Puhi invaders, and a chief named Eaitu, of the
Patu-kirikiri tribe, was taken prisoner by Patu-one. It appears that
at one time there was a desire on the part of Hongi to retire from the
siege of the pas named respectively Mokoia and Mau-inaina ; a desire
probably occasioned by the entanglement of Hongi's foot in some
vines, when one of the besieged with a bullet from his musket knocked
off the helmet invariably worn since his return from England. Patu-
one, however, advised a renewal of the siege on the following day,
after, perhaps, an appeal to the oracles and a performance of certain
ceremonies at the Maori altar, imagined to counteract the ill omens
seen by the army, namely, the accidental entwining of Hongi's foot
and the prostration of the sacred helmet in the dust. For some time
victory seemed to favour ea»ch army alternatively. At length Hongi,
who had the greatest number of muskets, and who had arranged his
men in the form called in Eoman tactics the **cuneus,*' or wedge,
placing himself in the apex and directing those behind him to wheel
round upon the enemy from right and left, or to fall back into their
original positions as opportunity offered, shot Te Hinaki and defeated
h's army with great slaughter."

This fight apparently took place outside the pa. For incidents of
the capture of the pa itself we are obliged to have recourse to a French
source. Dr. Lessou* learnt from Tui, who with Pomare were both
engaged in the operations, that '* Hongi had to beat a retreat at first,
but returning to the charge, whilst his people kept up a fire on the pa,
they succeeded in pulling down some of the pallisades, but not with-
out losing many men. This done, they climbed up the sides of the
mount which was crowned by the pa, losing numbers of their men,
but finally reached the summit. Here they found the besieged pro-
tected by a thick wall of earth, against which the musket-balls fell
harmless. Hongi then ordered wood to be fetched, and with this
elevated a platform which overlooked the stronghold, and here he
placed his best marksmen. Each discharge killed some of the
defenders, and soon those who guarded the entrance were all dead,
and nothing opposed the triumph of the invaders. The pa was now
rushed, and a fearful slaughter took place, men, women and children
all shared the same fate, and with them three Europeans sailors who
were living with the people in the pa. The wounded warriors were all
killed, the Thames tribe (Ngati-Paoa) losing 300 men. Hongi took

* " Voyage antour da Monde."



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28 fiOURNAL OF THE POLY^f-'SIAN SOCIEU^

the best portions to present to the families of those engaged in the
expedition. The army remained on the field of battle feasting on the
flesh of those who had been killed, until driven away by the putri-
f action of the remains.**

It appears from the Maori accounts that Hongi had a very narrow
escape of losing his life in this affair ; for Bangi-whenua, one of the
Ngati-Paoa braves, just before he fled from the pa, saw Hongi with
his foot caught in the pallisading, as he attempted to scale them, and
he would have been killed by Bangi-whenua with a cooper*s adze
which he carried, had it not been for fear of Hongi*s two pistols.
Bangi-whenua fled from the pa, after killing many of the Nga-Puhi
with his adze, and started to swim across the Tamaki river, when he
was challenged to come back by Te Ihe*, of Nga-Puhi, and fight it out.
He did so, and the two braves fought a single-handed combat in front
of the Nga-Puhi host. Te Bangi-whenua was, however, killed by a
left-handed blow from Te Ihe*s tomahawk. He des^ved a better fate
for his pluck.

It is said that Te Hinaki was killed by Hongi himself, and that the
latter drank some of the former* s blood in satisfaction of his hatred.
Te Hinaki*s head was taken back in triumph to the Bay of Islands
and there exhibited.

Mr. John White, in his ** Lectures on Maori Customs and Super-
stitions,** says that it was customary to give the eyes of the enemies
slain in battle to the relatives of those who had fallen in the fight,
which were always eaten. This fate was inflicted by Hongi upon the
whole of the family of Te Paraoa-rahi and their relations, in vengeance
for the death of Eoperu, the murder for which he commenced his war
on the Thames and Waikato. He also says in the same work, that
although the whole of the Nga-Puhi army was under Hongi's leader-
ship, a dispute arose as to how the pa — Mau-inaina — should be
ftttacked, which eventually resulted in a separation of the Nga-Puhi
tribes engaged. Four or five of the hnpiis retired under their own
chiefs and would not help in the attack, but joined again after the
battle and assisted in the subsequent campaign. This was an assertion
of their own independence, Hongi not being the arihi of their hapiis.

The Bev. Mr. Buddie, in his ** Lectures,'* says : — ** Some children
belonging to a Waikato chief happened to be in the pa of Mau-inaina
when it was taken, and they were killed. This led the Waikatos to
seek uUi, and they went to Whangarei and destroyed the principal
chief there,** This is probably the expedition of 1828, referred to
later on.

*Te Ihe, the hero, caught by Te Mautoranui at Whakatane.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 29

The Native accounts say that over a thousand of the Ngati-Paoa
people fell in the taking of Mau-inaina, and a traveller who visited the
battlefield in 1844 records that '' the bones of 2000 men still lay
whitening on the plain, and the ovens remain in which the flesh of
the slaughtered was cooked for the horrible repasts of the victorious
party.'*

The remainder of Ngati-Paoa, who managed to escape, fled to
Waikato and Patetere for protection, where we shall hear of them
again ; and with them was one of their great chiefs, Eohi-rangatira.
Thus was the death of Koperu at the hands of Te Paraoa-rahi avenged
by his fellow-tribesmen, and the Tamaki District laid waste for many a
day a come. I cannot ascertain whether our friends the Ngati- Whatua
took part with Ngati-Paoa in their defence of Mau-inaina, but I think
not, though it seems probable that some of them were dwelling at
Mangere at the time. We know that Apihai Te Kawau, Awarua, Te
Tinana, and others of the Taou branch of the Ngati-Whatua were
absent at the time with Tukorehu's army on an expedition against the
tribes liring at the south end of the island, which will be referred to
later on.

Fall op Te Totara Pa, 1821.

After the fall of Mau-inaina, it is not quite clear whether Hongi
returned direct to the Bay or went on at once to carry out his threats
against Ngati-Maru at the Thames. Hoani Nahe says that after taking
Mau-inaina, he went at once to the Thames, and he gives the date of
the attack on Te Totara as December, so the probability is that he went
there at once.

Although the fall of the Totara pa at the Thames has no immediate
bearing on the history of Ngati-Whatua, it had with Nga-Puhi, and
the consequences of it were very far-reaching. As I have obtained
some particulars about it not hitherto published, I have put down the
story, as it falls immediately after the capture of Mau-inaina.

At this period, Te Totara was the great stronghold of Ngati-Maru.
The pn is situated about a mile south of the bridge over the Wai-
whakauranga Stream, on the road from Shortland to Paeroa. It
occupies the seaward end of a long spur coming down from the
wooded mountains to the east, which terminates in a steep face
abutting on the mangrove lined banks of the Waihou, or Thames,
River. The fine grove of karaka trees growing on the western slope
of the ridge, just below the old pa, is a noticeable feature from the
present main road, which passes along the edge of the grove. The old
maiot 08y or ramparts, of the pa, are still to be seen, and show that it
was one of great strength in Maori warfare. There were not many of



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80 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

the Ngati-Maru tribe, however, in the pa at the time of its fall,
though there were several people of other tribes. The following
account was given to me by Hoani Nahe, of Ngati-Maru : —

** When Hongi arrived from the north, he assaulted and took the pa
of Mau-inaina, killing the chief of that pa, Te Hinaki. From there he
came on to Hauraki, and assaulted Te Totara pa, but failed to take it.
They were two days and one night trying to take it, bat did not
succeed. Then Hongi conceived a treacherous idea with respect to the
Totara, the pa of Te Puhi and his elder brother, Te-Aka-te-rangi-ka-



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