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peke, and their numerous relatives. There were none but chiefs in
the pa — the chiefs of Ngati-Maru — whose names I have forgotten, and
remember only those of Te Puhi and Te-Aka."

'* I will explain what I mean when I referred to the Totara being
taken by treachery {he mea kohuru), Hongi, finding he could not take
the pa by assault, sent a number of his chiefs to make peace with the
people of the pa — n, deceitful peace — {maunga-rongo wkakapaidpatt).
On their arrival at the pa they delivered their message. Te Puhi and
Te-Aka agreed to this, thinking it was to be a bona fide peace with
them and the chiefs of Ngati-Maru, but it turned out to be the worst
ever made by the Maori people. So soon as all had been arranged,
Te-Aka presented the famous mere, named Te Uira, and Te Puhi, his
mere, named Tutae-o-Maui, to Nga-Puhi, in order to cement the peace,
in accordance with Maori custom. The chiefs of Nga-Puhi, who were
sent by Hongi to arrange this deceitful peace were: — Muriwai, Te
Eoki, Te Nganga, Te Torn, Whiwhia, Toretumua, Ururoa, Te Whare-
rahi, Moka, Manu, Eahe, Whai, Eaiteke, Whare-poaka, Te Morenga,
Nga-ure, Te Whare-umu, Eopeka, Eawiti, Mata-roria, Te Awa, Te
Eahakaha,"^ Te Heke, Tareha, Te Hakiro, Eukupa, and Te Ihi,f which
are all the names known.

** On this same day, Pomare and his hapu (sub- tribe) returned home,
because he was aware that Hongi*s designs were treacherous, and he
did not approve of them. Hongi himself remained in their camp at
Te Amo-o-te-rangi, with the main body. When this company of
chiefs returned to their camp they reported to their chief, Hongi, that
peace had been made, and two meres given to cement it/*

Mr. J. A. Wilson, in his interesting " Story of Te Waharoa,** p.
12, says : — ** Towards evening Nga-Puhi retired, and it is very re-

*Te Eahakaha was one of HoDgi's great warriors. He was shot at the Whaka-
tere fight, near Waimate, in Hone Heke^s war against the Pakeha. Manning, in
his " Heke's War in the North,*' gives a capital description of his death, and of
Heke's attempt to rescue him.

tWe learn from Marsden that the chief Waikato was also of the party, at
any rate, at the taking of Man.inaina, bat that he did not accompany Honfo to
Botorua. Waikato was Bnatara's brother and Hongi's brother-in-law.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 81

markable — as indicating that man in his most ignorant and savage
state is not unvisited by compunctions of conscience — that an old chief
lingered, and, going out of the gate behind his companions, dropped
the friendly caution, * Kia tupato,' be cautious, or, on your guard."

To return to Hoani Nahe's narrative : ** When Hongi heard the
news, he at once commanded his army to launch their canoes, so as to
appear as if they were off home. But it was all deceit on his part.
When they reached Tararu, about five miles from Te Totara, they
landed there to await darkness. From Tararu they returned in the
night to Te Totara, and entered the pa without opposition, none of
Ngati-Maru being on guard, as they believed the peace just made was a
true one, and, moreover, they had witnessed Nga-Puhi*8 departure
towards home. In consequence of this, the pa was taken, and men,
women, and children fell an easy prey to Nga-Puhi, sixty of Ngati-
Maru alone, besides many others, meeting their death, all of the former
being chiefs. There were many more people killed by Nga-Puhi at
Matakitaki than here, because there was only one kapu of Ngati-Maru
in the pa, that named Te Uri-ngahu, who indeed owned the pa, and
very few of the other hapjis of Ngati-Maru, most of whom where at
Matamata, and some away in the southern expedition with Waikato
and Ngati-Whatua against Ngati-Eahu-ngunu and the tribes of Cook
Strait. The. greater number of people in the pa belonged to the
Waikato, Arawa, Ngati-Awa, Ngati-Pukenga, Whanau-a-Apanui, and
other tribes." It is said that this scheme of Hongi's to take Ngati-
Maru unawares originated with his blind wife, Turi, who always ac-
companied him on his expeditions,

Mr. J. A. Wilson says : — " . . . It is said that one thousand
Ngati-Maru perished. Eauroha'^ was slain, and Urumihia,! his
daughter, carried captive to the Bay of Islands, where she remained
several years."

Hoani Nahe adds: — ** There was only one gun in Te Totara pa,
and very little powder, and it was this gun that killed many Nga-Puhi
before the peace was made, but the powder was all consumed. There
was only one man of Nga-Puhi killed at the pa itself, and that was
done by Ahurei, who felled him wiih a toki-panehe, or adze, made of
hoop-iron. This was all the payment the people of Te Totara got for
their great losses. It is said the man's name was Te Hotete (? Tete).

*In the '• Orakei Judgment," already quoted, Mr. Fenton, says Te Bauroha
was living at Mangapiko, Waikato, in 1824.

fThe Bev. W. B. Wade says that on July 12th, 1836, he visited Eawakawa,
and there found Urumihia on a visit from the Thamen with many of her tribe.
She had formerly married Einikini, but was now separated from him.



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32 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

It was in revenge for this that Wetea and Tukehu, the children of Te
Puhi and TeAka, were killed by Hongi. They had been taken
prisoners when the pa fell, but were only wounded, not killed. They
had been speared, and then left so that their blood might be drank by
those who made this deceitful peace. Before, however, they had been
speared, they requested they might have time to take farewell of their
tribe and their lands. This was consented to by Hongi. The boys
then took farewell of those left alive, and of their home. They did
this thinking they would be taken away as slaves, but on learning that
they would be killed, they recited an old song of their tribe, which is
as follows : —

I.
Takoto ai te marino, horahia i waho ra,
Hei paki haerenga mo Haohaotapuni,
Noku te wareware, te whai ra nge-au,
Te hukanga wai-hoe, nau E Ahurei !
Eai tona ki te rae ki Eoohi ra ia,
Marama te titiro te paia i Whakaari.
Ea tamru tonn mai ka hora te marino,
Hei kawe i a koe, '* Te-pon-o-te-kapenga
Na-Taramai-nnku.*'
Eowai an ka kite.

Eurehu ai te titiro ki Moehau-ra ia,
Me kawe rawa ra, hei hoko paa*-e-,
Ei tawhito riro ra, ki te ketunga rimu.

n.

Eaore te aroha, a komingomingo nei,
Te hoki noa ata i tarawai awa,
Tenei ka tata mai te uhi a Mata-ora,
He kore tohunga mftna, hei wehe ki te wai,
Eia heme ake ai te aroha i ahan,
He kore no Takirau, kihai ra i waiho,
He whakawehi-e, mo te hanga i raro nei,
Nou nga taritari, pawera rawa au
Taku taranga ake i te hihi o te whare,
£ rnmaki tonu ana he wai kei akn kamo.

*' So soon as they had finished their song, Hongi jumped up and
speared one of them, and drank his blood. Both the boys laughed,
for they felt no fear. Then jumped up another of the Nga-Puhi chiefs
and did the same for the other lad. These were the same chiefs who,
the previous day, had made peace with Ngati-Maru ! **

*' The other people, Ngati-Maru and their allies, who dwelt in the
neighbourhood, finding they could not rescue their friends in the pa,
fled to the mountains, for the fear of Nga-Puhi was great."

Thus Hongi avenged the defeat of his tribe at Wai-whariki in 1798
and other battles in whiqh — b^for^ the days of guns — the Thames



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 88

people had been viotorioas. In the fight at Te Totara Nga-Puhi lost
very few of their braves, but amongst them were Tete and his brother
Pu, the former of whom was husband of Aku, Hongi's daughter.
The death of these young chiefs gave Nga-Puhi a pretext for invading
Waikato the following year, as it was believed they were killed by
some of the Waikato who were in Te Totara pa, as mentioned above
by Hoani Nahe.

On the 19th December, 1821, three canoes belonging to Hongi's
expedition, under Muriwai, arrived back at the Bay with over one
hundred prisoners, whom they took on with them the same day to
their homes at Hokianga, together with many heads. The " Mission-
ary Register '* for 1828 describes with some detail the horrors which
were perpetrated on the unfortunate prisoners on the return of Hongi
to the Bay,* which occured on the 21st December, 1821. It is said
they brought back about 2,000 prisoners. The dead bodies of Tete
and Pu were also taken to their home for the usual rites to be per-
formed.

Mr. Francis Hall on the 19th December, 1821, says; '< Tete was
the most civilized, best behaved, and most ingenious and industrious
young . man we have met with in New Zealand. His brother Pu, a
fine young man, is also amongst the slain. This has created great
grief in the family. Tete's wife and Mattooka (?Matuku), his brother
are watched and bound to prevent them from putting an end to their
lives. Pu*s wife hung herself on hearing the news. Hongi's wife has
killed a prisoner of war, which is customary on such occasions/*

Again on December 19th, he says ; <' We received the painful news
this morning that Hongi and his people had killed more prisoners,
making the number which we know of to 18 who have been murdered
in cold blood since they returned from the fight.*'

Another Missionary says : *' January I9th, 1822. Hongi came this
morning to have his wounds dressed, he having been tatooed afresh on
his thigh. His eldest daughter, the widow of Tete, who fell in the late
expedition, shot herself this morning through the fleshy part of the
arm with two balls ; she intended to have made away with herself, but
we suppose in the agitation of pulling the trigger with her toe the
muEzle of the musket was removed from a fatal spot."

A young man related to the celebrated Te Bauparaha was killed
at Te Totara, and that great warrior on his visit to Te Warn at
Tauranga the same year, being incensed at this death — foolishly and
unnecessarily as he thought — is said by Mr. Travers* to have secured
Pomare's consent to allow him to kill some of the Nga-Puhi, who

* '* Transaetioiis N.Z. Insiitate, ' Vol. V., p. 69,



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84 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

shortly after this visited Tauranga, as utu for him. Mr. Travers
says it was on account of the death of the infant children of Tokoahu,
who had married a grand niece of Te Rauparaha's, but I believe Toko-
ahu's children were killed at the taking of Mau-inaina. But both
Tarakawa and Judge Gudgeon tells me that the cause was the death of
' Te Whetu-roa, a nephew of Te Whata-nui, of the Ngati-Raukawa
tribe, who was living at the time with Ngati-Maru in Te Totara pa,
and who was also related to Te Bauparaha, that was killed there, and
this last seems the most reasonable take, for it is well known that the
Ngati-Raukawa and Ngati-Toa tribes are closely related. However,
this may be, there is no doubt that Te Rauparaha and Te Whata nui
were the authors of the disaster that befel Ngi-Puhi the following year,
as we shall see.

The fact that Te Rauparaha was at Tauranga, trying to secure Te
Waru*s aid in his expedition against the people of Cook Strait, when
the news of the fall of Te Totara reached Tauranga, is tolerably cer-
tain, and by the aid of this fact we shall be able to fix the date of
another important event in New Zealand history. It is well known
that as soon as possible after the battle of Okoke, fought on the
Motu-nui Flat, between the Urenui and Mimi Rivers, Taranaki, Te
Rauparaha settled his tribe — the Ngati-Toa — ^at Waitara and its
neighbourhood, amongst the Ngati-Mutunga and Te Ati-Awa tribes.
So soon as their welfare had been provided for he started off to Taupo
and Rotorua, to try and induce Ngati-Raukawa to join him in his
proposed settlement at Cook Strait. Failing their acquiescence, he
went on to visit Rotorua, and then Te Warn, of Tauranga, with the
same object, and was there in December, 1821, when Te Totara fell.
Allowing him two months for these operations, it results that the
battle of Okoke must have taken place about the beginning of Novem-
ber, 1821, and this will serve to fix another date.

It is also well known that the ope of Tukorehu (called Amio-
whenua, to be referred to later on), of Ngati-Maniapoto, with his
allies, the Ngati-Whatua under their chiefs Apihai-te-Kawau, Uruamo
and others, were at the date of the battle of Okoke, shut up in the
Puke-rangiora pa, Waitara, Taranaki. This ope was then on its way
home after having come round by Port Nicholson, and after Okoke,
Te Wherowhero and other chiefs of Waikato escaped to and joined
Tukorehu in the besieged pa. From here Te Wherowhero returned to
Waikato, arriving in time to take part in the defence of Matakitaki in
about May 1822. We may, therefore, assume that the siege of Puk^
rangiroa by Te Ati-awa was from about October 1821 to say January
or February 1822.*

•This siege of Puke-rangiora must not be confused with the more celebrated
siege by Waikato in 1831.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 86

The story of Pomare's consent to Te Baaparaba's demand to be
allowed to kill some of the Nga-Puhi to assuage his injured feelings
seems to me improbable, and moreover I doubt if Pomare was with
the Nga-Puhi at Rotorua in 1822 at all. What seems more probable,
and for which there is some authority, is that the party of which
Pomare was leader, retired just before Te Totara, and he then pro-
ceeded to the Bay of Plenty and attacked Tuhua Island at this time.
The following account is from " The Life of Paratene-te Manu ** :
'* My fourth fight was at the Island of Tuhua or Mayor Island, in the
Bay of Plenty. We were armed with guns as well as with our native
weapons — the spear, the club, the battle-axe of stone, and the green-
stone and whale- bone meres. We proceeded by sea and landed at the
Island of Tuhua, where we fought with the people of that place, and
their pa fell to us. The name of the pa was Nga-uhi-apo. Here we
took prisoner the wife of Puru — the chief of the pa — and her children.
At daylight next morning Puru approached us, and coming into the
midst of our war-party, he cried and lamented for his wife. Then
spoke the chief of our party, '< Let us return his wife to him.*' So the
woman was returned to her husband. On this Puru called out, ** Let
a warrior from your taua come with me." So Te Tawheta and three
others went with Puru and returned him| his wife and children to
their own people. On arrival at one of the island villages where the
people were gathered peace was made, and a certain woman was given
to us to cement the peace. The name of the woman was Te Bautahi,
and Te Buruanga was her daughter. Te Bautahi was a chieftainess
of Tuhua. We then returned to our homes.'*

A very good description of Tuhua will be found in ** Transactions
N.Z. Institute, vol. xxvii, p. 417,** by E. C. Goldsmith, then District
Surveyor of the Tauranga District, in which he describes the many
pas, some of which are very strong, that formerly belonged to Umnga-
wera and Te Whanau-a-Ngai-taiwhao branches of Ngai-Te-Bangi tribe.
This was not the only time these tribes suffered at the hands of Nga-
Pohi, as we shall see.



Dbath of Te Pab-o-tb-banoi, 1822.

The following is the account of the affair at Boto-Eakahi, near
Botorua, as told by Petera-te-Pukuatua, the present chief of Ngati-
Whakaue living at Ohinemutu, Botorua, to Mr. A. Shand in 1898 :
*' After Te Bauparaha had settled at Eapiti (read here Waitara) he
came on a visit to his relatives of Te Arawa tribe living at Botorua,
where he saw Te Pukuatua (Petera*s father) and other chiefs of that



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86 JOURNAL OF THE POLYNESIAN SOCIETY.

tribe, and endeavoured to induce them to aid him in destroying a
party of Nga-Puhi, who were then at Tauranga, and on their way to
Botorua. His object was to obtain revenge for the death of Te Puhi
(read Te Whetu-roa), of Ngati-Maru, a relative of his who had been
killed at Te Totara pa when it fell. Neither the Ngati-Whakaue nor
the Ngati-Rangi-wewehi tribes of Botorua would consent, so Te Rau-
paraha determined to try the Tu-hou-rangi tribe, to whom also he was
related. He passed on from Botorua by way of Tiki-tere to Motu-
tawa, an island in Roto-Eakahi lake, where the Tu-hou-rangi tribe was
assembled. After some time Mutu-kuri, the chief of Tu-hou-rangi,
consented to aid Te Bauparaha in his object, and a scheme worthy of
the wily chief of Ngati-Toa was laid.*

Whilst he was staying with his friends on Motu-tawa, the war-
party of Nga-Puhi appeared on the shores of Boto-kakahi Lake, and
there asked the Tu-hourangi people in the pa to send canoes across to
ferry them over to the island, at the same time professing a desire to
make friends with Tu-hourangi. Some of the Tu-hourangi people
called out, (the island is not half a mile from the shore) ** We are
afraid to go over to you for fear of being eaten." To this the Nga-
Puhi replied, ** What good should we obtain by eating two or three of
you, whilst so many remain, bring a canoe that we may cross over and
salute you." Accordingly a canoe was sent, and it brought over about
twenty of the Nga-Puhi, and in like manner others were ferried over,
who, on their arrival, were distributed to different parts of the pa.
Tu-hourangi continued to bring over their visitors until there were
about one hundred and thirty of them in the pa, including their chiefs
Te-Pae-o-te-rangi, and Waero, all of whom were armed with guns.
At this juncture, Te Bauparaha said to the Tu-hourangi people, "Bring
no more over, we will kill those here, kei kori, lest they turn on us."
So Tu-hourangi arose and killed all the people in the pa ; not one
escaped, the chiefs mentioned being among the slain. Thus Te-
Bauparaha obtained revenge for his relative Te Puhi." — (Again, read Te
Whetu-roa).

"Whilst Tu-hourangi were massacring Nga-Puhi in the pa at
Motu-tawa, their friends on the mainland, seeing what was going on,
were frantic with rage, shouting, and firing their guns in vain, for the
distance was too great for the muskets of those days to be effective.
After a time Nga-Puhi returned home." But on their way some of
them were killed at Ohine-mutu by Ngati-whakaue.

* This statement as to Te Bauparaha being at Motu-tawa at the time of the
attack ou Nga-Puhi must be read together with that in this Journal, vol. viii, p. 183,
where it is stated that both Te Whata-nai and Te Bauparaha returned home from
Botorua, after having a vised Tu-hou-rangi to slaughter the Nga-Puhi. Of this
faot the author of that paper assures me he is certain.



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WARS OF NORTHERN AGAINST SOUTHERN N.Z. TRIBES. 87

The Nga-Puhi account of this affair is a little different in detail.
The following is one of their accounts. ** Tiraha — who is now — 1849 —
living at Paihia— lost his father Papa, at Rotorua, where he was
murdered by Te Rauparaha, and this lead to the Nga-Puhi expedition
to that place. Papa was killed through deceit. The people in the pa
had a large house around which they had erected a very high
pallasading, and Papa and his friends, sixty in number, had been invited
into the house as guests. There were about 600 people in the pa.
Some of the latter killed some Maori dogs, and burned the hair in
order that the scent of it should reach the guests who would thereby
think the dogs were killed for food. Then Te Rauparaha arose and
recited a karakia beginning : —

He tamariki ranei koe
Eia akona he mahara-e-ra,
Ngaua i te wiwi,
Ngaaa i te wawa, <ftc.

So soon as the karakia was finished, the guests were killed, one only of
the Nga-Puhi escaping by climbing over the pallasade and then dashing
down into the lake. This occurred at Motu-tawa, an island in Lake
Roto-kakahi. The man's name was Te Maangi. As he swam away
from the island he was followed by two men of the pa in a canoe, and
when they drew near Te Maangi dived as far as he could, but soon
losing breath he was overtaken and the men attempted to kill him
with their paddles. But Te Maangi was a brave fellow : he seized the
bows of the canoe and managed to jump into it, when the two fellows
retreated to the stem. Possessing himself of a paddle he made for
them, when they took to the water, but by paddling after them he
succeeded in killing both with his paddle and then rejoined his friends.
Te Maangi lost all his teeth through the blows of the two men when
chasing him.'*

This massacre, which must have taken place early in 1822, was
the reason of Hongi's expedition to Rotorua in 1823, but he had first
an account to settle with Waikato for the death of his relations at Te
Totara.

Takaanui Tarakawa, who is well up in these events, states that Te
Rauparaha was not at Mofcu-tawa at the time of the massacre, but he
and Te Whata-nui of Ngati-Raukawa after their visit to Rotorua, both
left together, and it was during their stay at Motu-tawa that Te Rau-
paraha sung the song or karakia above to incite Tu-hourangi to faU on
Nga-Puhi when they came.

{ To he Continued.)



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" THE CREATION SONG " OF HAWAU.



By Edward Treoear.



^^pTMONo the most treasured volumes on my shelves is a book sent
IjL ^ ^^ years ago by His late Majesty Ealakaua, King of
^^ Hawaii — himself the author of the work. It was a royal
task, for it was the effort to preserve, as printed literature alone can by
dispersion preserve, the fast-fading legends embodying the cosmogony
and mythology of his people as taught in ancient days, and also pedigrees
of high chiefs as sung by the priests of the Heraldic College. But no
translation into any European language accompanied the book.
Many an hour I pored over the old verses, catching strange glimpses
of all sorts of secrets and of mysterious hints as to hidden things
that in other island lore were full of broken lights and half-revealed
promises. However, every Polynesian student knows how difficult it
is, even for a scholar accomplished in the particular dialect under con-
sideration, to fully understand the obsolete speech and mystical
allusions in which the old poetry of the Pacific islands abounds. No
Hawaiian pundit, no Fomander or Lorrin Andrews was at hand from
whom help could be entreated, so, fearing to utterly fall where much
more skilful men might stumble, I have abstained from calling
attention to the poems, except on one occasion. Light has come from
another direction through the issue by Liliuokalani, ex-Queen of
Hawaii (and patron of the Polynesian Society) of a translation*
of one of the principal poems in the King's book. It is evident, on
careful perusal, that even the great scholarship of the authoress has
failed to convey to the reader the meaning intended in the original

• Note.— r/ie Creatum of the World : Lee & Shepsrd, Boston, U.S.A., 1897.



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" THE CREATION SONG " OF HAWAII. . 89

words, but this is assuredly inevitable from the nature of the subject.
It would be perhaps impossible to make a modern Hawaiian under-
stand without long explanation what was meant by allusions whose
real significance is hidden under the mist of centuries. It is certainly
quite unavailing to attempt to convey to Europeans at once the literal
meaning and the methaphorical reference of every allusion unless
each line is made the text of a whole sermon of explanatory notes
and almost interminable commentary. Therefore we must acquit the
writer of any shortcoming in that which purports to be just a fair
rendering of one of the most difficult pieces of native poetry possible
to translate, and only express deep gratitude for a very successful
effort. Although the poem was composed in its present form in about
A.D. 1700, it is (like all Polynesian semi-religious chants) merely a
mosaic of antique fragments of ancestral learning. It has some
added interest to Englishmen because it was sung to Captain Cook
when he, being mistaken by the islanders for their god Lono (Kongo)
foolishly accepted divine honours, a fact that ultimately wrought
his violent death. The translation was published in 1897, but
I have hitherto refrained from reviewing it in this journal, as I
hoped that some Hawaiian scholar would give us the benefit of his
local knowledge by writing a paper on the subject of the poem.
That has apparently not been done for members of the Society, so I
venture to briefly point out some of the most interesting portions
from the Maori field of view.

The song of ** The Creation " is an ancient prayer for the dedica-
tion of a high chief. It commences : —

" At the time that turned the heat of the earth,



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