Polynesian Society (N.Z.).

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At the time when the heavens turned and changed.

At the time when the light of the sun was subdued

To cause light to break forth,

At the time of the night of Makalii (winter)

Then began the slime which established the earth,

The source of deepest darkness.

Of the depth of darkness, of the depth of darkness,

Of the darkness of the sun, in the depth of night.
It is night.
So was night bom."

This gives a reasonably fair vision of the world in the ages before
men inhabited the earth, and we pass on to the birth of the uncreated


" Kumulipo was born in the night, a male,
Poele was bom in the night, a female.

A coral insect was bom, from which was born perforated coral,
The earthworm was bom, which gathered earth into mounds.
From it were -bom worms full of holes.
The starfish was bom, whose children were starry,'*
Ac, <ftc.

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Then follow the names of the shell fish mhabiting the ocean.
The above name of Eumulipo, by which in Hawaii is understood
"the Creation/' would be rendered in Maori Tu-muri-po, i.e.,
*' Standing-behind-Night " (or the god Tu-behind-Night) while his
wife Poele is in Maori Po-kere^ " Dark Night.** In this part of the
song there is a regular metre of long lines used whilst the names of
the shell fish created are recited, but it then changes to six-line
stanzas, describing the birth of the seaweed and grasses, each weed
of the sea having its equivalent and guardian-creature of the forest.
The last three lines of each stanza is common to all.
The following is a sample of the verses : —
" Man by Waiololi ; woman by WaioloU,

The Mananea was bom and lived in the sea ;

Goarded by the Kalo Manaea that grew in the forest

A night of flight by noises

Through a channel ; water is life to trees ;

So the gods may enter, bat not man.**

After sixteen similar stanzas, this part ends with the very curious
verse: —

** A husband of goord, and yet a god,
A tendril strengthened by water and grew
A being, produced by earth and spread,
Made deafening by the swiftness of Time,
Of the Hee that lengthened through the night,
That filled and kept on filling
Of filling, until, filled
To filling, *tis full,

And supported the earth, which held the heaven
On the wing of Time ; the night is for Kumulipo (creation)
*Tis night.*'

In the Second Era we are told that ** The first child of Powehe -
wehi (Dusky Night) tossed up land for Pouliuli (Darkest Night) ''and
then the seven waters became calm,*' so that the creation of fishes
began. Here, in the long recital of the names of every known fish,
a peculiar thing may be noted, rare in Polynesian poetry, viz., an
effort either to rhyme or alliterate the names in each line, e.g. : —
** The Nana was bom, the Mana was bom in the sea and swam,
The Nake was bom, the Make was bom in the sea and swam.
The Napa was bom, the Nala was bom in the sea and swam,
The Pala was bom. the Eala was bom in the sea and swam,
The Paka was bom, the Papa was born in the sea,**
<tc., <ftc.

Then the rhythm alters, and the verse becomes six-lined, as in the
recital of the events of the First Era, and with the same method of
recording the birth of the things created, viz., that for each ocean
dweller there is a tree, or shrub or vine, some forest-growing thing
provided. The refrain has ab>o slightly changed.

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" Man by Waiololi, woman by Waiolola,
The Pahan was bom in the sea ;
Gaarded by the Lauhan that grew in the forest.
A night of flight by noises
Through a channel ; salt water is life to fish ;
So the gods may euter, but not man.''

The creation of the fishes being continued through sixteen stanzas
and an epilogue.

The Third Era is thus announced : —

** He was the man and she the woman ;
The man that was bom in the dark age,
And the woman was born in the age of bubbles.
The sea spread, the land spread,
The waters spread, the mountains spread.
The Poniu grew tall with advancing time.
The Haha grew and had nine leaves,

And the Palai (fern) sprout that shot forth leaves of high chiefs,
Brought forth Poeleele (Darkness) a man,
Who lived with Pohaha (Bubbles) a woman,
And brought forth generations of Haha {kalo or taro tops)
The Haha was bora."

Lest the ancient poet should be suspected of any intentional
rudeness to women in saying that while the man was bom in the
dark age woman was bom in the age of bubbles, it should not be
understood that the man spoken of was a human being or the woman
either. They were evidently Male and Female Principles, since
several Eras have yet to be passed through before we arrive at the
birth of the real genus homo. After the preamble above we pass on to
the creation of insects and then to birds, land-birds first by name,
then the birds of ocean.

The general list concluded we get again to the six-line stanzas,
and here each of the sea-birds created has a land-bird made to
guard it.

« Man by Waiololi, woman by Waiolola,
The Hebe was bora and Uved on the sea,
Guarded by the Nene that lived in the forest.
A night of flight by noises.
Eggs and lo are Uf e to birds.
So the gods may enter but not man.*'

I do not know what is the meaning of lo here ; it may mean
merely to '* flesh," (Maori kiko) or be a reference to the god lo as
** spirit," in the Maori mythology.

The Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Eras appear to have been devoted to
the birth of monsters of the deep, and of such small mammals as
rats and mice. In the Seventh Era the dog and the bat appear, but
are very curiously and mystically alluded to :

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" Over the mountains gilenoe reigns —
The silence of night that has moved away,
And the silence of night that oometh,
The silence of night filled with people,
And the silence of night of dispersing.
'Tis fearful the steps and narrow trails—
'Tis fearful the amount eaten and left-^
*Ti8 fearful the night past and gone ;
The awful stillness of the night that came —
The night that went by and brought forth an offspring,
That offspring a dog —
A yellow dog, a tiny dog,
A dog without hair, sent by the gods —
A dog sent lor sacrifice.
A speckled bird was first sacrificed.
Else he'd repent for having no hair,
Else he'd repent for having no covering,
And go naked on the road to Malama ;
The easiest path for children.
From great to small.
From tall to short.
He is equal to the blowing breeze.
The younger brother of the god
From which sprang the god of the bats—
The hairy bats.

Sprang the bat with many claws —
Sprang the bat and moved away.
That the rising surf might give it birth.
'Tis night.

The above is a good example in favoor of my previoas remark
how impossible it is to preserve the sense of the poet in a direct trans-
lation, and how necessary a full commentary would be to make the
reader understand. I may point out that the aUusion to the victim of
sacrifice being prejudiced by improper rites, and thus sent *' naked
on the road to Malama ** is probably a reference to the spirit path to
heaven, as Malama is, in some Polynesian islands, ** the future
world." It is the Kingdom of Moonlight, where Hina, the Moon-
goddess, reigns, and is full of all innocent delights.

As the Seventh Era ended it was still night, but with the opening
of the Eighth Era the day appears, and we are also introduced to
some of the gods.

They are called men and women, but are all well known in Poly-
nesia, except Lailai, whose name seems only preserved in Hawaii.
(The Maori names are given in brackets).

" Lailai was bom a woman,
Eii [Tiki] was bom a man,
Kane [Tane] a god was bom.

Kanaloa [Tangaroa] was bom a god, the great Octopus.
'Tis day."

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** Lailai of the distant night, Lailai the woman/' appears as a
very shadowy figure, and it seems impossible to understand what
power she is iutended to represent. She is indeed, to be described best
in the line, ** This woman was from a race of illusions (myth) '* — and
is evidently some Cosmic goddess, probably the impersonation of the
Eternal Feminine in Nature. With the Eleventh Era commencfes the
prodigious pedigree of the Kings of Hawaii, one that would make the
Hebrew priest or Rajpoot noble hide his diminished head, for it in-
cludes celestial beings for many generations. It gives in this Era
alone about seven hundred and forty generations (about 18,500 years),
recording the name of each male with that of his wife, a wonderful
monument to the powers of the human memory in recital, if nothing
else. The only thing that I have particularly noticed in the names is
that there are long sequences of almost similar names, as if there had
been surnames or family names in use. Thus we have Eupolele,
Eupololo, EupoUli — Polohemo, Polokinau, Polokii — Liilimelau, Liili-
leoleo, Liililimanu, &c. The Twelfth Era continues the pedigree for
another hundred generations or so down to the birth of Wakea (Vatea
or Atea) called the first man, and Papa, the first woman. We are
here evidently only at the beginning of Maori theology, since with us
Bangi (Heaven) answers to Wakea or Atea (Daylight), and both coin-
cide in being the husband of Papa, the Earth Goddess. In the
Thirteenth Era we have mention made of Haumea, who may be,
perhaps, the Haumia known to the Maoris as a great ogress, the
devourer of her own children. She is described in the Hawaiian
poem as being wrinkled back and front, aged, with watery eyes, sour-
tempered, and " with the breast of a dog/' She also married her son
and her grandsons, and is evidently looked on as a repulsive person,
but was nevertheless a female god, and *' as the deep darkness is the
greatness of her rank."

In the Fourteenth Era we find that the stars were secured in space
and the constellations fixed in their places. This, like the account in
Genesis, seems to make the creation of stars a little late, but it may
mean that they only became visible at this period. After enumerating
by name the principal stars and constellations we have this very in-
teresting passage :

*' Strewed the seeds, finest seeds of stars in the heavens; ■
Strewed fine seed of gods, the sun became a god,
Strewed the seeds from Hina ; Lonomaku was formed like jelly,
The food on which subsisted Hinahanaikamalama or Waka,
Sought for by Wakea in the deep blue sea,
In the ooral mound, 'mongst rough waves,
Gauging Hinaiaa Eamalama to float, a sprig,
'Twas flung into his canoe, she was thereby called Hina the sprig ;
Taken ashore and warmed by the fire."

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Here we have a reference to a well known incident in ancient
Maori legend. The Hinaiaakamalama mentioned above, would be
named (in Maori translation) Hina-ika-a-te-Marama, i.e., Hina, the
Fish of the Moon. Hina is, through all Polynesia, connected with
the moon, in fact, she is herself the Lunar Goddess, as her name
denotes, mahina being a common word for ** the moon." She is also
*' the Fish,*' because of her long swim. In the Maori legend of Bnpe
we find that Hina threw herself into the sea, disgusted with the un-
kind behaviour of Maui. She floated for months, and was at last
thrown up on the beach. Rescued by two men, and restored to con-
sciousness, she told them that her name was '' Stranded log of
timber." This explains the above allusion in the Hawaiian poem to
*' Hina the sprig." (See Grey's Polynesian Mythology, p. 49, edition
of 1885).

The last few lines devoted to this Era awake strange thoughts as
to the real and esoteric knowledge formerly held by the ancient
Hawaiians, and concealed beneath apparently childish fables. They

speak of

<* the seed of Eaeoeo,
That climbs in space.
The heavens did swing,
The earth does swing
In the starry space."

If we compare this idea with that of the Maori in his cosmogony
as presented by White* we shall find the earth described as ** floating
in space " {Te Ao e teretere noa ana). Whatever the ordinary native
may have held as his opinion concerning the flat earth over which the
sun and stars moved, it is highly probable that some educated minds
among them had more scientific and more soundly-based ideas upon
the subject, and understood truths long hidden from our own fore-
fathers. It is far from unlikely that the ancient Polynesians, such
bold and observant mariners as they were, would deduce from the
sinking of lands and vessels behind sea-horizons some notion of the
earth's curvature, and of the world's movement as an orb *' floating in

With the pedigree continued into the Fifteenth Era we get into
the full tide of the heroes and demi-gods of Polynesia. If we trans-
late the Hawaiian into Maori we find Tawhito, Buanuku, Tiki,
Mahuika, Maui, &c., but everything relating to New Zealand's hero
Maui is so interesting that I make no excuse for quoting the whole

long passage.

** Waolena was the man and Mahuie was his wife,
Alralft-nn. was the man and Hinaakeahi was his wife,
First Maai was the man and Oential Mani was bom.
Gronohing Maoi was bom ; Maui with a nuUo (girdle) was bom.

"HoTB. — Andent HUtory of the Maori ; by John White, vol. I., Appendix Chart.

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The malo with which Akalana girded his loins,

From which Hina was pregnant, and by fire brought to life a fowl.

An egg was that child, which Hina brought forth.

Her husband was not a fowl,

Yet a chicken was brought to life.

When the child cooed Hina asked

I have no husband, yet a child is bom ;

A brave child is bom to Hinaakeahi (Hina of the Fire).

It roused the anger of Kialoa and Kiaakapoko (tall post and short

They are Hina's brothers.
The two posts that guarded the low cave ;
They fought hard with Maui, and were thrown ;
And red water flowed freely from Maui's forehead.
This was the first shower by Maui.

They fetched from the sacred Awa bush of Kane and Eanaloa.
Then came the second shower by Maui.
The third shower was when the elbow of Awa was broken.
The fourth shower was the sacred bamboo of Kane and Eanaloa.
The fifth shower was the edge of the umu (oven).
The sixth shower was the first rise.
Maui sobbed, and inquired for his father.
Hina denied that he had a father ;
That the malo of Ealana was his father.
Then he longed for fish for Hinaakeahi.
Go hence to your father :
'Tis there you will find line and hook ;
That is the hook, 'tis called Manaiakalani.
When the hook catches land 'twill bring the old seas together,
Bring hither the large Alae (a bird) of Hina,
The sister bird

Of the great fiery showers caused by Maui.
He is the great magician that caught
By the mouth and fins Pimoe,
The royal fish that raise commotion in the sea.
Pimoe was wooed and won by the Ina of Maui.
But pity sprang for Mahanauluehu,
The children of Pimoe.

They were taken ashore, eaten by Maui, all but the fins.
So Pimoe was saved by the fins.
Mahanauluehu was saved by the tail.
Hinakeka was abducted by Peapea (the bat).
The great god of the bats.
So showers in plenty were sent by Mani,
Which scratched the eyes of Peapea with eight eyes.
They fought a battle with Moemoe.
Maui became restless and fought the son
For the noose that Maui laid.

And Winter (Makalii — Maoris or Matariki) won the bud.
So summer was won by Maui.
They drank of the yellow waters to the dregs
Of Kane and Eanaloa.
By strategy the war

Embraced Hawaii, encompassed Maui (the island of Maui),
Eanai, around Oahu.
At Kahaluu was the after-birth, at Waikane the navel

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It dropped at Hakipua, at Eualoa.
For this is Maui of the male,
Yes I of the land."

We may notice that though in Maori legend Taranga is the mother
o£ Maui, in the above poem Akalana (l-Taranga) is the hero's father
as given in the pedigree part, but is spoken of as Ealana (Taranga)
further on, '* that the malo of Kalana was his father. '* We are told
by the Maoris that Mahuika, the Fire Goddess, was Maui's ancestress,
but in the poem that Mahuie, who is a fire goddess, was the mother
of Maui's mother — Hina-of- the- Fire. When Hina conceived she did
so as a virgin ; *' I have no husband, yet a child is bom." This adds
one more to the divinities (for Maui is a god as well as hero) who in
ancient religions have been virgin -bom. I venture to disagree with
the translation of the line presented as "by fire brought to life a
fowl." The original in King Kalakaua's version reads : —

Hookaukua Hina, a keahi hanau he moaj
and this would certainly mean what is rendered by H.M. Liliuo-
kalani as :

• "Hina was pregnant and by fire brought to life a fowl ";
but there is almost evidently a mistake in the printing of the original
and the insertion of the comma. The line I respectfully submit
should read :

Hookauhua Hinaakeahi hanau he moa.

" Hina-of -the- Fire was pregnant and brought forth a fowl."
Tljat Maui was brought forth as an egg, is as I have before remarked,
mythologically correct, because he and his sister (Hinauri, i.e., Hina
the Dark) were Twins of Day and Night, always, like Castor and
Pollux the Dioscuri, bom from an Qgg, In Maori tradition, Maui was
not an ^gg but an immature birth, and his Maori name Maui-Tikitiki
— ** Maui of the Head-dress or Topknot " (because wrapt in his
mother's hair before he was thrown into the sea to be matured by the
sea-gods) — may be compared with the Hawaiian name ** Maui of the
Malo," because born from the Malo of Taranga. The allusion to
Peapea (Maori Pekapeka) the god of the bats, who had eight eyes, is
paralleled by the knowledge that in Mangareva Maui himself is
known as Maui-matavaru that is *' Maui the eight-eyed."

The last Era, the sixteenth, brings us down through the long
pedigree to the present day, but shows us what our New Zealand
genealogies fail to do, viz., that on the Maui line itself come many
famous persons well-known to us, such as Eaitangata, Hema,
Tawhaki, Wahieroa, Rata, Ruanuku, &c.

I now leave this poem for the present, in the hope that Hawaiian
scholars will tell us more about it, and with deep gratitude for a
translation thnt hns made a unique Polynesian poem available for
consideratiou by European students of mythology and folk-lore.

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Wahi in.

Tb Haebenoa o Tb Wera ma ki runoa.

W' AA mutu era whakariterite i korerotia i tera pukapuka (J.P.S.,

l\ vol. viii., p. 286), katahi ka hoe a Te Wera me Pomare ki

te Tai-rawhiti. He whakahoki ta Te Wera i a Te Whare-umu

ki Nuku-tauma. A, ka noho a Nga-Puhi ki Waihi i Maketu, a, ka

tino mutu rawa atu te mamae o Nga-Puhi mo Te Pae-o-te-rangi, ka

. tino mau tuturu hoki te rongo a Nga-Puhi ki a Te Hihiko me tona papa,

me Hikairo-hukiki.

Heoi, ka wehe a Nga-Puhi ; ko Hongi, ko Te Eoki, me Ta-waewae
me era atu rangatira o Nga-Puhi, i hoki ki raro ; a, ko Te Wera, ko
Pomare i ahu whaka-te-rawhiti, a ka hoe i te moana, ka u ki Whaka-
tane, a ka oma o reira tangata ; he maha nga ra i noho ai a Nga-Puhi
ki Whakatane. Katahi ka hoe atu, a, ka u ki Marae-nui, a ka riri ki
a Te Whanau-a-Apanui, a ka whati taua iwi. Heoi, kaore i tino

Ea hoe ano te ope nei, a, ka u ki Te Eaha-nui-a-Tiki-rakau, ko
Whare-kura te wahi i u atu ai, ko Te Wai-pao te one. A, ka kitea e
te tangata whenua, a ka whawhai. Ka mate hoki a Marino i reira, he
iramutu no Te Wera; ka mate ia ka whati a Nga-Puhi ki ona

Ao ake te ra ka hoe a Nga-Puhi, ka u ki Whanga-paraoa, ka
whawhai i kona. Ea mate a Te Pakipaki-rauiri, he rangatira no Te
Whanau-a-Apanui. A ka hoe te ope nei, ka u atu ki Te Eawakawa, ko
Te Whetu-matarau tenei, he pa no Ngati-Porou ; i horo taua pa, i te
ope tuatahi a Te Wera raua ko Pomare, i whakapaea te pa, a, he maha
nga ra, a ka horo taua pa. No te tau 1818 i horo ai taua pa.

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Ea hoe ano te ope ra, a u rawa ata ki Turanga-noiy a ka kitea e
nga iwi o reira, mohio tonu ratou ko Nga-Puhi Ea mahara a Te
Eani-a-takirau kia houhia te rongo, katahi ano ka hoki ata a Ngati-
Porou, i te riri ki a Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti, i whakapaea ai a Uawa, he
pa no Te Eani, kei te wahapu o Uawa. I tukna a Hine-mati-oro i te
pari, a, kahakina ana, kei mau i te taua taua wahine rangatira nei ; a,
i ngaro tonu atu ia me nga tangata tokorua nana i kahaki i a ia.
Eoia ka mamae a Te Eani ki tona kuia ; kaore ia i te mohio i
tahiLri ranei ki te moana, i u ano ranei ki uta a kitea e tangata, a,
patua ai, i ngaro katoa ai ratou. A he mohio nona kua mate pea i
tona iwi, i a Ngati-Porou. Eoia te take i hohou rongo ai a Te Eani ki
a Te Wera, ki a Nga-Puhi hoki, a ka noho tahi ratou i Turanga, ka tu
a Te Eani ka whai kupu ki a Te wera, ka mea. ** E Wera ! me noho
taua i konei ; me hoki taua ki te tahataha i haere mai nei ano koe, ki
te kimi i taku kiua, i a Hine-mati-oro. E mohio ana ahau, kei te ringa
tangata taku kiua." Ea utua e Te Wera, '' E pai ana te kupu, ka
mana i a au. Tukua au kia tu aku waewae ki te wahi i koroa mai ai,
a, ka hoki mai, a katahi ka whakaritea e au to kupu.** A ka oti te
kupu ki ta Te Wera.

A, ka hoe mai te ope nei, a ka tae ki Te Pukenui i Te Mahia. Ea
haere nga toro ki te kimi tangata, no te mea kaore he tangata o tahatai.
Eitea rawatia atu i runga i nga maunga, a Ngati-Bakai-pSka. Ea kiia
atu e nga toro, ko Te Whare-umu tenei, ko Te Wera me Nga-Puhi. He
whakahoki mai i nga herehere ; i a Te Whare-umu ma. Eatahi ka
hoki mai nga mohoao ra ; ka uia atu, kei hea a Ngati-Hikairo mh
era atu hapu ; ka kiia mai, kei Wai-kawa anake ; keitemotu — ^he wehi
i nga rongo kua tae mai ki konei, ahu mai ana i tera taha ki Turanga,
kei te awhitia a Uawa, a Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti, meake horo te pa. A
ahu mai ana i Heretaunga, kua horo a Te Puketapu, kua horo a
Te Ara-tipi. Eoinei i wawa ai a konei ki te oma noa atu ki te

Ea mea a Te Wera, *< E Nga-Puhi ! tikina nga iwi o te whenua nei.
Whakahokia mai !** A, ka uta a Nga-Puhi ki runga i a ** Herua," waka
o Te Wera ; e rua tekau, he pu katoa. A, ka hoe ; ka tataatu ki Wai-
kawa ka kitea mai ; ka manu mai tera kia riri a-moana — e tonu nga
waka. Te taenga mai ka whakapiritia tonutia e Nga-Puhi , ka tukua
mai nga huata, haere ana ki runga i te waka o Nga-Puhi. Ea peke a
Tara-patiki i waenga ; ka peke a Te Ipu-tutu-Tarakawa i te kei o tetehi
waka ka riria atu nga waka e tete mai ra nga niho ki te riri ma ratou.
Ea kiia atu e nga tokorua nei, '* E tau ki raro ! Eaore he pena — he
tiki atu tenei i a koutou.'* Ea whakahau mai tetehi o nga mohoao,
" Werohia ! He patipati !** A, ka ki atu a Tarakawa-Bauru,* '* Eauae

* Ko Tarakawa-te-iputatn ; he ingoa no tona papa, a Haaru.

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tobe ; kei takahia te kupu ora mo kouton. I kiia mai ai e Te Wera kia
tikina mai koutou kia kite raua ko Te Whare-umu." Katahi ka tau nga
whakaaro o nga mohoao, ka tino mohio he poDo aua kupu. A, ki te
mohio ake mei tohe, kua mahi te pu i tana mahi.

Heoi, kua taumautia e Tarawaka tera waka i te wa e hoe mai ra ;
he tere taua waka. I penei tana taumau atu. ** Eia rongo, E Nga-
Puhi ! Eo te waka ka momotu mai ra ki mua, ko taku iwi-tuaroa.*'
Eo te ingoao taua waka ko ^' Te Hurihuri.'* A, te taenga mai ra,
peke tonu atu ra ia ki runga ; ko Tara-patiki i peke ki tetehi atu o aua

A, ka kiia atu te kupu, me hoe katoa ratou ki te motu ki te tiki i nga
wahine me nga tamariki. A, ka hoe, ka u ki Waikawa, ki te nuinga o
nga mohoao o Ngati-Hikairo. A, ka mutu nga korero whakamarama
atu ki a ratou, ka tino mohio a, ko te ora tuturu tera e korerotia atu
ra. A, kua kite hoki i te taonga nei i te pu.

A, ka uta ka hoe, a, ka u ki uta. Tae rawa atu kua rupeke mai
nga mohoao o Ngati-Bakai-paka i whati ki ro ngahere ki runga maunga ;
k5re ri^wa he paku tangata i tatahi, e tuohu ana i te wehi o nga rongo
e ahu atu ana i Heretaunga. A, ka huihui nga iwi nei ka te aroaro o
Te Wem : ka tu a Te Whareumu ki runga, ka mea, *< Na 1 E teiwi, E
Ngati-Hikairo, E Ngati-Bakai, pSka, ko au tenei. Na toku
rangatira ahau i whakahoki mai ki a koutou, ki te whenua
hoki. Eoinei he matua mo tatou — ^he pa kaha.*' Ea mutu
atu ki nga iwi ra, ka huh mai ki a Nga-Puhi, " Na I E Wera I Eua
rongo koe i aku kupu ki oku iwi. Na ! ki a koe te tangata me te
whenua ; ko koe hei taiepa mo tena hau, mo tenahau. Me noho tonu
koe me o iwi i konei." Ka tu a Te Wera-Hauraki, ka mea. '^ E pai

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