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P.(Paul) Hendricks.

Surveys for grassland birds of the Malta Field Office-BLM, including a seven-year study in north Valley County (Volume 2008) online

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Table 1. Summary of observers, number of transects, and number of point counts each year



Year


Total Number of
Transects


Total Number
of Point Counts


Observer


Number of

Point Counts by

Observer


2001


69


207


Paul Hendricks


117


John Carlson


90












2002


69


207


Paul Hendricks


117


John Carlson


90












2003


63


189


Paul Hendricks


117


John Carlson


72












2004


65


195


Paul Hendricks


93


John Carlson


18


Susan Lenard


45


Coburn Currier


39












2005


66


198


Paul Hendricks


69


Susan Lenard


81


Coburn Currier


48












2006


69


207


Paul Hendricks


72


Susan Lenard


63


Coburn Currier


72












2007


69


207


Paul Hendricks


72


Susan Lenard


54


Coburn Currier


81



3-5 minutes, and 5-10 minutes were recorded
separately. All birds detected visually and/or
aurally within a visually-estimated 100 meter
radius circle surrounding the center point were
included in the tally. Each individual species was
documented with the appropriate 4-letter AOU
code, abundance noted, and identified as within
the 100 m circle, on the edge, or outside of the
circle. Birds that flew over the circle and did not
land during the count were recorded as flyovers.
Counts were not conducted during continuous rain
or winds generally exceeding about 12 mph (20
km/hr).



An index of vegetation density was recorded at
points in each of the 4 cardinal directions 25 m
from the center of the point-count circle. At each
of these points, a 1-m rod was held vertical to the
ground, and all vegetation contacts with the rod
were recorded in 1-dm increments (0-1 dm, 1-2
dm, or >2 dm). The plant contacts were recorded
as either grass or forb and alive or dead. For
maximum height, the height of the tallest plant
within aim radius of each point was recorded to
the nearest cm. Litter depth, to the nearest cm, was
also recorded at each of the four points where the
vegetation density index was measured.



The correlation of annual abundance and the
percentage of point counts on which a given
species occurs was strong (Spearman rank
correlations: r^ = 0.600 - 0.912, P = 0.175 - 0.017),
for seven passerine Species of Concern recorded
annually in north Valley County. Thus, it is still
possible to infer the general trend of species
abundances in this landscape, similar to results
reported in analysis of Breeding Bird Survey data
(Bart and Klosiewski 1989), even if two observers
do not detect equally the number of individuals of
each species on point counts.

Vegetation Measurement
Protocols

Vegetation measurements were recorded at each
bird point-count location. The point location
defined the center of a 25-m diameter circle
for which were recorded maximum vegetation
height, an index vegetation density (see below),
litter depth, and ground cover. Ground cover
measurements were taken along a 50 m straight
line inscribed in each circle, with end points at
opposite cardinal compass directions. At each
meter along this transect, ground cover was
recorded as bare ground (including rock) or non-
bare ground (grass/forb/clubmoss). The center (the
original point-count location) was not included in
the ground cover measurements.



Precipitation

Precipitation data was gathered from the Opheim
(0PMM8) NOAA weather station in north Valley
County (see Figure 1) to examine relationships
between spring (April-May) precipitation and
vegetation characteristics that could influence bird
settlement and presence on point counts. Total
precipitation for these two months was chosen as
most likely to influence the vegetation conditions
birds will find when they commence nesting in this
region (Davis 2003).

Statistical Analyses

For most analyses we favored use of nonparametric
procedures to avoid assumptions of continuity,
normality, or homogeneity of variances. We
used parametric or nonparametric correlations
or simple linear regression for examining the
influence of precipitation on continuous vegetation
variables or exploring relationships between
vegetation and precipitation variables with bird
presence. For among-year or among-species
analyses, we used nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis
ANOVAs. Nonparametric Wilcoxon Rank Sums
tests were used for analyses of site vegetation
structure expressed either as continuous values
or as percents. We used non-parametric tests for
all analyses of association (two-by-two tables and
proportions). All analyses were run on STATISTIX
® 8 (Analytical Software, Tallahassee, Florida).



Table 2. Bird species of conservation interest occurring on point counts in north I


alley County during


2001-2007.




Common Name


Scientific Name


Global
and State
Ranks"


BLM
Status ''


PIF
Rank"^


American White Pelican


Pelecanus erythrorhynchos


G3/S3B




III


Greater Sage-Grouse


Centrocercus urophasianus


G4/S3B


Sensitive


I


Northern Harrier


Circus cyaneus






III


Swainson's Hawk


Buteo swainsoni


G5/S3B


Sensitive




Ferruginous Hawk


Buteo regalis


G4/S3B


Sensitive


II


Killdeer


Charadrius vociferous






III


Willet


Catoprophorus semipalmatus




Sensitive


III


Long-billed Curlew


Numenius americanus


G5/S2B


Sensitive


II


Marbled Godwit


Limosa fedoa




Sensitive




Wilson's Phalarope


Phalaropus tricolor




Sensitive


III


Franklin's Gull


Larus pipixcan


G4G5/S3B


Sensitive


II


Common Tern


Sterna hirundo


G5/S3B




II


Loggerhead Shrike


Lanius ludovicianus


G4/S3B


Sensitive


II


Short-eared Owl


Asio flammeus






III


Sprague's Pipit


Anthus spragueii


G4/S2B


Sensitive


I


Clay-colored Sparrow


Spizella pallida






III


Brewer's Sparrow


Spizella breweri


G5/S2B


Sensitive


II


Lark Sparrow


Chondestes grammacus






III


Lark Bunting


Calamospiza melanocorys


G5/S3B




II


Grasshopper Sparrow


Ammodramus savannarum


G5/S2B




II


Baird's Sparrow


Ammodramus bairdii


G4/S2B


Sensitive


I


McCown's Longspur


Calcarius mccownii


G5/S2B


Sensitive


II


Chestnut-collared Longspur


Calcarius ornatus


G5/S3B


Sensitive


II


Bobolink


Dolichonyx oryzivorous


G5/S2B




III


Red-winged Blackbird


Agelaius phoeniceus






III


Brewer's Blackbird


Euphagus cyanocephalus






III



" Appendix A

(G = global rank status : S = state rank status)

G2 or S2 -At risk: very limited and/or declining populations, range, and/or habitat, making it vulnerable to global extinction or

extirpation in the state.

G3 or S3 -Potentially at risk: limited and/or declining populations, range, and/or habitat, even though it may be abundant in some

areas.

G4 or S4 -Uncommon but not rare (although it may be rare in parts of its range), and usually widespread. Apparently not

vulnerable in most of its range, but possibly cause for long-term concern.

G5 - Common and abundant (although it may be rare in parts of its range), and usually widespread.

B - State rank modifier indicating the breeding status for a migratory species.
" BLM Status

Sensitive: species proven imperiled in at least part of their ranges, and are documented to occur on BLM lands.
•^ Montana Partners in Fliglit Priority Levels

I Conservation Action: These are species for which Montana has clear obligations to implement conservation.

II Monitoring Species: Montana has a high responsibility to monitor the status of these species, and/or to design conservation
actions.

III Local Concern: Presence of these species may serve as added criteria in the design and selection of conservation or monitoring
strategies (Casey 2000).



Results



Overview

We conducted 1410 point counts in north Valley
County during 2001-2007 (Table 1); more than 75
species of birds were detected at least once (see
Lenard et al. 2006, Hendricks et al. 2007). We
recorded 28 species either actually on or flying over
the points in 2007. Of the total species detected
on point counts across all years, 16 are Montana
Species of Concern (SOC) (Table 2 - preceding
page) (MTNHP and MFWP 2006). Seven of these
species are also endemic to the Northern Great
Plains: Ferruginous Hawk, Long-billed Curlew,
Sprague's Pipit, Lark Bunting, Baird's Sparrow,
McCown's Longspur, and Chestnut-collared
Longspur (Samson and Knopf 1996). Nine
additional species are secondary, more widespread
species of the prairie: Sharp-tailed Grouse,
Northern Harrier, Swainson's Hawk, Upland
Sandpiper, Short-eared Owl, Horned Lark, Vesper
Sparrow, Bobolink, and Western Meadowlark
(Samson and Knopf 1996). Another ten species not
currently listed as state SOC are identified either as
BLM Sensitive Species (Table 2) or as Species of
Conservation Concern in the Montana Partner's in
Flight Draft Bird Conservation Plan for Montana
(Casey 2000, BLM 2004).

Twenty bird species were documented on point
counts every year during 2001 through 2007
(Table 3). This suite of 20 species probably
includes most of those breeding regularly and
occurring widely in grassland habitats in north
Valley County. A few additional species, such as
Ring-necked Pheasant, Upland Sandpiper, and
Wilson's Phalarope, were detected every year but
not every year within point-count circles, and are
not included in the following analyses. The regular
breeders include nine Montana SOC birds and
two others that are BLM Sensitive Species. Thus,
55% of the species documented every year within
point-count circles in north Valley County are of
designated conservation concern. Sparrows and
buntings comprise the largest group of species (8)
documented annually, and six (75%) are Montana
SOC birds. Eight of nine Montana SOC birds are
passerines, the ninth is the Long-billed Curlew, a
grassland-nesting shorebird.



Table 3. Bird species detected every year (2001-2007)
within north Valley County, Montana point-count circles.
Montana SOC species are indicated by an asterisk, BLM
Sensitive Species by a plus symbol. Number of point
counts each year: 189 - 207.



Species


% Points
detected (range)


Grouse




Sharp-tailed Grouse


1.4-2.9


Shorebirds




Killdeer


2.1-3.4


Willet+


1.0-4.5


Long-billed Curlew*+


1.9-8.6


Marbled Godwit+


2.6-13.6


Larks




Horned Lark


73.9-78.7


Pipits/Wagtails




Sprague's Pipit*+


49.8-71.4


Sparrows/Buntings




Brewer's Sparrow*+


1.4-5.8


Vesper Sparrow-


11.3-21.3


Lark Bunting*


6.8-33.3


Savannah Sparrow


5.8-14.5


Grasshopper Sparrow*


6.7-22.2


Baird's Sparrow*+


30.4-46.4


McCown's Longspur*+


13.5-28.5


Chestnut-collared Longspur*+


79.7-89.9


Blackbirds




Bobolink*


0.5-5.3


Red-winged Blackbird


0.5-2.6


Western Meadowlark


61.4-72.7


Brewer's Blackbird


0.5-2.9


Brown-headed Cowbird


4.3-10.1



Some of the SOC birds are among the most
abundant and widespread species on the north
Valley County point counts. The five most
commonly-encountered species included Horned
Lark, Sprague's Pipit, Baird's Sparrow, Chestnut-
collared Longspur, and Western Meadowlark, each
of which occurred on at least 30.4 %> of all point
counts each year (Table 3, Figure 2); Sprague's
Pipit, Baird's Sparrow, and Chestnut-collared
Longspur are state SOC birds. Other state SOC
birds, such as Brewer's Sparrow and Bobolink, are
among the least abundant and widespread. For the
remainder of the main body of this report, we focus
our analyses on the nine SOC birds, because the



grassland habitats they favor include a wide range
of vegetation structure. The nine focal species
include, in addition to the five mentioned above,
Long-billed Curlew, Lark Bunting, Grasshopper
Sparrow, and McCown's Longspun

Bird Presence



-LBCU
-SPH
BRSP
LARB
-GRSP
-BAIS
-MCLO
-CCLO
-BOBO




2001 2002 2003 2005 2005 2006 2007
Year



Figure 2. Occurrence of nine Montana bird Species of
Concern on point counts in north Valley County during 2001-
2007. Long-billed Curlew (LBCU), Sprague s Pipit (SPPI),
Brewer's Sparrow (BRSP), Lark Bunting (LARB), Grasshopper
Sparrow (GRSP), Baird's Sparrow (BALS), McCown's
Longspur (MCLO), Chestnut-collared Longspur (CCLO), and
Bobolink (BOBO). Number of counts per year ranged from
189 to 207.

Precipitation and Vegetation

Total April and May precipitation at Opheim, the
nearest NOAA weather station to our study area,
(Figure 1) varied nearly five-fold during 2001-
2007, from a low of 2.89 cm in 2002 to a high of
14.40 cm in 2007 (Table 4). With such variability
in early growing-season precipitation it is not
surprising that vegetation would show noticeable
variation among years at the time we conducted our



point counts (see Figure 3 for examples). Mean
maximum vegetation height was least (mean =
35.4 cm) in 2002 and greatest (mean = 47.2 cm)
in 2007 (Table 5); vegetation density (number
of contacts at 0-1 dm above ground, and > 1 dm
above ground) was also least (mean = 15.0 and 2.1
contacts, respectively) in 2002 and most (mean
= 20.4 and 5.3 contacts, respectively) in 2007.
Percent vegetation cover also showed substantial
annual variation, with greatest cover in 2007,
although we were less consistent in taking this
measurement some years and had to discount 2001
in our analyses.

Table 4. April and May precipitation (cm) measured at the
Opheim station (OPMM8), north ] alley County.





2001


2002


2003


2004


2005


2006


2007


April


1.4


1.09


3.58


1.19


1.6


3.1


1.78


May


3.4


1.8


6.93


8.79


4.93


3.81


12.62


Total


4.8


2.89


10.51


9.98


6.53


6.91


14.4



Total April-May precipitation was best at predicting
mean maximum vegetation height (Pearson
correlation: r = 0.878, P = 0.009), explaining 77%
of the variation among years on our points (Figure
4). Total April-May precipitation was not as
strongly correlated with the other three vegetation
measurements we collected (Table 5): r = 0.610, P
= 0.146 for contacts 0-1 dm; r = 0.779, P = 0.039
for contacts > 1 dm; Spearman correlation r^ =
0.657, P = 0. 136 for percent vegetation cover.

Among the vegetation structure measurements,
annual mean vegetation height among years was
moderately correlated with vegetation contacts
0-1 dm above ground (r = 0.4862, P = 0.269), but
very highly correlated with vegetation contacts
> 1 dm above ground (r = 0.93 18, P = 0.002).
Vegetation contacts in the two height categories



Table 5. Descriptive statistics (mean [SD]) for vegetation measurements at North Valley County point counts, 2001-2007.





2001


2002


2003


2004


2005


2006


2007


P'


Veg. Ht. (cm)


38.0(10.7)


35.4(8.0)


44.4 (8.8)


38.1(7.5)


40.3 (8.4)


38.5 (9.6)


47.2 (7.3)


<0.0001


Contacts 0-1 dm


17.4 (8.3)


15.0(5.9)


15.5(6.3)


17.5 (6.8)


16.9(7.0)


18.7(9.3)


20.4 (9.3)


<0.0001


Contacts >1 dm


2.9(4.1)


2.1 (2.7)


3.6 (4.5)


2.2 (2.7)


30. (3.7)


3.0(5.1)


5.3 (5.0)


<0.0001


% Veg. Cover


NA


79.6(12.5)


80.5(10.5)


70.5(12.9)


62.3 (25.6)


68.0(18.1)


97.3 (5.0)


<0.0001


No. Counts


207


207


189


195


198


207


207





Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA




Figure 3. June vegetation on three count points (68.3, 90.1, 93.3) in north Valley County, contrasting 2006 and 2007. Top row:
2006, bottom row: 2007. Note exceptional growth ofJunegrass (Koeleria macrantha) on points in 2007.



y = 0.9298X + 32.828
R2= 0.7713



X 40 -



height and vegetation contacts 0-1 dm (r -■
0.2090).



-0.0126-



2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1

Apr-May Precipitation (cm)

Figure 4. April-May precipitation and June vegetation
height on count points, 2001-2007, in north Valley County.
Precipitation was measured at Opheim.

were moderately correlated (r = 0.6660, P
=0.102). Correlation between vegetation height
and number of vegetation contacts >1 dm at points
was consistently moderate within individual years
(r = 0.353 1-0.4949, P <0.0001 for each year).
Correlation between vegetation contacts in the
two height categories was usually weaker (r =
0.1857-0.5468), and weakest between vegetation



Precipitation and Annual
Abundance of Species of Concern
Birds

Presence of SOC birds on points in north Valley
County was sometimes moderately or highly
correlated with annual April-May precipitation
(Figure 5). Strongest correlations were those for
Chestnut-collared Longspur {r = 0.8161), Baird's
Sparrow {r = 0.7969), Bobolink (r = 0.7233), and
Long-billed Curlew (r = -0.6621), followed by
Lark Bunting {r = -0.4775), Brewer's Sparrow (r
= 0.4685), with almost negligible correlations for
Grasshopper Sparrow (/" = 0.1009), McCown's
Longspur {r = 0.0595), and Sprague's Pipit (/"
= -0.0044). Of the nine SOC birds, two (Long-
billed Curlew and Lark Bunting) showed a
substantial negative relationship to annual spring
precipitation. For the best regression models
(Chestnut-collared Longspur and Baird's Sparrow),
April-May precipitation accounted for 64-67% of
annual variation in the percentage of point counts
on which these species were detected, while for
the worst regression models (Sprague's Pipit,
McCown's Longspur) precipitation accounted for



10



essentially none of the annual variation in percent
occurrence on point counts.

Vegetation Structure and Annual
Abundance of Species of Concern
Birds

Annual variation in the percentage of point
counts on which the nine SOC birds occurred was
highly correlated to vegetation structure only in a
minority of cases (Table 6). Strongest correlations
(r^ > 0.8) with vegetation height occurred for
Baird's Sparrow, Chestnut-collared Longspur,



and Bobolink, and were positive in each case.
Moderate correlations (r^ = 0.4-0.7) were evident
for Long-billed Curlew and Grasshopper Sparrow,
negative for Long-billed Curlew but positive
for Grasshopper Sparrow. For Sprague's Pipit,
Brewer's Sparrow, Lark Bunting, and McCown's
Longspur, the correlations were slight {r^ < 0.2)
or weak (r^ = 0.2-0.4), and negative for Sprague's
Pipit and Lark Bunting.

Annual variation in mean vegetation contacts >
1 dm was very highly correlated with vegetation
height {r = 0.9550, P = 0.0064), so only contacts





Long-billed Curlew




10 -1


y=-0.3946x+ 7.9008
^ R2 = 0.4384




» 8-


















3


s.,^^^^ ♦










U 6


^^-Vs,^
















o












c 4


♦ ^^^^






















o


♦ ^"v,^




Q-













-










c


5 10
Apr-May Precipitation (mm)


15




Lark Bunting




35 -







30 -







CA












i 25-












u






*- 20 -














^***Sw^




t 15-


♦ "^^N,,,^^




c


















S 10-


^'^'V^.,^^^^




Q.





"*^


5 -







-






1 1


1




3 5 10


15




Apr-May Precipitation (mm)





Sprague's Pipit



McCown's Longspur



5 10

Apr-May Precipitation (mm)



70 -

CA
C

o 65 -
U

o 60 -

Q.

S 55-



25 n

j2 20 -

c

3

o

O 15-

c
"5

Q.

■M 10 -



5 10

Apr-IVlay Precipitation (mm)

Grasshopper Sparrow



5 10

Apr-May Precipitation (mm)





Chestnut-collared Longspur




95 -


y = 0.6705x +78.819
R= =0.6661




1 90-

3

o
u







■5 85 -
Q.


J^^^*




c



1 80-







75 -












D 5 10


15




Apr-May Precipitation (mm)





Brewer's Sparrow



i 5

o
o

c 4-
o
t 3-



Apr-IVlay Precipitation (mm)



Baird's Sparrow



y = 1.1294x+29.362
R= = 0.6351



Apr-May Precipitation (mm)





Bobolink




6 -


y = 0.2961x+ 0.0163




5 -


R= = 0.5231 ♦




CA

c

g 4-

o

c







C

0) 9 _

O

Q.

1 -









-






1 1


1




: 5 10


15




Apr-May Precipitation (mm)





Figure 5. April-May precipitation in north Valley County during 2001-2007 (Opheim station) and the relative abundance of nine
Montana bird Species of Concern. Regression equations are provided for correlations where P < 0.1.



11



Table 6. Spearman correlations between percent occurrence on point counts for nine SOC birds and vegetation height and
vegetation density index (contacts), 2001-2007. Correlations where P < 0.05 are in bold.





Long-billed
Curlew


Sprague's
Pipit


Brewer's
Sparrow


Lark
Bunting


Grasshopper
Sparrow


Baird's
Sparrow


McCown's
Longspur


Chestnut-
collared
Longspur


Bobolink


Veg. Ht. (cm)




















■■s


-0.4643


-0.1429


0.3214


-0.1071


0.5357


0.8571


0,3424


0.8929


0.8214


P


0.3059


07813


04436


0.843


0.1944


0.019


04436


0.0118


0.0281


Contacts
0-1 dm




















'\


-0.5357


-0.9286


0.8214


-0.25


-0.0357


0.5714


03063


0.6071


0.3214


P


0.2285


0.0118


0.0281


0.604


0.9684


0.1634


04948


0.1354


0.4436



0-1 dm are examined for correspondence
between vegetation density and annual variation
in percentage occurrence of SOC birds on point
counts. As with vegetation height, only a minority
of species showed a strong correlation (r^ > 0.8)
between vegetation density near the ground and
percentage of point counts on which a species
occurred (Table 6). Strong correlations were
evident for Sprague's Pipit and Brewer's Sparrow,
with Sprague's Pipit being negative. Moderate
correlations (r = 0.4-0.7) were evident for Long-
billed Curlew, Baird's Sparrow, and Chestnut-
collared Longspur, with Long-billed Curlew being
negative. Correlations for the remaining species
were slight or weak (r^ < 0.4).

Vegetation Structure and the
Presence of Species of Concern
Birds on Point Counts

Differences among species in mean vegetation
height and near-ground vegetation density
(number of contacts 0-1 dm on a vertical rod)



were significant (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVAs, P <
0.0001) when 2001-2007 were combined (Table 7).
However, some species clustered relatively close
together in this two-dimensional structural space of
vegetation (Figure 6), and pair-wise comparisons
in vegetation structure were not significant (P
> 0.05) among these. Long-billed Curlew and
McCown's Longspur clustered where there were
low values for vegetation height and near-ground
density. Chestnut-collared Longspur and Sprague's
Pipit clustered where vegetation was medium
in height and near-ground density, and Baird's
Sparrow and Grasshopper Sparrow clustered
more loosely where vegetation was relatively tall
and dense near the ground; vegetation structure
differences between Bobolink and Baird's Sparrow
or Grasshopper Sparrow were not significant, but
this was likely due to a small sample of points
occupied by Bobolink (n = 32). Seven of the
SOC birds segregated by vegetation structure in
a relatively linear pattern, but Lark Bunting and
Brewer's Sparrow did not quite fit the trend. Based
just on absence of significant differences in pair-



Table 7. Vegetation height and vegetation density index (contacts) comparing points where nine SOC birds were detected and not
detected, 2001-2007. Total point counts = 1410. Values are means (SD); comparisons where P < 0.05 are in bold.





Long-billed
Curlew


Sprague's
Pipit


Brewer's
Sparrow


Lark
Bunting


Grasshopper
Sparrow


Baird's
Sparrow


McCown's
Longspur


Chestnut-
collared
Longspur


Bobolink


Veg. Ht. (cm)




















Detected


36,7(7,2)


40.8 (9.2)


47 8(11.8)


41 2(10.9)


46 8(11.2)


43.7(9.8)


37.4(8.2)


39.7(8.9)


48.7(9.7)


not detected


40,4(9,6)


39 3(10.0)


40 (9 4)


40.1 (9.2)


39.1 (8.7)


38.1 (8.7)


40.9 (9.7)


43.1 (11,7)


38.8 (9.2)


pa


0.0034


<0.0001


<0.0001


0.6721


<0.0001


<0.0001


<0.0001


0.0005


<0.0001


Contacts
0-1 dm




















Detected


14 9(6 1)


18.0(8.3)


16 3(6 6)


14.5 (5.7)


20.4(10.3)


20,4(8,8)


15.4(6.1)


17.7(7,9)


25,2(15,2)


not detected


17,5(7,9)


16.4(6.9)


17 4(7 9)


17.9(8.1)


16.9(7.3)


15.5(6.5)


17.8(8.1)


154(7.1)


17.2(7.5)


pa


0.0081


0.0002


0.3646


<0.0001


<0.0001


<0.0001


<0.0001


<0.0001


<0.0001


Total points
where detected


67


859


40


234


201


541


257


1186


32



' Wilcoxon Rank-Sums Test



12



wise comparisons, Lark Bunting clustered with
Long-billed Curlew but not McCown's Longspur.
Brewer's Sparrow was the most obvious outlier,
occupying tall vegetation with lower near-ground


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Online LibraryP.(Paul) HendricksSurveys for grassland birds of the Malta Field Office-BLM, including a seven-year study in north Valley County (Volume 2008) → online text (page 2 of 10)