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V.5



THE MAHABHARATA



OF



KRISHNA- DWAIPAYAN A VYASA



TRANSLATED



INTO



ENGLISH PROSE.



'I'M 28 1918



Published aud distributed chiefly gratis



BY



PRATAP CHANDRA ROY, c. 1. E.



K ARNA P ARVA.




CALCUTTA :

BH1RATA PRESS.
No. 1, Raja Gookoo Dass' Street.
1889.

( The rvjht of translation is reserved. )



NOTICE

By the blessing of SREE SRIKRISHNA JEW, the Drona Parva
of the Mahabharata has been brought to a successful termination. More
than half, therefore, of the stupendous work which I have undertaken
has been completed. I have now commenced with the next canto, — the
Santa Parva. This portion of the great epic is replete with stirring
incidents, and conveys to mankind the lesson that nothing is impossible
to him who rests his hopes, not on the strength of his own arm3, but on
the goodness and mercy of God. May SREE SRIKRISHNA JEW
help me, the humblest of His servants, and grant me patience, and
courage, and the means to finish the arduous work to which I have put
my hand, and thus make me the humble instrument for the glorification
of His Name throughout the world !

When I shall have completed the Kama Parva and the next three

canto9, which are comparatively short, and shall take in hand the Santi

Parva, I shall indeed feel that Santi— peace— to which I have been a

stranger since I embarked on this enterprise, for then the end of my

labors will be at an appreciable distance.

And now, praying for blessings from on High, and soliciting a con-
tinuance of the kindly help and encouragement from those who have
hither to generously assisted me, I beg to place before the Public a further
instalment of the grandest epic which the world ever produced.



Datavva Bharata Karvalava. "I

1. Rija Oooroo Dass' Street PRATAP CHANDRA R07.



Calcutta, April 18S9.



J



THE MAHABIIARATA



>•— ■ <■-



KARNA l'AliVA



Section I.



Having bowed down unto Narayana, and unto that most
dted of male beings, viz., Nara, and unto the goddess
Saraswati also, must the word Jaya be uttered.

Vaicampayana said, — "After Drona had been slain, O mon-
arch, the royal warriors (of the Kaurava army) headed by
Duryodhana, with hearts filled with great anxiety, all repaired
to Drona's son. 1 Lamenting the loss of Drona, and deprived
of energy in consequence of their checrlcssness, they safe
around the son of Caradwat's daughter, afllicted with grief."
Comforted for a little while by considerations founded upon
the scriptures, when night came, those rulers of Earth proceed-
ed to their respective tents. 8 Those lords of Earth, howovor,
thou of Kuru's race, could foci no happiness in tl nr abodes.
Thinking of that immense slaughter, they conld not also
sleep. 4 The Swta's son (Kama), and king Suyodhana, and
Duscasana. and Cakuni,, in especial, could not compose them-
selves to sleep. 5 These four passed that night together in
Duryodhana's tent, reflecting upon the woes they had inflicted
upon the high-souled Pandavas.* Formerly, they had brought
Draupadi, plunged into woe on account of the match at die-, into
the assembly. Recollecting it they experienced groat regret,
their hearts being filled with anxiety. 7 Thinking of those
sufferings inflicted (upon the Pandavas) in con squence of the
gambling match, they passed that night in sorr r, king,
if it were really a hundrod years. 8 Then when morning can
observing the dictates of the ordinance, all of them duly went
through the customary rites. 8 Having gone through those



2 VIAHABHAilATA.

customary rites* ami comforted to some extent, Bharata,
they ordered their troops to be arrayed, and then came out for
battle, 10 having made Kama their generalissimo by tying the
auspicious thread round his wrists, and having caused many
foremost of Brahmanas, by presents of vessels of curds, clarified
butter, Akshata8, coins of gold, kine, jewels and gems, and
costly robes, to pray for their victory, and having caused heralds
and musicians, and panegyrists to adore them with hymns about
victory.*' 1 " 12 The Paudavas also, king ; having eone through
their m >rning rites, issued from their camp, resolved on battle. 13
Then commenced a fierce battle, making the hair to stand on
end, between the Kurus and the Pandavas, each desirous of
vanquishing the other. 14 During the commandership of Kama,
the battle that took place between the Kuru and the Pandava
troops was exceedingly fierce and lasted for two days. 15 Then
Vrisha (Kama), having made an immense slaughter of his
enemies in battle, was at last slain, in the sight of the Dharfca-
rashtras, by Arjuna. 16 Then Sanjaya, repairing to Hastina-
pura, told Dhritarashtra all that had happened at Kuru-
jangala.' 17

Janamejaya said,— "Having heard of the fall of Bhishma
and that other mighty car-warrior, viz., Drona, the old king
Dhritarashtra the son of Amvika had been afflicted with
great grief. 18 How, O foremost of Brahmanas, could he,
plunged into grief, support his life, having heard of the death
of Kama, that well-wisher of Duryodhana I 13 How, indeed,
could that descendant of Kuru support his life when he upon
whom that monarch had rested the hope of his sons' victory
had fallen ? 2 ° When the king did not lay down his life even
after hearing of Kama's death, I think that it is very difficult
for men to yield up life even under circumstances of great
grief! 21 O Brahniana, when the king did not yield up his life
after hearing of the fall of the venerable son of Cantanu, of
Valhika and Drona and Somadatta and Bhuricravas, as also of



* Akshaias were probably Purna-pdtras, i. e., certain vessels full
to brim with corn and other articles of use. The fulness is indicative of
suspiciousness. — T.



KAKNA PARTA, H

other friends ami his sons and grandsons, I think, O regener
ate one, that the act of yielding up one's life is exceedingly
difficult I"" 8 " Tell me all these in detail and as they actually
happened! I am not satiated with hearing the high achieve-
ments of my ancestors !" 2 *



Section II.



Vaicampayana said, — "Upon the fall of Kama, monarch,
the son of Gavalgana, with a cheerless heart, set out that
night for Nagapura, on steeds that rivalled the wind in speed. 1
Arrived at Hastinapura, with a heart filled with deep anxiety,
he proceeded to Dhritarashtra's abode which no longer teemed
with kinsmen and friends. 2 Beholding the king deprived of all
energy by grief, joining his hands he worshipped, with a bend
of his head, the monarch's feet. 3 Having duly worshipped
king Dhritarashtra, he uttered an exclamation of woe and then
began, 4 — I am Sanjaya, O lord of Earth ! Art thou not
happy ? I hope thou art not stupified, having through thy own
faults fallen into such distress ? s Counsels for thy good had
been uttered by Vidura and Drona and Ganga's son and Ke<;ava.
I hope thou feelest no pain now, remembering thy rejection of
those counsels ? s Counsels for thy good had also been uttered
in the assembly by Rama and Narada and Kanwa and others.
I hope thou feelest no pain now, remembering their rejection
by thee V I hope thou foelst no pain, remembering the
slaughter in battle, by the foe, of Bhishraa and Drona and
others, those friends that were ever engaged in thy good r% —
Unto the Satas son who with joined hands was telling him so,
the monarch, afflicted with grief and drawing a long and hot
breath, said these words. 9

'Dhritarashtra said, — 'Hearing, Sanjaya, of the fall of
the heroic son of Ganga, that warrior in whom were all celes-
tial weapons, as also of the fall of that foremost of all bow-
men, viz., Drona, my heart fceleih great pain ! 10 That 1 1 . i >
endued with great energy and born of the Vasus thcmselvt ,
who slew every day ten thousand car-warriors clad in mail,"
that high-soulcd one unto whom Bhrigu'a son had given tb<



MAHABHAKATA.

highest weapons, thai warrior who in his childhood had been
trained in the science of the bow by Rama, alas, even he,
hath been slain by Yajnasena's son Cikhandin protected by
the Panda as ! At this my he-art is greatly pained !* 12 " 13
That hero through whose grace those mighty car-warriors, viz.,
the royal sons of Kunti, as also many other lords of Earth,
have become J\Iahlrathas,f li: alas, hearing of the slaughter of
that great bowman of sure aim, viz., Drona, by Dhrishta-
dyumna, my heart is exceedingly pained! 15 Those two had
not in the world a person equal to them in (knowledge and use
of ) the four kinds of weapons ! Alas, hearing of the slaughter
of those two, viz., Bhishma and Drona, in battle, my heart is
exceedingly pained It 16 That warrior who had not in the three
worlds a person equal to him in knowledge of weapons, alas,
hearing of the slaughter of that hero, viz., Drona, what did the
people of my side do? 17 After the high-souled son of Pandu,
viz., Dhananjaya, exerting himself with prowess, had despatch-
ed unto Yama's abode the strong force of the Samsaptakas, 1 *
after the Ndvayana weapon of the intelligent son of Drona
had been baffled, and after the (Kaurava) divisions had begun
to fly away, what, indeed, did the people of my side do? 13
I think that, after Drona's death, my troops, flying away and
sinking in an ocean of grief, resembled ship wrecked mariners
straggling on the bosom of the vasty deep. 80 What also,
O Smjaya, became the color of the faces of Duryodhana, and
Kama, and Kritavarman the chief of the Bhojas, and Calya
the ruler of the Madras, and of my remaining sons, and of the
others, when the Kuru divisions fled away from the field ? 21 " 22
Tell me all this as it truly happened in battle, O son of Gaval-
gana, and describe to me the prowess put forth by the Pandavas
and the warriors of my side f 23



* Nilakantha rightly explains that verse 13 alludes to Bhishma and
not to Drona. — T.

t A Makdratka is one who can fight simultaneously with ten thou-
sand bowmen. — T.

\ Four kinds of weapons, viz., mukta, amukta, mutkamv.lcta and
Tanlramukta. These terms have been explained in an earlier note, — T,



KAKNA PARVAi 5

S tnjaya said, — 'O sire, hearing all that has happened unto
the Kauravas through thy fault, thou shouldst not feel any
anguish ! He that is wise never feeleth any pain at what
Destiny bringeth ! 24 And since destiny in unconquerable, hu-
man purposes may or may not become attainable. Hence, he
that is wise never feeleth pain on the acquisition or the reverse
of the objects cherished by him.'* 1

"Dhritarashtra said, — 'I do not feel great pain, O Sanjaya !
I regard all this to be the result of Destiny ! Tell me all that
thou wishest !' " 25



Section III.

"Sanjaya said, — 'Upon the fall of the great bowman Drona,
thy sons, those mighty car-warriors, became pale and cheerless
and deprived of their senses. 1 Armed with weapons, all of
them, O monarch, hung down their heads. Afflicted with
grief and without looking at one another, they stood perfectly
silent. 2 Beholding them with such afflicted countenances, thy
troops, O Bharata, themselves perturbed by grief, vacantly
gazed upwards. 5 Seeing Drona slain in battle, the weapons
of many of them, O king, dyed with blood, dropped from
their hands. 4 Innumerable weapons, again, O Bharata, still
retained in the grasp of the soldiers, seemed, in their pendent
attitude, to resemble falling meteors in the sky.* 5 Then
king Duryodhana, monarch, beholding that army of thine
thus standing as if paralysed and lifeless, said/ — Relying upon
the might of your arms I have summoned the Panda vas to
battle and caused this passage-at-arms to commence I 7 Upon
the fall of Drona, however, the prospect seems to be chccrlc
"Warriors engaged in battle all die in battle. 8 Engaged in
battle, a warrior may have either victory or death. What can
be strange then in this (viz., the death of Drona) ? Fight ye
with faces turned towards every direction. 9 Behold now the

* 1 think Nihkantha correctly explains this sloka. Uuless Nafoha-
trani be taken to mean falling meteors, the comparison would be unmean-
ing and absurd. — T.



6 M Ail ABI1 AR ATA.

high-sou led Kama, the son of Vikartana, that great bowman
of mighty strength, careering in battle, using his celestial
weapons ! 10 Through fear of that warrior in battle, that
coward, viz., Dhananjaya the son of Kunti, always turns back
like a small deer at the sight of a lion !" It is he who, by the
ordinary methods of human battle, brought the mighty Bhima-
sena endued with the strength of ten thousand elephants to
that plight ! u It is he who, uttering a loud roar, slew with his
invincible dart the brave Ghatotkacha of a thousand illusions
and well acquainted with celestial weapons ! ,s Behold today the
inexhaustible might of arms of that intelligent warrior of sure
aim and invincible energy ! 14 Let the sons of Pandu behold
today the prowess of both Acwatthaman and Kama resembling
that of Vishnu and Vasava '* 15 All of you are singly able
to slay the sons of Pandu with their troops in battle f How
much more then are you capable, when united together, of that
feat ! Endued with great energy and accomplished in weapons,
you will today behold one another engaged in the achievement
of mighty tasks !' 16

"Sanjaya continued, — 'Having said these words, O sinless
one, thy son Duryodhana, with his brothers, made Kama
the generalissimo (of the Kuru army). 17 Obtaining the com-
mand, the mighty car-warrior Kama, so fierce in battle, utter-
ed loud roars and fought with the foe. 18 He caused, sire,
a great carnage among the Srinjayas, the Panchalas, the
Kekayas, and the Yidehas. I9 y From his bow issued innumer-
able lines of arrows, one close behind the wings of another,
like flights of bees. 20 Having afflicted the Panchalas and the
Pandavas endued with great activity, and slain thousands of
warriors, ho was at last slain by Arjuna !' "



* The second line of 15 is read differently in some texts. — T.
t M&risha at the end of the first line, and not pa^i/atdm, is the cor-
rect reading. — T.



Section IV.

"Vaiijampayana said, — "Hearing this intelligence, mon-
arch, Dhritarashtra the son of AmvikiL, feeling the acme of
grief, regarded Suyodhana to be already dead. Exceedingly
agitated, the king fell down on the Earth, like an elephant de-
prived of its senses. 1 When that foremost of monarchs, great-
ly agitated, fell down on the Earth, loud wails were uttered, O
best of the Bharatas, by the ladies (of the royal household).
That noise was so loud that it seemed to fill the entire Earth. 2 *'
Immersed in a deep ocean of woe, the Bharata ladies, with
hearts exceedingly agitated and scorched by grief, wept aloud. 3
Approaching the king, Gandhari, O bull of Bharata's race, and
the other ladies of the household, all fell down on the Earth,
deprived of their senses.* Then Sanjaya, king, began to
comfort those ladies stricken with grief, bathed in tears,
and reft of consciousness. 8 Comforted (by Sanjaya), those
ladies began to tremble repeatedly like a plantain grove shaken
by the wind. 5 Vidura also, sprinkling that descendant of
Kuru with water, began to comfort the puissant monarch who
had knowledge only for his eye. 7 -f* Slowly restored to consci-
ousness, and understanding that the ladies of the household
were there, the king, O monarch, remained perfectly silent for
sometime like one reft of reason. 8 Having reflected then for
sometime, and repeatedly drawn long breaths, the king censured
his own sons and applauded the Pandavas. 9 Censuring also his
own intelligence and that of Cakuni the son of Suvala, the
king, having reflected for a long time, began to tremble re-
peatedly. 10 Controling his mind once more, the king, with
sufficient fortitude, questioned his charioteer Sanjaya the son
of Gavalgana.'* 1

'Dhritarashtra said, — 'I have heard, Sanjaya, all that
thou hast said. Hath my son Duryodhana, O Suta, who is ever
desirous of victory, already gone to Yama's abode, despairing
of success? Tell me truly, O Sanjaya, all this, even if thou
wilt have to repeat it !' ' 12_I3



* Both 1 and 2 are triplets in the Bengal text*.— T.
t A respectful epithet for a blind man.— T.



8 MAHABHAHATA.

Vaigampayana continued, — "Thus addressed by the king,
O Janamejaya, the Suta said unto him, — 'The mighty car- war-
rior Vaikarbana, O monarch, hath been slain with his sons and
brothers, and other Suta warriors, all of whom were mighty
bowmen ready to lay down their lives in battle ! 14 Duscasana
also hath been slain by the renowned sen of Pandu. Indeed,
his blood also hath been, from wrath, drunk by Bhimasena in
battle!'"' 5



Section V.

Vaicampiiyana said, — "Hearing these words, monarch,
Amvikas son Dhritarashtra, with heart agitated by grief,
addressed his driver Sanjaya, saying, 1 — "Through the evil policy,

sire, of my son of little foresight, Vikartana's son hath been
slain ! This intelligence is cutting the very core of my heart ! 2

1 am desirous of crossing this sea of grief! Remove my doubts,
therefore, by telling me who are still alive and who are dead
amongst the Kurus and the Pandavas !' s *

"Sanjaya said, — "Endued with great prowess and invincible
in battle, Bhishma the son of Cantanu, O king, having slain
large numbers of Srinjayas and Panchalas, hath been slain
after ten days.* The mighty and invincible bowman Drona of
the golden car, having slaughtered the Panchala divisions in
battle, hath been slain. 8 Having slaughtered the half of what
remained after the carnage by Bhishma and the illustrious
Drona, Vikartana's son Kama hath been slain. 6 Endued with
great strength, O monarch, prince Vivingcati, having slain
hundreds of Anarta warriors in battle, hath been slain. 7 Thy
heroic son Vikama, deprived of steeds and weapons, stood,
facing the foe, remembering the duties of Kshatriyas. 8 Re-
membering the many foul wrongs inflicted upon him by
Duryodhana, and bearing in mind his own vow, Bhimasena
hath slain him. 9 Possessed of great might, Yin da and Anu-
vinda, the two princes of Avanti, after achieving the most
difficult feats, have gone to Yama's abode. 10 That hero who

* Some texts read Sroijnyanam for Pdnduvdnnm. — T.



'KARNA PAXVA. fl

had under his sway ten kingdoms having Sindhu for their
chief, him who was ever obedient to thee," viz., Jayadratha
of mighty energy, king, Arjuna hath slain after vanquishing
eleven Akshauhinis of troops with his keen arrows. 1 * Endued
with great activity and incapable of being easily defeated in
battle, the son ef Duryodhana, ever obedient to his sire's com-
mands, hath been slain by the son of Subhadra. 18 The brave
son of Duscilsana, possessed of mighty arms and fierce in battlo,
hath been despatched to Yama's abode by Draupadi's son exert-
ing himself with great prov/ess ! 14 The ruler of the Kiratas and
other dwellers of the lowlands on the sea-coast, the much-res-
pected and dear friend of the chief of the celestials himself, viz..
the virtuous king Bhagadatta, who was ever devoted to Ksha-
triya duties, hath been despatched to Yama's abode by Dhanan-
jaya exerting himself great with prowess. 16 " 16 The kinsman of
the Kauravas, the son of Somadatta, viz., the brave and celebra-
ted Bhuricravas, king, hath been slain by Satyaki in battle. 17
The Aravashtha king Crutayus, th'it foremost of Kshatriyas,
who used to career in battle most fearlessly, hath been slain by
Arjuna. 18 Thy son Duscasana, accomplished in arms and in-
vincible in battle, and who was always wrathful, hath, O mon-
arch, been slain by Bhimasena. 19 Sudakshina, O king, who
-had many thousands of wonderful elephants, hath been slain
in battle by Arjuna.' The ruler of the Kocalas, having slain
many hundreds of foes, hath himself been despatched to Yama's
abode by Subhadra's son exerting himself with prowess.* 1 Hav-
ing fought with many thousands of foes and with the mighty
car-warrior Bhimasena himself, thy son Chitrasena hath been
slain by Bhimasena." The brave younger brother of the ruler
of the Madras, that enhancer of the fears of foes, that hand-
some warrior armed with sword and shield, hath been slain by
Subhadra's son. 33 He who was equal to Kama himself in
battle, viz., Kama's son Vrishasena, accomplished in arms,
of mighty energy and steady prowess, hath, in tho very sight
of Kama, been despatched to Yama's abodo by Dhananjaya
who put forth his prowess remembering the slaughter of his own
son Abhimanyu and bearing in mind tho vow he had made."" 28
That lord of Earth, viz., Crutayus, who always displayed



10 MAMABHAKATA.

a deep-rooted antipathy towards the Pandavas, hath been slain
by Partha who reminded him of that antipathy before taking
his life. 26 Calya's son of great prowess, sire, viz., Rukmaratha,
hath, king, been slain in battle by Sahadeva although the
former happened to be the hitter's brother, having been the son
of the latter's maternal uncle.* 7 The old king Bhagiratha, and
Vrihatkshatra the ruler of the Kaikeyas, both endued with great
prowess and might and energy, have been slain. 88 Bhaga-
datta's son, O king, who was possessed of great wisdom and
great strength, hath been slain by Nakula who always careers
in battle with the activity of the hawk. 89 Thy grandsire Val-
hika, possessed of great might and prowess, hath, with all his
followers, been slain by Bhimasena. 80 The mighty Jayatsena
the son of Jarasandha, the prince of the Magadhas, king,
hath been slain in battle by the high-souled son of Subhadra. 81
Thy son Durmukha, king, as also thy other son Dussaha,
that mighty car-warrior, both of whom were regarded as heroes,
have been slain by Bhimasena with his mace. 38 Durmarshana
and Durvisaha and the mighty car-warrior Durjaya, having
achieved the most difficult feats, have gone to Yama's abode, 8 *
The two brothers Kalinga and Vrishaka, who were invincible
in battle, having achieved very difficult feats, have gone to
Yama's abode. 8 * Thy counsellor Vrishavarman of the Suta
caste, endued with great energy, hath been despatched to
Yama's abode by Bhimasena exerting himself with prowess. 35
So also king Paurava who was endued with the might of ten
thousand elephants, hath, with all his followers, been slain by
Piindu's son Arjuna. 36 The Vacutis, O king, numbering two
thousand, effectual smiters all, as also the Curasenas endued
with great prowess, have all been slain in battle. 37 The Abhi-
shahas, clad in mail, capable of smiting effectually, and fierce
in battle, also the Civis, those foremost of car-warriors, with
the Kalingas, have all been slain. 38 Those other heroes also, (viz.,
the Ndrdyana Gopas,) who lived and grew in Gokula, who were
exceedingly wrathful in battle, and who never retreated from
the field, have been slain by Savyasachin. 33 * Many thousands

* Apdvrittakaviras is explained by Nilakantha as "uuretreating
heroea".— T.



KARNA PARV | ]T

of Crenis. as also the Sdmsapfakas, approaching Arjuna, have
all repaired to the abode of Yam a. 40 Thy two brothers-in-law,
viz., the princes Vrishaka and Achala, who were endued with
great prowess, have for thy sake been slain by Savyasachin. 4 '
King Calwa of mighty arms and fierce deeds, who was a great
bowman both in name and feats, hath been slain by Bhinia-
sena. 42 Oghavat, O king, and Vrishanta, fighting together
in battle and exerting themselves with great vigor for the sake
of their ally, have both repaired to Yama's abode. 48 So also
that foremost of car-warriors, viz., Kshemadhurti, monarch,
hath been slain in battle by Bhimasena with his mace. 44 So also
that sreat bowman, vis., the mightv king Jalasandha, after caus-
ing an immense carnage, hath been slain by Satyaki in battle. 4 *
That prince of Rakshasas, viz., Alayudha, unto whose vehicle
were yoked asses (of monstrous shape) hath been despatched
to Yama's abode by Ghatotkacha exerting himself with great
prowess. 46 Radha's son of the Sitta caste, and those mighty
car-warriors who were his brothers, and the Kaikeyas. the Mala-
vas, the Madrakas, the Dravidas of fierce prowess, the Yaudhe-
yas, the Lalittyas, the Kshudrakas, the Ucinaras, the Mavel-
lakas, the Tundikeras, the Savitriputras, the Easterners, the
Notherners, the Westerners, and the Southerners, O sire
have all been slain by Savyasjichin. 47 " 49 Large bands of foot
soldiers, myriads upon myriads of steeds, large numbers of
car-warriors, and many huge elephants, have been slain/
Many heroes also, with standards and weapons, and with armour
and attire and ornaments, and endued with perseverance and



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