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our bows, therefore, king, I am superior to Arjuna.' 4 Listen
now to those matters in which the heroic son of Pandu is
superior to me ! The holder of the reins (of his steeds) is he
of Dacaraha's race who is adored by all the worlds ! S5 Hi«
celestial car, decked with gold, given unto him by Agni, is im
penetrable in every part, and his steeds also, O hero, are endued
with the speed of the mind. S6 His celestial standard, bearing
the blazing Ape, is exceedingly wonderful. Again, Krishna
who is the Creator of the universe, protects that car !" Though
inferior to Arjuna in respect of these things, I still desire to
fight with him. This Calya, however, the ornament of as-
semblies, is equal to Caurin ! ss If he becomes my driver,
victory will certainly be thine ! Let Calya, therefore, who is
incapable of being resisted by foes, be the driver of my car ! 59
Let a large number of carts bear my long shafts and those that
are winscedwith vulturine feathers. Let a number of foremost
cars, monarch, with excellent steeds yoked unto them/*
always follow me, bull of Bharata's race ! By these arrange-
ments I will, as regards the qualities mentioned, be superior
to Arjuna ! C1 Calya is superior to Krishna, and I am superior
to Arjuna ! As that slayer of foes, viz., he of Dacarha's race,
is acquainted with horselore, 62 even so is that mighty car-war-
rior, viz., Calya acquainted with horselore. There is none
equal to the chief of the Madras in might of arms, 89 As there
is none equal to myself in weapons, so there is none equal to
Calya in knowledge of steeds.'* So circumstanced, I will be-
come superior to Partha. Against my car, the very gods with
Viisava at their head will not dare advance.** All these being
attended to, when I take my stand on my car, I will become
superior to Arjuna in the attributes of a warrior and will then,
O best of the Kurus, vanquish Phalguna ,fi I desire, O mon-
arch, all this to be done by thee, scorcher of foes ! Let these
wishes of mine be accomplished. Let no time be suffered to
elapse ! 67 If all this be accomplished, the most effectual aid

; will be rendered to me on every desirable point. Thou wilt
then see, O Bharata, what I will achieve in battle!' 8 I will,

jby every means, vanquish the sons of Pandu in battle when


they will approach me ! The very gods and the A suras are
not able to advance against me in battle ! What need be said
then of the sons of Panda that are of human origin ? — ' 69

'Sanjaya continued, — 'Thus addressed by that ornament
of battle, viz., Kama, thy son, worshipping the son of Radha,
answered him, with a glad heart, saying, 70 — Accomplish that,
O Kama, which thou thinkest I Equipt with goodly quivers
and steeds, such cars shall follow thee in battle ! 71 Let as
many cars as thou wishest bear thy long shafts and arrows
equipt with vulturine feathers. Ourselves, as also all the kings,
will, O Kama, follow thee in battle ! — ' 7a

"Sanjaya continued, — 'Having said these words, thy royal
son, endued with great prowess, approached the ruler of the
Madras and addressed him in the following words.' " TS

Section XXXII.

"Sanjaya said, — 'Thy son then, monarch, humbly ap-
proaching that mighty car-warrior, viz., the ruler of the Madras,
addressed him, from affection, in these words :' — thou of true
vows, thou of great good fortune, enhancer of the sorrows
of foes, O ruler of the Madras, hero in battle, O thou that
inspirest hostile troops with fear, 2 thou hast heard, O foremost
of speakers, how, for the sake of Kama who spoke unto me,
I myself am desirous of soliciting thee among all these lions
of kings ! 3 O thou of incomparable prowess, O king of the
Madras, for the destruction of the foe, I solicit thee today,
with humility and bow of the head !* Therefore, for the des-
truction of Partha and for my good, it behoveth thee, O fore-
most of car- warriors, to accept, from love, the office of chariot-
eer ! 5 With thee for his driver, the son of Rahda will subjugate
my foes ! There is none else for holding the reins of Kama's
steeds, 6 except thee, O thou of great good fortune, thou that
art the equal of Vasudeva in battle! Protect Kama then by
every means like Brahman protecting Mahecwara ! 7 Even
as he of Vrishni's race protects by every means the son of Pan-
du in all dangers, do thou, O chief of the, Madras, protect the


son of Rfulha today !' Bhiahma, and Drona, and Kripa, and
thyself, and the valiant ruler of the Bhojas, and Cakuni the son
of Suvala, and Drona's son, and myself, constituted the chief
Strength of our army ! J Even thus, lord of Earth, we had
divided amongst ourselves the hostile army into nine portions
for the share of each ! The share that had been allotted to
Bhishma is now no more, as also that which had been allotted
to the high-souled Drona. 10 Going even beyond their allotted
shares, those two slew my foes. Those two tigers among men,
however, were old, and both of them have been slain deceit-
fully. ,l Having achieved the most difficult feats, both of
them, O sinless one, have departed hence to heaven ! Simi-
larly, many other tigers among men, of our army, slain by
foes in battle, have ascended to heaven, casting off their lives
and having made great exertions to the best of their powers. 1 *" 18
This my host, therefore, king, the greater portion of which
has been slaughtered, has been reduced to this state by the
Parthas who were at first fewer than us. What should be
done for the present? 1 * Do that now, O lord of Earth, by
which the mighty and the high-souled sons of Kunti, of
prowess incapable of being baffled, may be prevented from
exterminating the remnant of my host I 11 lord, the Panda-
vas have in battle slain the bravest warriors of this my force !"
The mighty-armed Kama alone is devoted to our good, as
also thyself, tiger among men, that art the foremost of
car-warriors in the whole world ! 17 O Calya, Kama wishes
to contend in battle today with Arjuna ! On him, ruler
of the Madras, my hopes of victory are great ! 18 There is none
else in the world (save thee) that can make so good a holder
of the reins for Kama ! As Krishna is the foremost of all
holders of reins for Partha in battle, even so, king, be thou
the foremost of all holders of reins on Kama's car ! 19 Accom-
panied and protected, O sire, by him in battle, the feats that
Partha achieves are all before thee !*° Formerly, Arjuna had
never slain his foes in battle in such a way. Now, however, his
prowess has become great, united as he is with Krishna ! J1
Day after day, O ruler of the Madras, this vast Dhartarashtra
force is seen to be routed bv Fartha because he is united with


[ Krishna ! M A portion remains of the share allotted to Kama
and thyself, O thou of great splendour ! Bear that share with
Kama, and destroy it unitedly in battle ! i8 Even as Surya,
uniting with Aruna, destroys the darkness, do thou, uniting
with Kama, slay the Parthas in battle ! a * Let the mighty
car-warriors (of the enemy), fly away, beholding in battle
those two warriors endued with the offulgence of the morning
Sun, viz., Kama and Calya, resembling two Suns risen above

; the horizon ! 28 Even as darkness is destroyed, sire, at the
sight of Surya and Aruna, even so let the Kaunteyas with
the Panchalas and the Srinjayas perish (beholding thee and
Kama ! 28 Kama is the formost of car-warriors, and thou art
the foremost of drivers ! In the clash of battle, again, there is
none equal to thee !" As he of Vrishni's race protects the
son of Pandu under all circumstances, even so let- thyself
protect Vikartana's son Kama in battle !" With thee as his
driver, Kama will become invincible, king, in battle with
even the gods having Cakra at their head ! What then need be
said about the Fandavas ? Do not doubt my words !— ' 29

"Sanjaya continued, — 'Hearing these words of Duryodhana,.
Calya became filled with rage. Contracting his brow into
three lines, and waving his arms repeatedly, 80 and rolling his
lar~e eyes red in wrath, that warrior of massive arms, proud
of hi3 lineage and wealth and knowledge and strength, said
these words. 31

" 'Calya said, — Thou insultest me, son of Gandhari, or,
without doubt, suspectest me, since thou solicitest me, without
hesitation, saying,— Act thou as a driver /"—Regarding Kama
to be suparior to ourselves, thou applaudest him thus ! I,
however, do not regard the son of Radha as my equal in
battle ! 38 Assign to me a much greater share, O lord of Earth I
Destroying that in battle, I will return to the place I came
from ! 34 Or, if thou wishest, I will, O delighter of the Kurus,
contend, single-handed, with the enemy ! While engaged in
consuming the foe, behold thou my prowess today ! 35 Brood-
ing upon an insult, thou of Kuru's race, a person like our-
selves never engageth in my task. Do not have thy doubts
about me ! Never shouldst thou humiliate me in battle !

• 36


Behold these two massive arms of mine, strong as the thunder !
Behold also my excellent bow, and these shafts that resemble
snakes of virulent poison !" Behold my car, unto which aro
yoked excellent steeds endued with the speed of the wind !
Behold also, son of Gandhiiri, my mace decked with gold
and twined with hempen chords ! 58 Filled with wrath, I can
split the very Earth, scatter the mountains, and dry up the
oceans, with my own energy, O king ! 39 Knowing me, O mon-
arch, to be so capable of afflicting the foe, why dost thou appoint
me to the office of driver in battle for such a low-born person as
Adhiratha's son ?*° It bchoveth thee not, O king of kings, to
set me to such mean tasks ! Being so superior, I cannot make
up my mind to obey the commands of a sinful person ! 41 He
that causeth a superior person arrived of his own will and
obedient from love, to yield to a sinful wight, certainly in-
currcth the sin of confusing the superior with the inferior !**
Brahman created the Brahmanas from his mouth, and the
Kshatriyas from his arms. He created the Vaicjas from his
thighs and the Cudras from his feet. 48 In consequence of the
union with one another of those four orders, O Bharata, from
those four have sprung particular classes, viz., those born of men
of superior classes wedding women of classes inferior to them-
selves, and vice versa}*" Protectors (of the other classes), ac-
quirers of wealth, and givers of the same, have the Kshatriyas
Ibeen described to be. The Brahmanas have been established
on the Earth for the sake of favoring its people by assisting
at sacrifices, by teaching, and acceptance of pure gifts. 45
Agriculture and tending of cattle and gift are the occupations
of the Vaicyas according to the scriptures. Cudras have been
rd lined to be the servants of the Brahmanas, the Kshatriyas,
and the Vaicyas. 46 Similarly, the Sutas arc the servants of
the Kshatriyas, and not the latter the servants of the former.
Listen to these my words, O sinless one ! 47 As regards myself,
E am one whose coronal locks have undergone the sacred bath.
I am born in a race of royal sages. I am reckoned a great car-
ivarrior. I deserve the worship and the praises that bards and
fulogists render and sing. 43 Being all this, O slayer of hostile
,roops, I cannot come forward to act as the driver of the Satan



son in battle !* a I will never fight, undergoing an act of
humiliation. I ask thy permission, son of Gandhari, for I
will return home ! so — '

"Sanjaya continued, — 'Having said these words, that tiger
among men and ornament of assemblies, viz., Calya, filled
with rage, stood up quickly and endeavoured to get away from
that concourse of kings. 51 Thy son, however, from affection
and great regard, held the king, and addressed him in these
sweet and conciliatory words, that were capable of accom-
plishing every object ; 52 — Without doubt, O Calya, it is even
so as thou hast said ! But I have a certain purpose in view.
Listen to it, ruler of men ! 53 Kama is not superior to
thee, nor do I suspect thee, king ! The royal chief of
the Madras will never do that which is false. 54 Those foremost
of men that were thy ancestors always told the truth. I think
it is for this that thou art called Artayani (the descendant of
those that had truth for their refuge). 5s And since, O giver
of honors, thou art like a barbed arrow to thy foes, there-
fore art thou called by the name of £alya on Earth ! 56 O
thou that makest large presents (to Briihmanas) at sacrifices,
do thou accomplish all that which, O virtuous one, thou hadst
said thou wouldst accomplish before !" Neither the son of
Radha nor myself am superior to thee in valor that I would
select thee as the driver of those foremost of steeds (that are
yoked unto Kama's car) ! 55 As, however, sire, Kama is
superior to Dhananjaya in regard to many qualities, even so
doth the world regard thee to be superior to Vasudeva I s9
Kama is certainly superior to Partha in the matter of weapons,
O bull among men ! Thou too art superior to Krishna, in
knowledge of steeds and might ! 60 Without doubt, O ruler of
the Madras, thy knowledge of horses is twice greater than
that which tho high-souled Vasudeva hath ! — 61

" 'Calya said,— Since, son of Gandhari, thou describest
me, thou of Kuru's race, in the midst of all these troops,
to be superior to Devaki's son, I am gratified with thee ! 64 I
will become the driver of Radha's son of great fame while he
will be engaged in battle with that foremost one of Pandu's
sons, as thou so-licitest me ! 68 Let this, however, O hero, be


my understanding with Vikartana's son that T will, in hia
presence, utter whatever speeches I desire ! — ,c *

"Sanjaya continued, — 'O king, thy son, with Kama then,
O Bharata, answered the prince of the Madras, O best uf
Bharata's race, saying, — So be it ' — ' " 6 *

Section XXXIII.

" 'Duryodhana said, — Listen, once more, O ruler of the
Madras, to what I will say unto thee, about what happened, O
lord, in the battle between the gods and the A suras in daya
of yore! 1 The great Rishi Markandeya narrated it to my sire.
I will now recite it without leaving out anything, O best of
royal sages ! Listen to that account confidingly and without
mistrusting it at all ! 3 Between the gods and the Asuras, each
desirous of vanquishing the other, there happened a great battle,
king, which had Taraka for its evil (root). It hath been heard
by us that the Daityas were defeated by the gods. 3 Upon
the defeat of the Daityas, the three sons of Taraka, named
Tarakaksha, Kamalaksha, and Vidyunmalin. king,* practising
the austerest penances, lived in the observance of high vows.
By those penances they emaciated their bodies, scorcher of
foes.' In consequence of their self-restraint, their penances,
their vows, and contemplation, the boon-giving Grandsire be-
came gratified with them and gave them boons. 6 Unitedly
they solicited the Grandsire of all the worlds, king, for tho
b ion of immunity from death at the hands of all creatures at
all times. 7 The divine Lord and Master of all the worlds said
unto them, — [There is nothing like immunity from death at
the hands of all creatures! Therefore, ye Asuras, abstain
from such a prayor ! Solicit some other boon that may seem
desirable to you !]*— Then all of them, king, having settled
it amongst themselves after long and repeated conferences,
bowed to the great Master of all the worlds and said these
words: — [0 god, Grandsire, give us this boon ! 9 Residing in
three cities, we will rove over this Earth, with thy grace ever
before us ! 10 After a thousand years then, we will come together,
and our three cities also, sinless one, will become united


into one !" That foremost one amongst the gods who will, with
one shaft, pierce those three cities united into one, will, O
lord, be the cause of our destruction !] 12 — Saying unto them,
— [Let it be so,] — that god ascended to heaven. Those Asuras
then, filled with joy at having obtained those boons, and having
settled it among themselves 13 about the construction of the three
cities, selected for the purpose the great Asura Maya, the celes-
tial artificer, knowing no fatigue or decay, and worshipped by all
the Daityas and Banavas. 1 * Then Maya, of great intelligence,
by the aid of his own ascetic merit, constructed the three
cities, one of which was of gold, another of silver, and the
third of black iron. 15 The golden city was set in heaven, the
silver city in the welkin, and the iron city was set on the
Earth, all in such a way as to revolve in a circle, O lord of
Earth !* 16 Each of those cities measured a hundred Yojanas
in breadth and a hundred in length. And they consisted of
houses and mansions and lofty walls and porches. 17 And
though teeming with lordly palaces close to each other, yet
the streets were wide and spacious. And they were adorned
with diverse mansions and gate-ways. 18 Each of those cities,
again, monarch, had a separate king. 19 The beautiful city
of gold belonged to the illustrious Tarakaksha ; the silver city
to Kamalaksha, and the iron one to Vidyunmalin. 20 Those
three Daitya kings, soon assailing the three worlds with their
energy, continued to dwell and reign, and began to say, —
[Who is he called the Creator ?] 21 — Unto those foremost of
Banavas having no heroes equal to them, came millions upon
millions, from every side, 22 of proud and flesh-eating Danavas
who had before been defeated by the celestials, and who now
settled in the three cities, desirous of great prosperity. 23 Unto
all of them thus united, Maya became the supplier of every
thing they wanted. Relying upon him, all of them resided
there, in perfect fearlessness. 24 Whoever amongst those resid-
ing in the triple city wished for whatever object in his heart,
had his wish fulfilled by Maya aided by the latter's powers of

* C/iakrastAzm is explained by Nilakantha in the sense in which I
render it here. — T,


illusion. 25 Tarakakasha had a heroic and mighty son named
Hari. He underwent the austerest of penances, upon which
the Grandsire became gratified with him. 26 When the god was
gratified, Hari solicited a boon of him, saying, — [Let a lake
start into existence in our city, such that persons, slain by
means of weapons, may, when thrown into it, come out with
life and redoubled strength !]" — Obtaining this boon, the heroic
Hari, son of Tarakaksha, created a lake, lord, in his city,
that was capable of reviving the dead. 28 In whatever form and
whatever guise a Daitya might be slain, if thrown into that
lake, he came out, restored to life, in the self-same form and
guise. 29 Obtaining back their slain, the Daityas began to afflict
the three worlds. Crowned with success by means of austere
penances, those enhancers of the fears of the gods 30 sustained,
O king, no diminution in battle. 31 Stupified then by covctous-
ness and folly, and deprived of their senses, all of them began
to shamelessly exterminate the cities and towns established all
over the universe. 82 Filled with pride at the boons they had
received, and driving before them, at all times and from all
places, the gods with their attendants, they roamed at will
over celestial forests and other realms dear to the denizens of
heaven and the delightful and sacred asylums of Rishis. And
the wicked Ddnavas ceased to show any respect for anybody. S3-3 ' i
While the worlds were thus afflicted, Cakra, surrounded by the
Maruts, battled against the three cities by hurling his thunder
upon them from every side/' 5 When, however, Purandara
failed to pierce those cities made impenetrable, O king, by the
Creator with his boons, 55 the chief of the celestials, filled with
fear, and leaving those cities, repaired with those very gods to
that chastiser of foes, viz., the Grandsire, for representing unto
him the oppressions committed by the Asuras.' 7 Representing
everything and bowing their heads unto him. they asked the
divine Grandsire the means by which the triple city could
be destroyed. 88 The illustrious Deity, hearing the words of
Indra, told the gods, — [He that is an offender against you
offends against mc also ! 39 The Asuraa are all of wicked souls
and always hate the gods ! They that give pain to you always
gffend against mc !*° I am impartial to all creature- ' There i;i


no doubt in this ! For all that, however, they that are lift-
righteous should be slain. This is my fixed vow ! 41 Those
three forts are to be pierced with one shaft. By no other
means can their destruction be effected. None else, save
Sthanu 3 is competent to pierce them with one shaft. 42 Ye
Adityas, select Sthanu, otherwise called Ic/ana and Jishnu, who
is never fatigued with work, as your warrior ! It is he that will
destroy those A suras /] 43 — Hearing these words of his, the
gods with Cakra at their head, making Brahman take their
loader, sought the protection of the Deity having the bull for
his mark.** Those righteous ones, accompanied by Mishis
devoted to the severest penances and uttering the eternal words
of the Vedas, sought Bhava with their whole soul. 45 And
they praised, O king, in the high words of the Vedas, that
dispel ler of fears in all situations of fear, that Universal
Soul, that Supreme Soul, that one by whom this All is per-
vaded with his Soul.* 6 Then him who, by especial penances,
had learnt to still all the functions of his Soul and under-
stood the distinction of Soul from Matter, — him who had his
soul always under control,* 7 — him, called Ic/ana, — that lord of
Uma, that mass of energy, — the gods beheld, — him, that is,
who hath no equal in the universe, that source (of everything),
that sinless Self. 43 Though that Deity is one, they had imagin-
ed him to be of various forms. Beholding in that high-souled
one those diverse forms that each had individually conceived in
his own heart, all of them became filled with wonder.* 3 Be-
holding that Unborn one, that Lord of the universe, to be the
embodiment of all creatures, the gods and the regenerate
Blskis, all touched the Earth with their heads. 59 Saluting
them with the word— [Welcome]— and raising them from their
bent attitudes, the illustrious Cankara addressed them smiling-
ly, saying, — [Tell us the object of your visit Q" — Commanded
by the Three-eyed god, their hearts became easy. They
then said these words unto him : — Our repeated salutations
to thee, Olord! 52 Salutations to thee that art the source of
all tho gods, to thee armed with the bow, to thee that art full
of wrath ! Salutations to thee that hadst destroyed the sacri-
fioe of that lord of creatures (viz., Daksha), to thee that art


adored by all. the lords of creatures ! 88 Salutations to thee
that art always praised, to thee that deservest to bo praised, to
thee that art Death's self! Salutations to thee that art red, to
thee that art fierce, to thec that art blue-throated, to thee that
art armed with the trident, 84 to thee that art incapable of being
baffled, to thee that hast eyes as beautiful as those of the
gazelle, to thee that tightest with the foremost of weapons; to
thee that deservest all praise, to thee that art pure, to thee that
art destruction's self, to thee that art the destroyer ; 88 to thee that
art irresistible, to thee that art Brahman, to thee that leadest the
life of a Brahmachcirin ', to thee that art Icana; to thee that
art immeasurable, to thee that art the great controller, to thee
that art robed in tatters ; 58 to thee that art ever engaged in
penances, to thee that art tawny, to thee that art observant
of vows, to thee that art robed in animal skins ; to thee that
art the sire of Kumara, to thec that art three-eyed, to thee
that art armed with the foremost of weapons, 87 to thee that
destroyest the afflictions of all that seek thy shelter, to thee
that destroyest all haters of Brahmanas, to thee that art the
lord of all trees, the lord of all men, the lord of all kinc, and
ever the lord of sacrifices ! ss Salutations to thee that art
always at the head of troops, to thee that art three-eyed, to thee
that art endued with fierce energy ! We devote ourselves to
thee in thought, word, and deed! Be gracious unto us !] 8D —
Gratified with these adorations, the holy one, saluting them
with the word — Welcome] — said unto them. — [Let your fears
be dispelled ! Say, what we arc to do for you !] — ' " 60

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