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ensue between myself and him. If he vanquishes me in fight,
then will these thy praises be regarded as well-uttered ! — '*'

"Sanjaya continued, — 'The ruler of the Madras said, — Let
it be so, — and gave no reply. When Kama, from desire of
fight, addressed Calya, saying, — Proceed ! 43 — then that great
car-warrior, having white steeds yoked unto his vehicle and own-
ing Calya for his charioteer, proceeded against his foes, slaying
large numbers in battle along his way, like the Sun destroying
the darkness. 44 Indeed, on that car covered with tiger-skins
and having white steeds yoked unto it, Kama proceeded with a
cheerful heart, and beholding the army of the Panda vas. speedi-
ly enquired after Dhananjaya.' '* 4S

Section XXXVIII.

"Sanjaya said, — 'After Kama, gladdening thy army, had seU
out for battle, he spoke unto every Pandava soldier that he met
with, even these words :' — Unto him that will today point out
the high-souled Dhananjaya of white steeds to me, I will give
whatever wealth he desires. 3 If having got it bo does not
become satisfied, I shell, in addition, give him, — him, that is,
that will discover Arj una to me, — a cart-load of jewels and
gems ! s If that does not satisfy the person who discovers
Arjuna to me, I will give him a century of kine with as many
vessels of brass for milking those animals. 4 I will give a
hundred foremost of villages unto the person that discovers
Arjuna to me. I will also give him that shows Arjuna to me a
number of long-tressed damsels of black eves and a car unto
which shall be yoked white mules. 5 If that dees not satisfy
the person that discovers Arjuna to me, I shall give him an-
other foremost of cars, made of gold and havii •■ bulls


yoked unto it that shall be as large as elephants.* 8 I shall also
give unto him a hundred damsels decked with ornaments,
with collars of gold, fair-complexioned : -f" and accomplished in
singing and dancing. 7 If that does not satisfy the person that
discovers Arjuna to me, I shall give him a hundred elephants,
a hundred villages, and a hundred cars, 8 and ten thousand
steeds of the foremost of breed, fat, docile, endued with many
excellent qualities, capable of dragging cars, and well-trained. 9
I shall also give to the person that discovers Arjuna to me four
hundred kine, each with golden horns and her calf ! 10 If that
does not satisfy the person that discovers Arjuna to me, I shall
make him a more valuable gift, viz., five hundred steeds, 11
adorned with trappings of gold and decked with jewelled orna-
ments. I shall also give eighteen other steeds of great doci-
lity. 1 * I shall also give the person that discovers Arjuna to me
a bright car made of gold and adorned with diverse ornaments
and having foremost of Kamvoja steeds yoked unto it.' 3 If
that docs not satisfy the person that discovers Arjuna to me,
I shall make him a more valuable gift, viz., six hundred ele-
phants, 1 * with chains of gold around their necks, and covered
with housings of gold, born in the western shores of the ocean,t
and trained by elephant-trainers. 15 If that does not satisfy the
person that discovers Arjuna to me, I shall make him a more
valuable gift, viz., fourteen Vaicya villages, 16 teeming with
people, full of wealth, situated in the proximity of forests and
rivers, free from all sorts of danger, well furnished (with other
necessaries), and worthy of being enjoyed by kings. 17 To him
that will discover Dhananjaya to me I shall also give a hundred
female slaves, with golden collars, belonging to the country
of the Magadhas, and of very youthful age. 18 If that does not

* Or, it may mean, "that shall have six elephants attached to it and
acting as its bulls." — T.

t The word Cj/am-i, as applied to a damsel, means one whose skin is
warm in winter and cold in summer, and whose complexion is bright as
heated gold. — T.

+ I think one can trace a reference to Africa in this expression.
The original is apardnteshU, i. e., on the other end ; very probably, it
meaii^, as I have put it, the other shore of the ocean. — T.

KAi.n i PAKVA, L33

satisfy the person that discovers Arjuna to mc, I will mako
him a moro valuable gift, — that, indeed, which he himself will
solicit. 19 Sons, wives, ami articles of pleasure and enjoyment,
that I have, — these all, — I shall give him if he desires them! 20
Indeed, unto him who discovers Keeava and Arjuna to me,
I shall, after slaying those two, give all the wealth that may
be left by them l il — Having uttered these diverse speeches,
in that battle, Kama blew his excellent conch, sea-born and
producing a sweet blare." Hearing these words of the Suta's
son that were suitable to his disposition, Duryodhana, king,
with all his followers, became filled with joy.* 3 At that juncture
the beat of cymbals and drums, and leonine shouts, and grunts
of elephants, with the sounds of diverse musical instruments, 8 *
arose there, king, among the (Kaurava) troops, bull among
men. The shouts also of warriors filled with joy arose there.* 8
When the (Kaurava) troops were thus filled with joy, the ruler
of the Madras, laughing in scorn, said these words unto that
grinder of foes, viz., (he son of Radha, that mighty car-
warrior who was about to plunge into that ocean of battle and
who was indulging in such vain brag.' " 2S

Section XXXIX.

<; 'Calya said, — Do not, O Suta's son, give away to any man
a golden car with six bulls of elephantine proportions ! Thou
wilt obtain a sight of Dhananjaya today ! l From foolishness
thou art giving away wealth as if thou wcrt the Lord of trea-
sures ! Without any trouble, however, O son of Radha, thou
Wilt behold Dhananjaya today ! 2 Thou art for giving away this
wealth like a senseless person ; but thou sccst not the demerits
attaching to those gifts that are made to undeserving p< rsons !'
With that large wealth which thou art desirous of giving away,
thou art certainly able to perform many sacrifices ! Then lore,
O Suta's son, do thou perform those sacrifices ! 4 As regards
thy desire, entertained from folly, that is surely vain! Wi
have never heard of a couple of lions having been overthrown
by a fox l" Thou seekest what, should never be sought by
thee: It seems that thou hast no friends for forbidding t)


thafc art for speedily falling into a blazing fire ! s Thou art un-
able to discriminate between what thou shouldst do and what
thou shouldst not ! Without doubt, thy period is full ! What
man desirous of living would utter speeches that are so in-
coherent and undeserving of being listened to V This thy
endeavour is like that of a person desirous of crossing the ocean
by the aid of only his two arms after having attached to hi3
neck a heavy stone, or of one desirous of leaping down from
the summit of a mountain ! 8 If thou art desirous of winning
what is for thy good, fight with Dhananjaya, well protected
from within thy arrayed division, and aided by all thy warriors !°
I say this to thee for the good of Dhritarashtra's son and not
from any ill will to thee ! If thou hast any wish for preserving
thy life, then accept the words spoken by me ! — HQ

" 'Kama said, — Relying on the might of my own arms I
Seek Arjuna in battle. Thou, however, that art a- foe with the
face of a friend, desirest to frighten me !" No person shall
deter me from this resolution, not even Indra himself uplifting
his thunder, what then need be said of a mortal ! — M3

'Sanjaya continued, — 'At the conclusion of these words of
Kama, Calya, the ruler of the Madras, desirous provoking
Kama exceedingly, said these words in reply. 13 — When keen-
pointed shafts winged with Kanka feathers, shot by Phalguna
of mighty arms and impelled from his bowstring and sped with
all his energy, will seek thee, then wilt thou lament thy en-
counter with that hero ! 14 When Partha, called also Savya-
sachin, taking up his celestial bow, will scorch the (Kuril)
army and afflict thee exceedingly with keen shafts, then,
Suta's son, wilt thou repent (of thy folly) ! 15 As a child l\ 7 ing
on the lap of its mother seeks to seize the Moon, even so dost
thou, from folly, seek to vanquish the resplendent Arjuna
stationed on his car ! ,s In desiring, O Kama, to fight today
with Arjuna of keen-edged feats,* thou art for rubbing all
thy limbs against the keen-edges of a trident. 17 This thy
challenge of Arjuna, Suta's son, is like that of a foolish
young little deer of activity challenging a huge lion excited

* I trauiUte the expression literally. — T.

K.\R\A PART V, 13-J

*lth wrath: 18 Do not, O Suta's son, challenge that prince of
mighty energy like a fox gratified with meat in the forest
challenging the maned monarch of the forest ! Do not be des-
troyed, encountering Arjuna ! lD Thou, O Kama, challengest
Dhananjaya the son of Pritha even like a hare challenging a
mighty elephant with tusks largo as plough-shafts, and with tho
juice issuing out of its mouth and rent cheeks ! 2 * From folly
thou art piercing with a piece of wood the black cobra of
virulent poison excited to fury within its hole, in desiring to
fight with Partha !" Endued with little understanding, thou,
O Kama, disregarding that lion among men, viz., the son of
Pandu, yellest at him, like a jackal that, disregarding a maned
lion excited with wrath, yells at him ! 2a As a snake, for its
own destruction, chall-enges that foremost of birds, viz., Vina-
ta's son possessed of beautiful plumage and great activity, even
so dost thou, Kama, challenge Dhananjaya the son of Par-
tha ! ,s Thou desirest to cross without a raft the terrible ocean,
the receptacle of all the waters, with its mountain waves and
teeming with acquatic animals, when at its height at the rise
of the Moon I 9 * O Kama, thou challengest Dhananjaya tho
son of Pritha to battle even like a calf challenging a smiting
bull of keen horns and neck thick as a drum ! 2S Like a frog
croaking at a terrible and mighty cloud yielding copious
showers of rain, thou croakest at Arjuna who is even like
Parjanya among men ! 26 * As a dog from within the precincts
of the house of his master barks at a forest-roaming tiger,
even so, Kama, thou barkest at Dhananjaya, that tiger
among men ! 27 A jackal, O Kama, residing in the forest in tho
midst of hares, regardeth himself a lion till a lion he actually
sees l 28 Even so, son of Radha, thou regardest thyself a
lion for thou dost not behold that represser of foes, that tiger
among men, viz., Dhananjaya ! ID Thou regardest thyself a
lion till thou beholdest the two Krishnas stationed on the same
car like Surya and Chandramas. 80 As long as thou dost not
hear the twang of Gdndiva in great battle, so long art thou
able to do what thou pleasest ! 51 Beholding Partha causing

* rarjarn/a. is the deity of the clouds. — T.


the ten points of the compass to resound with the roar of his
car and the twang; of his bow, and beholding; him roaring; like
a tiger, thou wilt became a jackal ! sz Thou art always a jackal,
and Dhananjaya always a lion ! O fool, in consequence of thy
envy and hatred for heroes, thou always seemest to be like a
jackal! 83 As a mouse and a cat are to each other in strength,
or a dog and a tiger, or a fox and a lion, or a hare and an
elephant, as falsehood and truth, as poison and nectar, even
so art thou and Piirtha known to all by your respective
deeds !' " s *

Section XL.

"Sanjaya said, — 'Thus rebuked by Calya of immeasurable
energy, the son of Radha, feeling the propriety of his rcbuker's
name in consequence of his wordy darts, and becoming filled
with rage, answered him thus.' 1 *

,: 'Karna said, — The merits of meritorious men, O Calya, are
known to them that are themselves meritorious but not to them
that are destitute of merit. Thou, however, art destitute of
every merit. How then canst thou judge of merit and demerit ? a
The mighty weapons of Arjuna, his wrath, his energy, his
bow, his shafts, and the prowess also of that high-souled
hero, are, O Calya, well known to me ! s So also, O Calya,
thou dost not know so well as I myself, the greatness of
Krishna, that bull among the lords of Earth !* But, know-
ing my own energy as also the energy of Pandu's son, I
challenge him to battle, O Calya ! I do not act like an
insect in respect of a blazing fire ! 5 I have this shaft, O
Calya, of keen mouth, blood-drinking, lying alone within one
quiver, equipt with wings, well-steeped in oil and well adorned. 6
It lieth amid sandal dust, worshipped by me for long years
Partaking of the nature and form of a snake, it is poisonous
and fierce and capable of killing large numbers of men and
steeds and elephants. 7 Of terrible form and exceedingly awful,
it is capable of piercing coats of mail and bones. Inspired

* An allusion to the word Calyx, which means a ilavt. — T.


With wrath, I may pierce even the mighty mountains of Mern
with it ! 8 That shaft I will never shoot at any otheT person
save Phalguna or Krishna the son of Devaki. In this I tell
thee the truth ! Listen to it ! 9 With that shaft, Calya, I
will, inspired with rage, fight with Viisudeva and Dhananjaya !
That would be a feat worthy of me ! 10 Of all the heroes in
the Vrishni race, it is Krishna in whom Prosperity is always
established. Among all the sons of Pandu, it is Partha in
whom Victory is always established." Those two tigers among
men, stationed together on the same car, will advance against
my single self for battle ! Thou shalt, Calya, behold to-
day the nobility of my lineage l li Those two cousins, one
of whom is the son of the aunt and the other the son of the
maternal uncle,* those two invincible warriors, thou shalt
see, will be slain by me (with one shaft) and will look like two
pearls strung together in the same string. 15 Arjnna's Gandiva
and the ape-bearing banner, and Krishna's discus and the
Garuda-bearing banner, inspire only those that are timid with
fear. To me, however, O Calya, they are causes of delight ! l *
Thou art a fool, of evil disposition, and unskilled in the ways
of great battle ! Overcome with terror, thou utterest these
ravings! 15 Or, thou art praising them for some reason not
known to me! Having slain those two first, I shall then
slay thee today with all thy kinsmen !'* Born in a sinful
country, thou art wickcd-souled, and mean, and a wretch
amongst Kshatriyas ! Being a friend, why dost thou, like an
enemy, frighten me with (these praises of) the two Krishnas ? 17
Either they two will slay me today or I will slay them two.
Knowing as I do my own might, I do not cherish any fear of
the two Krishnas ! ' 3 A thousand Vasudevas and hundreds of
Phalgunas, I shall, single-handed, slay ! Huld thy tongue,
thou that art born in a sinful country! 19 Hear from me,
O Calya, the sayings, already passed into proverbs, that men,
young and old, and women, and persons arrived in course of
their listless wanderings, generally utter as if those sayings,
formed part of their studies, about the wicked Madrakas !

* Kunti and Vasudeva were sister and brother. — T.


Brahmanas also duly narrated the same things formerly in the
courts of kings. Listening to those sayings attentively, O fool,
thou mayst forgive or rejoin ! 20 " ai — {The Madraka is always a
hater of friends. Ho that hatetb us is a Madraka. There is
no friendship in the Madraka who is mean in speech and is the
lowest of mankind." The Madraka is always a person of
wicked soul, is always untruthful and crooked. It hath been
heard by U3 that till the moment of death, the Madrakas
are wicked. 2 s (Amongst the Madrakas) the sire, the son, the
mother, the mother-in-law, the father-in-law, the maternal
uncle, the son-in-law, the daughter-in-law, the brother, the
grandson, and other kinsmen, 84 companions, strangers arrived
at their homes, slaves male and female, mingle together. The
-women of the Madrakas mingle, at their own will, with men
known and unknown. 85 Of unrighteous conduct, and subsisting
upon fried and powdered corn and fish, in their homes they
laugh and cry, having drunk spirits and eaten beef. s$ They
sing incoherent songs and mingle lustfully with one another,
indulging the while in the freest speeches. How then can
virtue have a place amongst the Madrakas who are arrogant
and notorious for all kinds of evil acts ? %1 No one should make
friends with a Madraka or provoke hostilities with him. In
the Madraka there is no friendship. The Madraka is always
the dirt of humanity.* 8 Amongst the Madrakas all acts of
friendship are lost as purity amongst the Gandharakas and the
libations poured in a sacrifice in which the king is himself
the sacrificer and priest !]" Then again, it is truly seen
that wise men treat a person bit by a scorpion and affected
by its poison, even with these words : — [As a Brahmana that
assists at the religious ceremonies of a Cudra suffereth de-
gradation, as one that hateth Brahmanas always suffereth
degradation, even so a person by making an alliance with
the Madrakas becometh fallen ! As there is no friendship
in the Madraka, so, O scorpion, thy poison is nought ! With
these mantras of the Atharvan I have duly performed the
rite of exorcism !] !0 " B2 Knowing this, O learned one, hold
thy tongue, or listen to something further that I will say ! 8S
Tiiose women that, intoxicated by spirits, cast off their robes


and dance, — those women that aro not attached (to particular
individuals) in the matter of intercourse and that do as they
pleaso without owning any restrictions, 2 * I say, that being as
thou art the child of one of those women, how canst thou, O
Madraka, be a fit person for declaring the duties of men ? Those
women that live and answer calls of nature like camels and asses,
being as thou art the child of one of thoso sinful and shameless
creatures, how canst thou wish to declare the duties of men? 58 ""
When a Madraka woman is solicited for the gift of a little
quantity of vinegar, she scratches her hips and without being
desirous of giving it, says these cruel words ;" — [Let no man
ask any vinegar of me that is so dear to me ! I would
give him my son, I would give him my husband, but vinegar
I would not give '] sa — The young Madraka maidens, we hear,
are generally very shameless and hairy and gluttonous and
impure ! These and many other things of a like nature, in
respect of all their acts, from the crown of their heads to the
tip of their toes, are capable of being asserted of them by my-
self and others ! 83 " 40 How, indeed, would the Madrakas and the
Sindhu-Sauviras know anything cf duty, being born, as they
are, in a sinful country, being mlecchas in their practices, and
being totally regardless of all duties ?* 1 It hath been heard by
ns that even this is the highest duty of a Kshatriya, viz.,
that, slain in battle, he should lie down on the Earth, applauded
by the righteous.** That I should lay down (my life), in this
clash of arms is my foremost wish, desirous as I am of hoaven
through Death '* 3 I am also the dear friend of the intelligent
j son of Dhrifcarashtra ! For his sake, aro my life-breaths and
I whatever wealth I have !** As regards thyself, thou that art
J born in a sinful country, it is evident that thou hast been
| tampered with by the Pilndavas, since thou behavest towards
| us in everything like a foe!** Like a righteous man that is
'incapable of being led astray by atheists, surely I am incapable
I of being di - led from this battle by hundreds of persons like
1 thee !* s Liko a deer, covered with sweat, thou art at liberty
to weep or thirst ! Observent as I am of the duties of a,
;Kshatriya, lam incapable of being frightened by thee'* 7 i
recall to my mind the end, declared unto me in past times by


my preceptor Rama, of those lions among men, those unreturn-
ing heroes, that laid down their lives in battle ! 48 Prepared
for rescuing the Kauravas and slaying our foes, know that I
am now determined to imitate the excellent behaviour of
Fururavas I 49 I do not, O ruler of the Madrakas, behold the
person in the three worlds that can, I think, dissuade me from
this purpose ! 50 Forbear to speak, knowing all this ! Why
dost thou rave in such a way from fear ? O wretch amongst
the Madrakas, I shall not now slay thee and present thy car-
case as an offering to carnivorous creatures ! 51 From regard for
friend, O Calya, for the sake of Dhritarashtra's son, and for avoid-
ing blame, — for these three reasons, — thou still livest ! sa If, O
ruler of the Madras, thou speakest such words again, I shall then
crush thy head with my mace that is as hard as the thunder ! 53
People will today see or hear, O thou that art born in a sinful
country, either that the two Krishnas have slain Kama or that
Kama has slain the two Krishnas ! 51 — Having said these words,
the son of Radha, O monarch, once more addressed the king of
the Madras, fearlessly saying, — Proceed, Proceed ! — ' " iS

Section XLI.

'Sanjaya said, — 'Hearing, O sire, these words of Radha'g
son who delighted in battle, Calya once more addressed Kama,
citing an example. 1 — I am born in the race of men who per-
formed great sacrifices, who never retreated from battle, who
were kinoes whose coronal locks underwent the sacred bath I
I am also myself devoted to the practice of virtue ! 2 Thou, O
Vrisha, seemest to be like one that is intoxicated with spirits !
For all that, I will, from friendship, seek to cure thy erring and
intoxicated self. 3 Listen, O Kama, to this simile of a crow
that I am about to narrate ! Having heard it, thou mayst do
what thou choosest, O thou that art destitute of intelligence
and that art a wretch of thy race ! 4 I do not, Kama, re-
member the slightest fault in me for which, O thou of mighty
arms, thou mayst desire to slay my innocent self!' I must
tell thee what is for thy good and what for thy ill, acquainted
as I am with both, especially as I am the driver of thy car


and desirous of the good of king Duryodhana I 1 What land is
level and what not, the strength or weakness of the warrior
(on my vehicle), the fatigue and faintness, at all times, of the
steeds and the warrior (lam driving), 7 a knowledge of tho
weapons that are available, the cries of animals and birds, what
would be heavy for the steeds and what exceedingly heavy for
them, the extraction of arrows and the curing of wounds, 8
which weapons counteract which, the several methods of battle,
and all kinds of omens and indications, — I who am so nearly
connected with this car, being none else than its driver, should
be familiar with ! For this, O Kama, I narrate this instance
to thee once more ! 9 There lived on the other side of the
ocean a Vaicya who had abundance of wealth and corn.
Ho performed sacrifices, made liberal gifts, was peaceful,
devoted to the duties of his own order, and pure in habits
and mind. 10 He had many sons whom he loved, and was
kind unto all creatures. He lived fearlessly in the dominions
of a king that was guided by virtue. 11 There was a crow that
lived on the refuse of the dishes set before those well-be-
haved young children of the Vaicya. 18 Those Vaicya children
always gave the crow meat and curds, and milk, and sugared
milk with rice, and honey, and butter. 18 Thus fed with the
refuse of their dishes by the young children of that Vaicya,
the crow became arrogant and came to disregard all birds that
were equal to him or even superior. 14 It chanced that on a
time certain swans of cheerful hearts, of great speed and capa-
ble of going everywhere at will and equal unto Garuda himself
in range and speed of flight, came to that side of the ocean. 1 '
The Vaicya boys, beholding those swans, addressed the crow
and said, — [O ranger of the skies, thou art superior to all
winged creatures !] 16 — Deceived by those children of little un-
derstanding, that oviparous creature, from folly and pride,
regarded their words to be true. 17 Proud of the refuse of
the children's dishes upon which he fed, the crow then, alight-
ing in the midst of those swans capable of traversing great
distances, desired to enquire as to who amongst them was
their leader. 18 The foolish crow at last challenged him amongst
those birds of tireless wings whom he regarded their leader,


saying,— [Let us compete in flight !] 19 — Hearing those words of
the raving crow, the swans that had been assembled there, those
foremost of birds endued with great strength, began to laugh."*

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