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that a slaughter-ground for kine and a space for storing
intoxicating spirits always distinguish the entrances of the
abodes of the (Vahika) kings. 8 On some very secret mis-
sion I had to live among the Vahikas. In consequence of
such residence the conduct of that people is well known to me. 9

* The sense seems to be that "if thou wert absent a thousand times,
I would still vanquish the Pandavas."— T,


There is a town of the name ol Cakala, a river of the name
Jpaga, and a clan of the Vahikas i nown by the name of the
Jarttikas. The practices of these people are very censurable. 1 *
They drink the liqour called Gowda, and eat tried barley with
it. They also eat beef with garlics. They also eat cakes of
flour mixed with meat, and boiled rice that is bought from
others.* Of righteous practices they have none.'.' Their women,
intoxicated with drink and divested of robes, laugh and dance
outside the walls of houses in cities, without garlands and
unguents, 19 singing all the while drunken and obscene songs of
diverse kinds that are as musical as the bray of the ass or the
bleat of the camel. In intercourse they are absolutely without
any restraint, and in all other matters they act as they like.
Maddened with drink, they call upon one another, using many
endearing epithets. 13 Addressing many drunken exclamations to
their husbands and lords, the fallen women among fc ne Vahikas,
without observing restrictions even on sacred days, give them-
selves up to dancing.'* One of those wicked Vahikas, — one,
that is, that lived amongst those arrogant women, — who hap-
pened to live for some days in Kurujangala, burst out with
cheerless heart, saying, 15 — Alas, that (Vahika) maiden of large
proportions, dressed in thin blankets, is thinking of me. — her
Vahika lover — that is now passing his days in Kurujangala,
at the hour of her going to bed ! 16 Crossing the Sutledge and
the delightful Iravati, and arriving at my own country, when
slnll T cast my eyes upon those beautiful women with thiek
frontal bones, 17 with blazing circlets of red arsenic on their fore-
heads, with streaks of jet black collyrium on their eyes, and
their beautiful forms attired in blankets and skins and them-
selves uttering shrill cries ! 18 "When shall I be happy, in the
company of those intoxicated ladies amid the music of drums
and kettle-drums and conchs sweet as the cries of asses and
camels and mules ! 13 When shall I be amongst those ladies
eating cakes of flour and meal and balls of pounded barley mixed
with skimmed milk, in the forests, having many pleasant paths,

* Orthodox Hindus must boil their own rice, without, purchasing
boiled rice from others, To this day the practice is observed. — T.


of garni and Pilu and Karira P When shall I, amidst my
own countrymen, mustering in strength on the high-roads, fall
upon passengers, and snatching their robes and attires beat
them repeatedly ? 21 — What man is there that would willingly
dwell, even for a moment, amongst the Vahikas that are so
fallen and wicked and so depraved in their practices ? 2a — Even
thus did that Brahmana describe the Vahikas of base behaviour,
a sixth of whose merits and demerits is thine, O Calya l iZ f
Having said this, that pious Brahmana began once more to
say what I am about to repeat respecting the wicked Vahikas.
Listen to what I say !** — [In the large and populous town of
Cakala, a Rxkshasa woman used to sing on every fourteenth
day of the dark fortnight, in accompaniment with a drum, 28 —
When shall I next sing the songs of the Vahikas in this Cakala
town, having gorged myself with beef and drunk the Gauda
liquor?* 6 When shall I again, decked in ornaments, and with
those maidens and ladies of large proportions, gorge upon a large
number of sheep 27 and large quantities of pork and beef and
the meat of fowls and asses and camels ? They who do not eat
sheep live in vain ! — ] 28 — Even thus, O Calya, the young and the
old, among the inhabitants of Cakala, intoxicated with spirits,
sing and cry ! H.iw can virtue be met with among such
a people ? 23 Thou shouldst know this ! I must, however,
speak again to thee about what another Brahmana had said
unto us in the Kuru court : 80 — [There where forests of Pilus
stand, and those five rivers flow, viz., the Catadru, the Vipaca,
the Iravati, the Chandrabhaga, and the Vitasta and which have
the Sindhu for their sixth, there in those regions removed
from the Himavat, are the countries called by the name of
the iratttas. Those regions are without virtue and religion.
No one should go thither. 81 ' 82 The gods, the Pitris, and
the Brahmanas, never accept gifts from those that are fal-
len, or those that are begotten by Cudras on the girls of
other castes, or the Vahikas who never perform sacrifices and

t A king takes a sixth of the merits and demerits of his subjects.
Henee, it is hi* interest to see them beeoine righteous and abstain from
Bin.— T,


are exceedingly irreligious ! ] — That learned Brahmana had a
said in the Kuril court, 38 " 3 * — [The Vahikas, without any feel-
ings of revulsion, eat off wooden vessels having deep stomachs
and earthen plates and vessels that havo been licked by
d )ga and that are stained with pounded barley and other
corn. 35 The Vahikas drink the milk of sheep and camels
and asses and eat curds and other preparations from those
different kinds of milk." 6 Those degraded people number many
bastards among them. There is no food and no milk that they
do not take. The Aratta-ViLhikas that are steeped in ignorance,
should be avoided.]' 7 — Thou shouldst know this, Calya ! I
must, however, again speak to thee about what another Brah-
mana had said unto me in the Kuru court. 58 — [How can one
go to heaven, having drunk milk in the town called Yugan-
dhara, and resided in the place called Achyutasthala, and
bathed in the spot called Bhutilaya ?* 89 There where thp &ve
rivers flow just after issuing from the mountains, there among
the Xratta- Vahikas, no respectable person should dwell even for
two days. 40 There are two Pif.achas in the river Vipaca,
named Vahi and Hika. The Vahikas are the offspring of
those two Pigachas. They are not creatures created by the
Creator. Being of such low origin, how can they be conver-
sant with the duties ordained in the scriptures ? 41 The Karash-
karas, the Mahishakas, the Kalingas, the Keralas, the Karko-
takas, the Virakas, and other peoples of no religion, one should
always avoid.]" — Even thus did a Rakshasa woman of gigantic
hips speak unto a Brahmana who on a certain occasion went to
that country for bathing in a sacred water and passed a single
night there. 43 The regions are called by the name of the
Arattas. The people residing there are called the Vahikas.

* In Yugandhara all kinds of milk were sold and taken. No one
drinking milk in that town could be sure that what he took was pure
vaccine milk. In Achyutasthala, women were unchaste and the conduct
of the people irreligious. For a resident it was impossible to escape the
contamination. In Bhutilaya, again, there was only one piece of water
in which Bi ahmanas and Chandalas used to bathe together. Thus Nila-
kautha.— T.


The lowest of Brahmanas also are residing there from ray
remote times. 44 They are without the Veda and without
knowbdge, without sacrifice and without the power to assist at
others' sacrifices. They are all fallen and many amongst them
have been begotten by Cudras upon other peoples' girls. The
gods never accept any gifts from them. 48 The Prasthalas, the
Madras, the Gandharas, the Arattas, those called Khasas, the
Vasatis, the Sindhus, and the Sauviras, arc almost as blamable
in their practices, — ' " 46

Section XLV.

" 'Kama continued, — Thou shouldst know all this, Calya I
I shall, however, again speak unto thee ! Listen with close
attention to what I say. 1 Once on a time a Brahmana came
to our house as a guest. Observing our practices he became
highly gratified and said unto us : 2 — [I dwelt for a long time
on a peak of Himavat quite alone. Since then I have seen
diverse countries following diverse religions. 3 Never, however,
have I seen all the people of a country act unrighteously. All
the races I have met with admit that to be the true religion
which has been declared by persons conversant with the Vedas*
Travelling through various countries following various reli-
gions, T, at last, O king, came among the Vahikas. There I
heard 5 that one at first becomes a Brahmana and then becomes
a Kshatriya. Indeed, a Vahika would, after that, become a
Vaigya, and then a Cudra, and then a barber. 6 Having become
a barber, he would then again become a Brahmana. "Returning
to the status of a Brahmana, he would again become a slave. 7
One person in a family becomes a Brahmana ; all the others,
falling off from virtue, act as they like. The Gandharas, the
Madrakas, and the Vahikas, of little understanding, are even
such. 8 Having travelled through the whole world I heard of
these practices destructive of virtue, of these sinful irregulari-
ties, amongst the Vahikas! 9 ] — Thou shouldst know all this,
O Calya ! I shall, however, again speak to thee about those
ugly words that another said unto mo regarding the Vahikas. 10
In former days a chaste woman was abducted by robbers (hail'


ing) from Aratta. Sinfully was she violated by them, upon
which she cursed them, saying," — [Since ye have sinfully
violated a helpless girl who am not without a husband, there-
fore, the women of your families shall all become unchaste ! ia
Ye lowest of men, never shall ye escape from the consequences
of this dreadful sin !]— It is for this, O Calya, that the sisters'
sons of the Irattas, and not their own sons, become their
heirs. 13 The Kauravas with the Panchalas, the Calwas, the
Matsyas, the Naimishas, the Eocalas, the Kacapaundras, the
Kalingas, the Magadhas, 14 and the Ohedis, who are all highly
blessed, know what the eternal religion is. The wicked even
of various countries know what religion is. The Viihikas, how-
ever, live without righteousness. 18 Beginning with the Matsyas,
the residents of the Kuru and the Panchala countries, the
Naimishas as well, and the other respectable peoples, the pious
among all races are conversant with the eternal truths of
religion. This cannot be said of the Madrakas and the
crooked-hearted race that resides in the country of the five
rivers. 16 Knowing all those things, O king, hold thy tongue,
O Calya, like one deprived of utterance, in all matters con-
nected with religion and virtue ! Thou art the protector and
king of that people, and, therefore, the partaker of a sixth part
of their merits and demerits. 17 Or, perhaps, thou art the
partaker of a sixth part of their demerits only, for thou never
protectest them. A king that protects is a sharer in the merits
of his subjects. Thou art not a sharer in their merits. 18 In
clays of yore, when the eternal religon was reverenced in all
countries, the Grandsire, observing the practices of the country
of the five rivers cried fie on thom. ID When even in tho
Krita age, Brahman had censured the practices of those fallen
people of evil deeds who were begotten by Cudras on others'
soil, what would you now say to men in the world n °* Even
thus did the Grandsire condemn the practices of the country of
the five waters. When all people were observant of the duties
of their respective orders, the Grandsire had to find fault with

* The Bengal reading at the end of the Becond line is "who ia there
that would succeed in shaming thciu I" — T.


these men. 81 Thou shouldst know all this, Calya ! I shall,
however, again speak to thee ! A Rakshasa of the name of
Kalmashapada. while plunging in a tank, said," — [Eleemosyna-
tion is a Kshatriya's dirt, while the non-observance of vows is a
Brahmana's dirt. The Vahikas are the dirt of the Earth, and the
Madra women are the dirt of the whole female sex !]* 28 While
sinking in the stream, a king rescued the Rakshasa. Asked
by the former, the latter gave this answer. I will recite it to
you. Listen to me ! 24 — [The Mlecchas are the dirt of mankind ;
the oilmen are the dirt of the Mlecchas ; eunuchs are the dirt
of oilmen ; they who avail of the priestly ministrations of
Kshatriyas, in their sacrifices, are the dirt of eunuchs. 28 The
sin of those again that have the last-named persons for their
priests, as also of the Madrakas, shall be thine if thou do not
abandon me !] 2S — Even this was declared by the Rakshasa to be
the formula that should be used for curing a person possessed
by a Rakshasa or one killed by the energy of a poison. The
words that follow are all very true. 27 The Panchalas observe
the duties enjoined in the Vcdas ; the Kauravas observe Truth ;
the Matsyas and the Curasenas perform sacrifices ; the Eastern
ers follow the practices of the Cudras ; the Southerners are
fallen ; the Vahikas are thieves ; the Saurashtras are bastards. 28
They that are denied by ingratitude, theft, drunkenness, adul-
tery with the wives of their preceptors, harshness of speech,
slaughter of kine, lustful wanderings during the night out of
home, and the wearing of other peoples' ornaments, — whalj
sin is there that they do not incur ? Fie on the Arattas and
the people of the country of the five rivers !" Commencing
with the Panchalas, the Kuravas, the Naimishas, the Matsyas,
—all these,— know what religion is. The old men among the
Northerners, the Angas, the Magadhas, (without themselves!
knowing what virtue is) follow the practices of the pious. 89
Many gods, headed by Agni, dwell in the East. The Pitri$ ]
dwell in the South that is presided over by Yama of righteous

* The sense seems to be that a Kshatriya subsisting on eleemosynary,
alms is the dirt of all his order ; so a Brahmaua living without observing
any vows is the dirt of his order.— T.


3eods. 51 The West is protected by the mighty Varuna who
overlooks tho other gods there. The North is protected by
the divine Soma along with the Brahmanas. 8 " So Rakshasas
and Pigdchas protect Himavat, that bost of mountains. Tho
Guhyakas, O groat king, protect the mountains of Gandha-
madana. Without doubt, Vishnu, otherwise called Janarddana,
protects all creatures. (For all that, the Vahikas have no
especial protectors among the gods). 88 The Magadhas are com-
prehenders of signs ; the Kocalas comprehend from what they
see ; the Kurus and the Panchalas comprehend from a half-
uttered speech ; the Calwas cannot comprehend till the whole
speech is uttered s * The Mountaineers, like the Civis, are
very stupid.* The Yavanas, O king, are omniscient; the
Curas are particularly so.t JI The Mlecchas are wedded to the
creations of their own fancy. Other peoples cannot understand.
The Vahikas resent beneficial counsels *, as regards the Madra-
kas, they are none amongst those (mentioned above.) Thou,
Calya, art so ! Thou shouldst not reply to me." The Madra-
kas are regarded on Earth as the dirt of every nation. So the
Madra woman is called the dirt of the whole female sex." They
that have for their practices the drinking of spirits, the viola-
tion of the beds of their preceptors, the destruction of the
embryo by procuring miscarriage, and the robbing of other
people's wealth, there is no sin that they have not ! Fie on
the Arattas and the people of the country of the five rivers : 18
Knowing this, be silent ! Do not seek to oppose me ! Do not
| let me slay Kecava and Arjuna, having slain thee first ! 89 —

" 'Calya said, — The abandonment of the afflicted and the

sale of wives and children are, Kama, prevalent amongst the

Angas whose king thou art!' Recollecting those faults of

i thine that Bhishma recited on the occasion of the tale of

' ; Rathas and Atirathas, drive away thy wrath ! Do not be

* Literally,— 'can with difficulty be made to understand the mean-

t A high compliment to the Yavanas and the OuraH, probably the
i Greeks. Nilakantha makes a desperate attempt to explain away the
force of the passage, but fails miserably.— T.


angry ! 41 Brahmanas may be found everywhere ; Kshatriyai
may be found everywhere ; so also Vaicyas and Cudras, O
Kama ! Women of chastity and excellent vows may also be
found everywhere ! 42 Everywhere men take delight in jesting
with men and wounding one another. Lustful men also may
be found everywhere. 48 Every one on every occasion can com-
mand skill in speaking of the faults of others. No one, how-
ever, knows his own faults, or knowing them, feels shame. 4 *
Everywhere are kings devoted to their respective religions,
and employed in chastising the wicked. Everywhere may be
found virtuous men. 45 It cannot be, O Kama, that all the
people of a country are sinful. There are men in many coun-
tries that surpass the very gods by their behaviour ! — ' 46

"Sanjaya continued, — 'Then king Duryodhana stopped Kama
and Calya (from going on with their wordy warfare), ad-
dressing the son of Radha as a friend, and beseeching Calya
with joined hands. 47 Kama, O sire, was quieted by thy son
and forebore saying anything more. Calya also then faced the
enemy. 43 Then Radha's son, smiling, once more urged Calya,
saying, — Proceed ! — ' " 4)

Section XLVI.

"Sanjaya said, — 'Beholding then that unrivalled array of
the Parfchas made by Dhrishtadyumna which was capable of
resisting all hostile armies, Kama 1 proceeded, uttering leonine
shouts and causing his car to produce a loud rattle. And he made
the Earth to tremble with the loud din of musical instru-
ments.* And that chastiser of foes, that hero in battle, seemed
to tremble in rage. Duly disposing his own troops in counter-
array, bull of Bharata's race, that hero of great energy 8 made a
great slaughter of the Pandava forces like Maghavat slaughter-
ing the Asura host. Striking Yudhishthira then with many
arrows, he placed the eldest son of Pandu to his right.' 4

"Dhritarashtra said— 'How, O Sanjaya, did the son of
Radha dispose his forces in counter-array to all the Pandavas
headed by Dhrishtadyumna and protected by Bhimasena, viz.,
all those great bowmen invincible by the very gods ? 5 Who,


Sanjaya, stood in the wings and the further wings of our
army ? Dividing themselves properly, how were the warriors
stationed ? 6 How also did the sons of Pandu dispose their
army in counter-array to mine ? How also did that great and
awful battle commence V Where was Vibhatsu when Kama
proceeded against Yudhishthira? Who could succeed in assail-
ing Yudhishthira in the presence of Arjuna ? 8 That Arjuna
who had vanquished, single-handed, in former days, all creatures
at Khandava,— who else that is desirous of life, save the son of
Radhii, would fight with him ?' 9

"Sanjaya said, — 'Hear now of the formation of the arrays,
the manner in which Arjuna came, and how the battle was
fought by both sides surrounding their respective kings V 9
Caradwat's son Kripa, O king, and the Magadhas endued with
great activity, and Kritavarman of the Satwata race, took up
their position in the right wing. 11 Caknni, and the mighty
car -warrior Uluka, standing on the right of these, and accom-
panied by many fearless Gandhara horsemen armed with
bright lances, and many mountaineers difficult of defeat, numer-
ous as flights of locusts, and grim-looking as Pigachas, pro-
tected the (Kaurava) army. 12 " 18 Four and thirty thousand
unrcturning cars of the Samsaptakas, mad with desire of
battle, with thy sons in their midst, and all desirous of slay-
ing Krishna and Arjuna, protected the left side (of the Kau-
rava army). 14 On their left, the Kamvojas, the Cakas, and
the Yavanas, with cars and horse and foot, at the command of
the Suta's son, stood, challenging Arjuna and the mighty
Kecava. 15 In the centre, at the head of that host, stood
Kama, clad in armour, with beatiful coat of mail and adorned
with Anrjadas and garlands, for protecting that point. 16 Sup-
ported by his own angry sons, that foremost of all wieldera
of weapons, that hero, shone rosplendent at the head of the
army as he drew his bow repeatedly. 17 The mighty-armed
Duscasana, possessed of the effulgence of the Sun or fire, with
t'wany eyes and handsome features, riding on the neck of a huge
elephant, surrounded by many troops, and stationed at the rear
of the army, gradually approached for fight. Behind him came
king Duryodhana himself, monarch, protected by his uterine


brothers riding on beautiful steeds and cased in beautiful
mail. 18 " 1 * Protected by the united Madrakas and the Kekayas
of exceeding energy, the king, O monarch, looked resplendent
like Him of a hundred sacrifices when surrounded by the celes-
tials. 20 Acwatbhaman and the other foremost of mighty car-
warriors, and many ever-infuriate elephants shedding temporal
secretions like the very clouds and ridden by brave Mlecchas,
followed behind that car force. 81 Decked with triumphal stand-
ards and blazing weapons, those huge creatures, ridden by
warriors skilled in fighting from their backs, looked beautiful
like hills overgrown with trees. 22 Many thousands of brave
and unreturning warriors, armed with axes and swords, became
the foot-guards of those elephants. 83 Gorgeously decked with
horsemen and car-warriors and elephants, that foremost of
arrays looked exceedingly beautiful like the array of the celes-
tials or of the Asuras.** That great array, formed according
to the scheme of Vrihaspati by its commander well-versed in
ways of battle, seemed to dance (as it advanced) and struck
terror into the hearts of foes. 25 Like ever-appearing clouds in
the season of rains, foot-soldiers and horsemen and car-warriors
and elephants, longing for battle, began to issue from the wings
and further wings of that array. 26 Then king Yudhishthira,
beholding Kama at the head of the (hostile) army, addressed
Dhananjaya, that slayer of foes, that one hero in the world,
and said these words :" — Behold, O Arjuna, the mighty array
formed by Kama in battle ! The hostile force looks resplen-
dent with its wings and further wings ! 28 At sight of this vast
hostile force, let such measures be adopted that it may not
vanquish us ! 89 — Thus addressed by the king, Arjuna replied
with joined hands, — Everything will bo done as thou sayest.
Nothing will be otherwise ! s0 I will, O Bharata, do that
by which the destruction of the enemy may be compassed !
By slaying their foremost of warriors, I will achieve their
destruction ! 31 —

" 'Yudhishthira said, — With that view, do thou proceed
against the son of Radha, and let Bhimasena proceed against
Suyodhana, Nakula against Vrishasena, Sahadeva, against
the son of Suvala, Catanika, against Duscasana, that bull


amongst the Cinis, viz., Siityaki, against the son of Hridikii,
and Pandya against the son of Drona ! I myself will fight
with Kripa. 82-88 Let the sons of Draupadi, with Cikhandin
amongst them, proceed against the rest of the Dhartarash-
tras. Let the other warriors of our army encounter our other
fues ! 84 — '

"Sanjaya cotninucd,— 'Thus addressed by Yudhishthira the
just, Dhananjaya said,— So be it !— and ordered his troops (to
do the needful) and himself proceeded to the head of the
army. 85 That car for which the Leader of the universe, viz.,
Agni, who derives his effulgence from Brahman, became the
steeds, that car which was known amongst the gods as belong-
ing to Brahman because it sprang first from Brahman himself, 8 *
that car which in days of old had successively borne Brahmau
and Icana and Indra and Varuna one after another, riding
on that primeval car, Kecava and Arjuna now proceeded to
battle. 87 Beholding that advancing car of wonderful aspect,
Calya once more said unto Adhiratha's son, that warrior of great
energy in battle, these words : 88 — Yonder comes that car hav-
ing white steeds yoked unto it and owning Krishna for its
driver, that vehicle incapable of being resisted by all the
troops, like the inevitable fruit of work !* There conies the
son of Kunti, slaughtering his foes along the way, — he, that
is, about whom thou hadst been enquiring ! 83 Since tremen-
dous is the uproar that is being heard, deep as the roar of
the clouds, it is, without doubt, those high-souled ones, viz.,
Vasudeva and Dhananjaya ! 10 Yonder ascends a cloud of dust
that overspreads the welkin like a canopy ! The whole Earth,

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