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ons, viz., Bhishma, who did nothing to repel the attack. 36 Simi-
larly, Sanjaya, Drupada's son Dhrishtadyumna, uplifting his
scimitar, slew the mighty bowman Drona who, already pierced
with many arrows, had laid aside his weapons in battle and
devoted himself to Yoga.f* 7 These two were both slain at a



i* The Beugal texts righty read viras in the second line. — T.
t A triplet in the Bengal texts.— T.



KARNA PARVA. 23

disadvantage and especially by deceit. Even this is what I
have heard about the slaughter of Bhishma and Drona ! 88 In-
deed, Bhishma and Drona, while contending in fight, were
incapable of being slain in battle by the wielder of the thunder-
bolt himself by fair means. This that I tell thee is the truth ! 89
As regards Kama, how, indeed, could Death touch him, that
hero equal unto Indra himself, while he was engaged in shooting
his manifold celestial weapons ^*° He unto whom, in exchange
for his ear-rings, Purandara had given that foe-slaying, gold-
decked, and celestial dart of the splendour of lightning, 41 — he
who had, lying (within his quiver) amid sandal-dust, that
snake-mouthed celestial arrow decked with gold, equipt with
goodly wings, and capable of slaying all foes, 42 — he who, dis-
regarding those heroic and mighty car-warriors having Bhish-
ma and Drona at their head, had acquired from Jamadagni's
son the terrible Brahma weapon, 48 — that mighty-armed one,
who, having seen the warriors with Drona at their head
aiHicted with arrows and turn away from the field, had cut off
with his keen shafts the bow of Subhadra's son, 44 — he who,
having in a trice deprived the invincible Bhimasena endued
with the might of ten thousand elephants and the speed of the
wind, of his car, had laughed at him, 4S — he who, having van-
quished Sahadeva by means of his straight shafts and made
him earless, slew him not from compassion and considerations
cf virtue, 46 — he who, with Cakra's dart, slew that prince of
RciJcshasas, viz., Ghatotkacha, who, from desire of victory,
had invoked a thousand kinds of illusions, 47 — he whose feats
in battle, filling Dhananjaya with fear, had made the latter for
such a long period avoid a single combat with him, — alas, how
could that hero be slain in battle ?* 48 How could he be slain
by foes unless one of these had happened to him, viz., the des-
truction of his car, the snapping of his bow, and the exhaustion
of his weapons ? 49 Who could vanquish that tiger among men,

* Three lines occur after this in the Bombay edition. The Bengal
texts omit them rightly, I think. In those lines Dhritarashtra charges
Arjuna with having made his engagement with the Samsaplakas a pre-
text for avoiding Kama. Such an accusation would be absurd.— T.



•2± MAIIABHARATA.

like a real tiger, endued with great impetuosity, viz., Kama,
while shaking his formidable bow and shooting therefrom his
terrible shafts and celestial weapons in battle ? 80 Surely, his
bow broke, or his car sank in the Earth, or his weapons became
exhausted, since thou tellest me that he is slain ! I do not,
indeed, see any other cause for (explaining) his slaughter ! 5t
That high-souled one who had made the terrible vow — I will
not wash my feet till I slay Phalguna* 2 — that warrior through
whose fear that bull among men, viz., king Yudhishthira the
just, had not, in the wilderness, for thirteen years continuously,
obtained a wink of sleep, 53 — that high-souled hero of great prow-
ess relying upon whose valour my son had forcibly dragged the
wife cf the Pandavas to the assembly, 64 and there in the midst
of that conclave, in the very sight of the Pandavas and in the
presence of the Kurus, had addressed the princess of Panchala
as the wife of slaves,™ — that hero of the Sata caste, who in
the midst of the assembly had addressed Krishna, saying, — All
thy husbands, Krishna, that are even like sessamum seeds
without kernel, are no more, therefore, seek some other husband,

thou of the fairest complexion ! — and in wrath had caused
her to listen to other expressions equally harsh and rude, how was
that hero slain by the foe ? S6 ~ 57 He who had said unto Duryo-
dhana even these words, viz., — // Bhishma who boasteth of his
prowess in battle, or Drona who is invincible in fight, doth not
from partiality, slay the sons of Kunti, Duryodhana, even

1 will slay them all, let the fever of thy heart be dispelled ! —
who also said, — What will (Arjuna's) Gdndiva and the tico
inexhaustible quivers do to that shaft of mine, smeared with
cool sandal-paste, when it will course through the welkin ? —
alas, how could that warrior possessed of shoulders broad as
those of the bull, be slain by Arjuna ? 58 " 60 He who, disregarding
the fierce touch of the arrows shot from Gdnoliva had addressed
Krishna, saying, — Thou hast no husbands now ! — and glared
at the Pandavas, 61 — he who, Sanjaya, relying on the might
of his own arms, had entertained no fear, for even a moment,
of the Parthas with their sons and Janarddana, 63 — he, I think,
could not possibly meet with death at the hands of the very
gods with Vasava at their head rushing against him in fury,



KAUN V PARVA, ~



what then need I say, sire, of the Pandavas?" The person
could not be seen competent, to stay before the son of Adhi-
ratha, while the hitter, putting on his fences, med to touch
tho bowstring ! 6 * It was possible for the Earth to be destitute
of the splendour of the Sun, of the Moon, or of fire, but tha
death of that foremost of men, that never retreated from battle,
could not be possible." That foolish child of mine, of wicked
understanding, who having got Kama, as also his brother
Duscasaua, for his ally, had made up his mind for the rejection
of Vasudeva's proposals, 65 surely, that wight, beholding the
slaughter of the bull-shouldered Kama and of Duscasana, is
now indulging in lamentations !" Seeing Vikartana's son slain
in single combat by Savyasachin, and the Pandavas crowned
with victory, what, indeed, did Duryodhana say f 68 Seeing
Durraarshana slain in battle and Vrishasena also, and seeing
his host break when slaughtered by mighty car-warriors, 69 be-
holding also the kings (of his army) turn back their faces,
intent on flight, and his car-warriors already fled, I think
that son of mine is now indulging in lamentations ! 79 Behold-
ing his host dispirited, what, indeed, did the ungovernable,
proud, and foolish Duryodhana, with passions not under control,
say ? TX Having himself provoked such fierce hostility though
dissuaded by all his friends, what, indeed, did Duryodhana, who
has suffered a great loss in battle of friends and followors, say ? 7 *
Beholding his brother slain in battle by Bhimasena, and upon
his blood being drunk, what, indeed, did Duryodhana say ? 7S
My son had, with the ruler of the Gandharvas, said, — Kama,
will slay Arjuna in battle ! — When he saw that Kama slain,
what, indeed, did he say ? 7 * What, sire, did Cakuni the son of
Suvala, who had formerly been filled with joy after going through
the match at dice and cheating the son of Pandu, say when ho
saw Kama slain '.^ What did that mighty car-warrior among
the Satwatas, that great bowman, viz., Kritavarman the son
of Hridika, say when he saw Vaikartana slain ? 78 Endued
with youth, possessed of a handsome form, agreeablo to the
sight, and celebrated throughout the world, what, Sanjaya,
did Acwatthaman, tho intelligent son of Drona, upon whom
Bra hmanas and Kshatriyas and Vai s -yas that are desirous of
4



26 MAHABHARATA*

acquiring the science of arms wait, for protections, say when he
saw Kama slain ? 77 " 78 What did Caradwat's son Kripa, sire,
of Gotama's race, that foremost of car-warriors, that teacher of
the science of arms, say when he saw Kama slain ? 79 What
did the mighty leader of the Madra warriors, that king of the
Madras, viz., the great bowman Calya of the Sauvira clan, that
ornament of assemblies, that foremost of car-warm rs (tem-
porarily) engaged in driving the car, say when he saw Kama
slain ?* What also did all the other warriors, difficult of defeat
in battle, viz., those lords of Earth that came to fight, say,
O Sanjaya, when they beheld Vaikartana slain ? 80 " 8 * After the
fall of the heroic Drona, that tiger among car-warriors, that
bull among men, who, Sanjaya, became the heads of the
several divisions in their order ? 83 Tell me, Sanjaya, how
that foremost of car-warriors, viz., Calya the ruler of the
Madras, became engaged in driving the car of Vaikartana ! 84
Who were they that guarded the right wheel of the Suta's son
while the latter was engaged in fight, and who were they that
guarded his left wheel, and who were they that stood at the rear
of that hero ? 38 Who were those heroes that did not desert
Kama, and who were those mean fellows that ran away ?
How was the mighty car-warrior Kama slain amidst your
united selves ? 86 How also did those mighty car-warriors, viz.,
the brave Pandavas, advance against him shooting showers of
shafts like the clouds pouring torrents of rain ?-f 87 Tell me
also, Sanjaya, how that mighty shaft, celestial and foremost
of its species, and equipt with a head like that of a serpent,
became futile ! 38 I do not, Sanjaya, see the possibility of
even a small remnant of my cheerless host being saved when
its leaders have been crushed !^ 89 Hearing of the slaughter of

* Though a great car- warrior, Calya consented, at Duryodhana'a
request, to drive Kama's car during the latter's engagement with
Arjuna. — T.

t The Bengal reading Pdndavascha Katham is better than the Bom-
bay reading Pdndavascha Swyam, — T

% The Bengal reading Hatotsdhasya is preferable to the Bombay
reading Hatotsedhasya. The latter, although accepted by Nilakantha,
would involve a pleonasm in view of the allusion to the kukud being



KARNA PARVA. 27

those two heroes, those two mighty bowmen, viz., Bhishma
and Drona, who were ever ready to lay down their lives for my
sake, what use have I of life ?* 9 ° Again and again I am unable
to endure that Kama, the might of whose arms equalled that
of ten thousand elephants, should be slain by the Pfmdavas '"
Tell me, O Sanjaya, all that occurred in the battle between
the brave warriors of the Kauravas and their foes, after the
death of Drona ! 9 * Tell me also how the sons of Kunti fought
the battle with Kama, and how that slayer of foes received his
quietus in the fight !' " 98



Section X.
"Sanjaya said, — 'After the fall of the mighty bowman Drona
on that day, O Bharata, and after the purpose had been baffled
of that mighty car-warrior, viz., the son of Drona, 1 and after
the vasty army, O monarch, of the Kauravas had fled away,
Partha, having arrayed his own troops, stayed on the field
with his brothers. 2 Perceiving him staying on the field, thy
son, O bull of Bharata's race, seeing his own army running
away, rallied them with great courage. 3 Having caused his
divisions to take up their stand, thy son, O Bharata, relying
on the might of his arms, fought for a long time with his foes,
the Pandavas, who, having gained their end, were filled with
joy and had been struggling for hours together. On the ap-
proach there of the evening twilight, he caused the troops to
be withdrawn. 4 "' Having caused the withdrawal of their troops,
and having entered their own encampment, the Kauravas held
with one another a consultation about their own welfare, 6 seat
ed like the celestials on costly couches overlaid with rich cover-
lets, and on excellent seats and luxurious beds. 7 Then king
Duryodhana, addressing those mighty bowmen in agreeablo
and highly sweet expressions, spoke the following words suited
to the occasion.'



crushed. Kid-itd literally means the hump of a bull ; hence, a leader of
leader?. — T.

* TjiHajivita often implies one ready to lay down his liff, and not one
that has laid down his life. Compare Drona Parvmn, sec. XXVvei t D.



25 MAHABHARATA.

"Duryodhana said, — Ye foremost of intelligent men, declare
all of you, without delay, your opinions ! Under these cir-
cumstances, ye kings, what is necessary and what is still more
necessary ? 9 — '

"Sanjaya continued, — 'When that prince of men had spoken
those words, those lions among men, seated on their thrones,
made various gestures expressive of their desire of battle. 10
Observing the indications of those who were all desirous of
pouring their lives as libations on the battle-fire, and behold-
ing the monarch's face radiant as the morning Sun," the pre-
ceptor's son endued with intelligence and accomplished in
speech, said these words : — Enthusiasm, opportunity, skill,
and policy, — these are the means declared, by the learned, to
be capable of accomplishing all ends. They are, however,
dependent on destiny. 1 * Those foremost of men we had on our
side, equal unto the celestials, mighty car-warriors all, possess-
ed of policy, devoted, accomplished, and loyal, have been
slain. 13 For all that we should not despair of victory. If all
these means be properly applied, even Destiny may be mado
propitious.'* All of us, therefore, O Bharata, shall install
Kama, that foremost of men, endued besides with every ac-
complishment, in the command of the army ! 1S Making Kama
our commander, we shall crush our foes. This Kama is endued
with great might ; he is a hero, accomplished in weapons, and
incapable of defeat in battle. Irresistible as Yama himself, he
is quite competent to vanquish our foes in battle ! 16 — Hearing
these words from the preceptor's son, thy son, O king, at that
time, built great hopes on Kama. 17 Cherishing the hope in his
heart that after the fall of Bhishma and Drona, Kama would
vanquish the Pandavas, and comforted (by it), Bharata, 13
Duryodhana then, filled with joy at having heard those words
of Acwatthaman, steadying his mind and relying on the
might of his arms, said unto Radha's son, O monarch, these
words that were fraught with affection and regard, and that
wore true, delightful, and beneficial to himself : ,3 ~ 20 — Kama,
I know thy prowess, and the great friendship thou bearest
to me ! For all that, O mighty-armed one, I shall address
thee certain words that are for my good !" Having heard



KARNA PARVA, 29

them, hero, do that which may appear desirable to thee !
Thou art endued with great wisdom, and thou art even my
supreme refuge !" Those two Atirathas that were my Gener-
als, viz., Bhishma and Drona, have been slain. Be thou my
General, thou that art mightier than they ! 39 Both of those
great bowmen were advanced in years. They were, besides,
partial to Dhananjaya. Still both those heroes were respected
by me, O son of Radhii, at thy word ! 3 * Viewing his relation-
ship of grandsire unto them, the sons of Pandu, sire, were
spared in dreadful battle by Bhishma for ten successive days ! a *
Thyself also having laid aside thy weapons, the valiant Bhish-
ma was slain in great battle by Phalguna with Cikhandin
before him !* 6 After that great bowman had fallen and be-
taken himself to his bed of arrows, it was at thy word, O tiger
among men, that Drona was made our leader !** By him also
were the sons of Pritha spared, in consequence, as I think, of
their relationsnip unto him of pupils. That old man also has
been slain by Dhrishtadyumna more speedily. 88 I do not see,
even on reflection, another warrior equal to thee in battle, —
thee, that is, whose prowess could not be measured by even those
two foremost of warriors that have been slain in the fight !*'
Without doubt, thou alone today art competent to win victory
for us! Before, in the middle, and later on, thou hast accord-
ingly acted for our good. 80 Therefore, like a leader, it be-
hoveth thee, in this battle, to bear the burden thyself. Thyself
install thy own self in the Generalship. 81 Like the celestial
generalissimo, the lord Skanda of unfading prowess, (supporting
the celestial army), do thou support this Dhartarashtra, host !
Like Mahendra slaying the Ddnavas, destroy thou all the
throngs of our foes !* sa Beholding thee staying in battle, the
Pandavas, those mighty car warriors, will, with the Pa.ncha.las,
fly away from battle, like the Ddnavas at sight of Vishnu. Do
thou, therefore, lead this vast force !f 88 When thou shalt stand
rosolved on the field, the Pandavas of wicked hearts, the Pancha-
las, and the Srinjayas, will all fly away with their friends."



* A triplet in the Bengal texts.— T.

+ Thie is a triplet in the Bengal texts. — T.



30 MAHABHARATA.

As the risen Sun, scorching everything by his energy, destroy-
eth the thick gloom, even so do thou destroy our foes ! 88 — '

"Sanjaya continued, — 'Strong became that hope, king, in
the heart of thy son, viz., that where Bhishma and Drona had
been slain, Kama would vanquish the Pandavas. 86 Cherishing
that hope within his heart, he said unto Kama,— Suta's son,
Partha never wishes to fight, standing before thee ! 87 —

"Kama said, — I have, son of Gandhari, said before in
thy presence, even these words, viz., — I shall vanquish all
the Pandavas with their sons and Jandrddana ! n — I shall
become thy General. In this there is no doubt. Tranquillise
thyself, O monarch ! Consider the Pandavas to be already
vanquished ! 39 — '

"Sanjaya continued, — 'Thus addressed, monarch, king
Duryodhana then stood up with all the monarchs, like He of a
hundred sacrifices with the gods, for honoring Kama with the
command of the army, like the celestials for honoring Skanda.* 40
Then, O monarch, all the kings headed by Duryodhana, desir-
ous of victory, installed Kama in the command, according to
the rites enjoined by the ordinance.-]-* 1 With golden and earth-
en jars filled to the brim with water and sanctified with man-
tras, with tusks of elephants and horns of rhinoceroses and
mighty bulls, 43 with other vessels decked with jewels and gems,
with also fragrant herbs and plants, and with other articles
collected in abundance, Kama, seated at his ease on a seat
made of udumvara wood and overlaid with silken cloth, was
invested with the command, according to the rites enjoined in
the scriptures. Brahmanas, and Kshatrivas, and Vaicyas, and
respectable Cudras, praised that high-souled one after he was
bathed on that excellent seat. 43 " 44 Thus installed in the com-
mand, king, that slayer of foes, viz., the son of Radha,
caused, by presents of Nishas and kine and other wealth, many
foremost of Brahmanas to utter blessings on him. 45 — Vanquish
the Pdrthas ivith Govinda and all their folloivers, — even

* A triplet in the Bengal texts. — T.

+ The Akldshnka consisted in pouring sanctified water on the head of
the prrsoii requiring the investiture.— T.



KIRN A PART A, Ml

these were the words that the eulogists and the Brahmanas
said (unto him), bull among men ! 46 (And they also said,)—
Slay the Parthas and the Panchalas, son of Radha, for our
victory, like the risen Sun ever destroying Darkness with his
fierce rays ! 47 (The sons of Pandu) with Kecava are not able
to even look at the shafts shot by thee, like owls unable to
gaze at the burning rays of the Sun ! 48 The Parthas with the
Panchalas are incapable of standing before thee armed with
weapons, like the Danavas before Indra in battle \ i0 — Installed
in the command, Radha's son of incomparable splendour looked
resplendent in beauty and radiance like a second Sun. 60 Hav-
ing installed the son of Radha (thus) in the command of the
army, thy son, urged on by Death, regarded himself as one
who had his purposes accomplished. 51 That chastiser of foes,
viz., Kama, also, king, having obtained the command, or-
dered the troops to be arrayed, at the rise of the Sun. 52 Sur-
rounded by thy sons, O Bharata, Kama looked resplendent
like Skanda surrounded by the celestials, in the battle having
Taraka for its evil root.*' " 5S



Section XI.

"Dhritarashfera said, — "After having obtained the command
of the army, and after he had been addressed by the king him-
self in those sweet and brotherly words, and after he had order-
ed the troops to be arrayed at the hour of sunrise, tell me, O
Sanjaya, what did Vikartana's son Kama do V 1 '*

"Sanjaya said, — 'Having learnt Kama's wishes, thy sons,
bull of Bharata's race, ordered the troops to be arrayed with
joyful music. 3 While it still wanted a long period for the com-
ing of the dawn, a loud noise of — Array, — Array, — king,
suddenly arose among thy troops. 4 And the uproar that arose,
became tremendous and touched the very heavens, of foremost
of elephants and fenced cars while under process of equipment,
of foot-soldiers and steeds, monarch, while putting on their
armour or in course of being harnessed, and of combatants



* TdrakCanayc means that in which (the Asura) Taraka was the evil
sought to be put down. It is compounded of Taraka and dmi/a.—T.



S2 MAHABHARATA.

moving with activity and shouting unto one another !*"* Then
the S ida's son, bearing a gold-backed bow, appeared (on the
field) on his car possessed of the splendour of the radiant Sun,
crowned with many banners, epuipt with a white standard,
with steeds of the hue of cranes, bearing the device of the
elephant's rope, filled with a hundred quivers, furnished with
mace and wooden fence, freighted with £ataghnis and rows
of bells and darts and lances and spears, and supplied with
many bows. 7 " 9 * And the Suta's son appeared on the field,
blowing his conch, king, decorated with a net-work of
gold, and shaking his formidable bow adorned with pure
gold. 10 Beholding the mighty bowman Kama, that foremost
of car-warriors, seated on his car, difficult of approach and
resembling the risen Sun that destroys the gloom, 11 none
amongst the Kauravas, tiger among men, recked, sire,
the loss of Bhishma or Drona or other men ! ia Speeding the
warriors, sire, with the blasts of his conch, Kama caused
the vast army of the Kauravas to be drawn out. 18 Hav-
ing arrayed the troops in the Makara array, that mighty bow-
man, that scorcher of foes, viz., Kama, proceeded against the
Pandavas from desire of victory. 1 * In the tip of the beak of
that Makara, king, was stationed Kama himself. In the
two eyes were the brave Cakuni and the mighty car-warrior
Uluka. 18 In the head was Drona's son and in the neck were all
the uterine brothers. In the middle was king Duryodhana
supported by a large force." In the left foot, O monarch, was
stationed Kritavarman accompanied by the Narayana troops,
and those invincible warriors, viz., the Gopalas. 11 \ In the right
foot, O king, was Gotama's son of prowess incapable of being
baftied, surrounded by those mighty bowmen, viz., the Trigartas
and by the Southerners. 18 In the left hind- foot was stationed
Calya with a large force raised in the country of the Madras. 19

* All the expressions qualify Ruthena, with the exception of Ilema-
prishtcna Dhaunshd which evidently refers to the verb Adrishyata. — T

r The Gopalas were very probably shepherds. To this day there are,
in certain districts of Bengal and Bahar, Gopalas, now called Gowdias or
Ahirs, who allow themselves to be hired for local fights and brawi3.
They are an extremely sturdy clan, — T.



KARNA PARVA.

In the right (hind foot), O monarch, was Sushcna of true vows,
surrounded by a thousand cars and three hundred elephants. 2 '
In the tail were the two royal brothers of mighty energy, viz.,
Chitra and Chitrasena surrounded by a large force. 21

" 'When, O great king, that foremost of men, vis. Kama,
thus came out, king Yudhishthira the just, casting his eyes on
Arjnna, said these words :" — Behold, O Partha, how the Dharta-
rashtra force, O hero, in this battle, protected by heroes and
mighty car- warriors, hath been arrayed by Kama ! 23 This vast
Dhiirtariishtra force hath lost its bravest warriors. They that
remain, mighty-armed one, are feeble, equal, as I think, to
straw ! Only one great bowman, viz., the Suta's son, shincth
in it '."* That foremost of car-warriors is incapable of being
vanquished by the three worlds with their mobile and immobile
creatures, including the gods, Asuras, and Gandharvas, and the
Kinnaras and great serpents ! 25 If thou slayest him today, O
mighty-armed one, the victory will be thine, O Phalguna !
The thorn also which for twelve years hath been planted in my
heart will then be plucked out ! Knowing this, thou of
mighty arms, form thou the array that thou wishest ! 28 — Hear-
ing those words of his brother, that Pandava of the white
steeds disposed his army in counter array after the form of the



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